Elena Xoplaki

Elena Xoplaki
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen | JLU · Section of Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change

PhD

About

192
Publications
93,763
Reads
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15,939
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Position
  • Akademische Raetin
March 2009 - December 2010
The Cyprus Institute
Position
  • Research Scientist – Project coordinator
October 1998 - July 2011
Universität Bern
Position
  • Science Officer
Education
October 1998 - May 2002
Universität Bern
Field of study
  • Climatology
October 1995 - September 1998
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Field of study
  • Meteorology-Climatology
October 1990 - June 1995

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence can enhance our ability to manage natural disasters. However, understanding and addressing its limitations is required to realize its benefits. Here, we argue that interdisciplinary, multistakeholder, and international collaboration is needed for developing standards that facilitate its implementation.
Article
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Observation-based and modelling studies have identified the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region as a prominent climate change hotspot. While several initiatives have addressed the impacts of climate change in parts of the EMME, here we present an updated assessment, covering a wide range of timescales, phenomena and future pathways....
Article
Accurate representation of the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange in climate models is important for a reliable simulation of the North Atlantic ocean circulation. We evaluate the performance of ten global climate models in representing Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) over the recent period 1986 to 2005 by using various performance metrics. The met...
Article
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Tree-ring width is one of the most widely used proxy in paleoclimatological studies. Due to various environmental and biological processes, however, the associated reconstructions often suffer from overestimated low-frequency variability. In this study, a new correction approach is proposed using fractional integral techniques that corrects for the...
Article
Full-text available
This study compares the performance of three bias correction (BC) techniques in adjusting simulated precipitation estimates over Germany. The BC techniques are the multivariate quantile delta mapping (MQDM) where the grids are used as variables to incorporate the spatial dependency structure of precipitation in the bias correction; empirical quanti...
Article
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) are the dominant modes of climate variability affecting the tropical and subtropical regions. In this study, we investigate the impact of ENSO episodes, through the modulation of the ISM configuration, on the Eastern Mediterranean (EMed) summer atmospheric circulation over the...
Article
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The question of how sensitive the regional and local climates are to different land cover maps and fractions is important, as land cover affects the atmospheric circulation via its influence on heat, moisture, and momentum transfer, as well as the chemical composition of the atmosphere. In this study, we used three independent land cover data sets,...
Chapter
Until now, proxy records have been the primary tool for quantitative reconstructions of the physical world of the ancient and late antique Mediterranean. This chapter demonstrates the combined use of proxy datasets and the hitherto underutilized potential of earth system models in the scientific and historical study of past environmental variations...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Psychiatric disorders constitute a major public health concern that are associated with substantial health and socioeconomic burden. Psychiatric patients may be more vulnerable to high temperatures, which under current climate change projections will most likely increase the burden of this public health concern. Objective: This study...
Article
Of all known epidemics in Antiquity, the Justinianic Plague became the focus of attention in recent years – not least because it is the first for which the causative agent, the bacterium Yersinia pestis, could be unambiguously identified by palaeogeneticists. The reconstruction of ancient Y. pestis genomes is able to uncover the geographical and te...
Preprint
The mechanisms of recent Elevation-Dependent Warming (EDW) remain debated because nearly all data sources are limited to past decades and subject to anthropogenic effects. Here, we study how temperature changed along the elevation gradient since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and aim to shed lights on the mechanisms of EDW and implications for the...
Conference Paper
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Even before the introduction of the term "Marine Heat Wave" (MHW) and its statistical definition in global-scale studies, the scientific community had studied and recorded potentially harmful impacts of persistent conditions of warm surface layers and highly stratified water columns on the marine ecosystem. The main triggers for MHWs are yet not we...
Conference Paper
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Mediterranean marine heat waves (MHW) can be defined as abrupt but prolonged, discrete and anomalously warm water events that last for five or more days and exceed temperatures warmer than the 99th percentile (Darmaraki et al. 2019). Like their atmospheric counterpart, Mediterranean MHW have already increased in intensity, frequency and duration-a...
Chapter
Episodes of extremely strong, northerly winds, known as Etesians and observed during summer, can cause hazardous conditions over the Eastern Mediterranean (EMED). We used an ensemble of six GCM-RCM model chains from EURO-CORDEX at a 12 km resolution to estimate future changes of Etesians over the twenty-first century, under the two Representative C...
Article
Full-text available
A large scholarship currently holds that before the onset of anthropogenic global warming, natural climatic changes long provoked subsistence crises and, occasionally, civilizational collapses among human societies. This scholarship, which we term the ‘history of climate and society’ (HCS), is pursued by researchers from a wide range of disciplines...
Book
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Virtually all sub-regions of the Mediterranean Basin, on land and in the sea, are impacted by recent anthropogenic changes in the environment. The main drivers of change include climate (temperature, precipitation, atmospheric circulation, extreme events, sea-level rise, sea water temperature, salinity and acidification), population increase, pollu...
Book
Full-text available
Virtually all sub-regions of the Mediterranean Basin, on land and in the sea, are impacted by recent anthropogenic changes in the environment. The main drivers of change include climate (temperature, precipitation, atmospheric circulation, extreme events, sea-level rise, sea water temperature, salinity and acidification), population increase, pollu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems: Despite covering only 0.82% of the ocean’s surface, the Mediterranean Sea supports up to 18% of all known marine species, with 21% being listed as vulnerable and 11% as endangered. The accelerated spread of tropical non-indigenous species is leading to the “tropicalization” of Mediterranean fauna and flora as a result of warming...
Article
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In this paper, we describe the results of a climate data rescue (DARE) activity conducted at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute (Kyiv, Ukraine) in cooperation with the Justus Liebig University Giessen (Giessen, Germany), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Met Office Hadley Centre (Exeter, United Kingdom). The focus of our work...
Article
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The influence that meteorological, climatological and environmental factors had on historical disease outbreaks is often speculated upon, but little investigated. Here, we explore potential associations between pandemic disease and climate over the last 2,500 years in Mediterranean history, focusing on ancient disease outbreaks and the Justinianic...
Article
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Despite the fact that tropospheric temperature inversions are thought to be an important feature of climate as well as a significant factor affecting air quality, low-level cloud formation, and the radiation budget of the Earth, a quantitative assessment of their representation in atmospheric reanalyses is yet missing. Here, we provide new evidence...
Article
The summertime Eastern Mediterranean experiences among the highest worldwide near-surface ozone values often exceeding the EU air-quality standard for human health protection. Downward transport of stratospheric ozone-rich air masses through tropopause folds has been shown to significantly contribute to these high tropospheric ozone levels. The sum...
Book
Full-text available
This book includes over three hundred and seventy-five short papers presented during the second EMCEI, which was held in Sousse, Tunisia in October 2019. After the success of the first EMCEI in 2017, the second installment tackled emerging environmental issues together with new challenges, e.g. by focusing on innovative approaches that contribute t...
Article
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The Mediterranean has been identified as particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet a high-resolution temperature reconstruction extending back into the Medieval Warm Period is still lacking. Here we present such a record from a high-elevation site on Mt. Smolikas in northern Greece, where some of Europe’s oldest trees provide evidence of warm...
Article
Full-text available
The Etesians are the dominant synoptically driven winds observed in the Eastern Mediterranean, usually from late spring to late summer. Due to the complex topography, the Etesians can be very strong and pose significant environmental hazards, especially over wildfire incidents. This study assesses the impacts of climate change on future Etesians by...
Article
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The long-term relationship between temperature and hydroclimate has remained uncertain due to the short length of instrumental measurements and inconsistent results from climate model simulations. This lack of understanding is particularly critical with regard to projected drought and flood risks. Here we assess warm-season co-variability patterns...
Article
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It has been widely reported that anthropogenic warming is detectable with high confidence after the 1950s. However, current palaeoclimate records suggest an earlier onset of industrial-era warming. Here, we combine observational data, multiproxy palaeo records and climate model simulations for a formal detection and attribution study. Instead of th...
Article
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Slowing variability in climate system is an important source of climate predictability. However, it is still challenging for current dynamical models to fully capture the variability as well as its impacts on future climate. In this study, instead of simulating the internal multi-scale oscillations in dynamical models, we discussed the effects of i...
Article
Recent accelerated climate change has exacerbated existing environmental problems in the Mediterranean Basin that are caused by the combination of changes in land use, increasing pollution and declining biodiversity. For five broad and interconnected impact domains (water, ecosystems, food, health and security), current change and future scenarios...
Article
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Large volcanic eruptions may cause abrupt summer cooling over large parts of the globe. However, no comparable imprint has been found on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Here, we introduce a 400-yr-long temperature-sensitive network of 17 tree-ring maximum latewood density sites from the TP that demonstrates that the effects of tropical eruptions on the T...
Article
Full-text available
The Etesians are among the most persistent regional scale wind systems in the lower troposphere that prevail over the eastern Mediterranean during the extended summer season. The performance of five high-resolution EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating the Etesian climatology as well as the associated large-scale atmospheric circ...
Article
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This article analyses high-quality hydroclimate proxy records and spatial reconstructions from the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and compares them with two Earth System Model simulations (CCSM4, MPI-ESM-P) for the Crusader period in the Levant (1095–1290 CE), the Mamluk regime in Transjordan (1260–1516 CE) and the Ottoman crisis and Celâlî Rebe...
Article
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East Asia has experienced strong warming since the 1960s accompanied by an increased frequency of heat waves and shrinking glaciers over the Tibetan Plateau and the Tien Shan. Here, we place the recent warmth in a long-term perspective by presenting a new spatially resolved warm-season (May-September) temperature reconstruction for the period 1-200...
Article
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Episodes of extremely strong northerly winds (known as etesians) during boreal summer can cause hazardous conditions over the Aegean Archipelago (Greece) and represent a threat for the safe design, construction, and operation of wind energy turbines. Here, these extremes are characterized by employing a peak-over-threshold approach in the extended...
Article
Full-text available
Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited because of a paucity of modern instrumental observations that are distributed unevenly across the globe and only span parts of the 20th and 21st centuries....
Article
Full-text available
Water availability is fundamental to societies and ecosystems, but our understanding of variations in hydroclimate (including extreme events, flooding, and decadal periods of drought) is limited because of a paucity of modern instrumental observations that are distributed unevenly across the globe and only span parts of the 20th and 21st centuries....
Article
Full-text available
The annual cycle of extra-tropical surface air temperature is an important component of the Earth's climate system. Over the past decades, a reduced amplitude of this mode has been observed in some regions. Although attributed to anthropogenic forcing, it remains unclear when dampening of the annual cycle started. Here we use a residual series of t...
Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Tables and Supplementary References
Chapter
An evaluation of the high spatial resolution, EURO-CORDEX Regional Climate Models (RCMs) is presented here. The study documents the performance of the individual models in simulating the Etesian wind system over the Aegean Sea and the associated large scale atmospheric circulation during the extended summer season May to September from 1989 to 2004...
Article
Full-text available
The Etesians are among the most persistent regional scale wind systems in the lower troposphere that blow over the Aegean Sea during the extended summer season. In this study we evaluate the performance of three different reanalysis products (the twentieth century reanalysis, 20CR; the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECM...
Article
Full-text available
The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with sur...
Article
Full-text available
The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) occurred in the Aegean Sea from 1988 to 1995 and is the most significant intermediate-to-deep Mediterranean overturning perturbation reported by instrumental records. The EMT was likely caused by accumulation of high salinity waters in the Levantine and enhanced heat loss in the Aegean Sea, coupled with sur...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, two new methods, Temporal evolution of Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (TDCCA) and Temporal evolution of Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (TDPCCA), are proposed by generalizing DCCA and DPCCA. Applying TDCCA/TDPCCA, it is possible to study correlations on multi-time scales and over different periods. To illustrate th...
Article
Full-text available
The spatial context is critical when assessing present-day climate anomalies, attributing them to potential forcings and making statements regarding their frequency and severity in a long-term perspective. Recent international initiatives have expanded the number of high-quality proxy-records and developed new statistical reconstruction methods. Th...
Article
Full-text available
We provide new evidence on sea surface temperature (SST) variations and paleoceanographic/paleoenvironmental changes over the past 1500 years for the north Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean). The reconstructions are based on multiproxy analyses, obtained from the high resolution (decadal to multi-decadal) marine record M2 retrieved from the Athos basin....
Article
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This paper reviews the methodological and practical issues relevant to the ways in which natural scientists, historians and archaeologists may collaborate in the study of past climatic changes in the Mediterranean basin. We begin by discussing the methodologies of these three disciplines in the context of the consilience debate, that is, attempts t...
Article
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This paper introduces the reader to a special issue of articles that explores links and processes behind societal change, climate change and environmental change in a Holocene perspective in the Mediterranean region. All papers are, by purpose, co-authored by scientists representing different disciplines. The cross-cutting theme has been to reach b...