Elena Ridolfi

Elena Ridolfi
Sapienza University of Rome | la sapienza

PhD

About

54
Publications
23,190
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1,004
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Additional affiliations
October 2009 - December 2012
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • PhD Student Position

Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
Risk management has reduced vulnerability to floods and droughts globally1,2, yet their impacts are still increasing³. An improved understanding of the causes of changing impacts is therefore needed, but has been hampered by a lack of empirical data4,5. On the basis of a global dataset of 45 pairs of events that occurred within the same area, we sh...
Book
Full-text available
A work authored by various Professors from "La Sapienza" University of Rome in which some parallels are drawn between some current Economics dynamics and some characteristic scenarios in different branches of Engineering
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report shows a comparative outlook into different complex engineering dynamical systems subject to shocks and their similarities with the economy trends in Italy after the shock due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Article
Full-text available
The severe impact of global crises, such as COVID-19 and climate change, is plausibly reshaping the way in which people perceive risks. In this paper, we examine and compare how global crises and local disasters influence public perceptions of multiple hazards in Italy and Sweden. To this end, we integrate information about the occurrence of hazard...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting floods and droughts is essential to inform the development of policy in water management, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Yet, hydrological predictions are highly uncertain, while the frequency, severity and spatial distribution of extreme events are further complicated by the increasing impact of human activities...
Preprint
Full-text available
The severe impact of global crises, such as COVID-19 and climate change, is plausibly reshaping the way in which people perceive risks. In this paper, we examine and compare how global crises and local disasters influence public perceptions of multiple hazards in Italy and Sweden. To this end, we integrate information about the occurrence of hazard...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate and precise rainfall records are crucial for hydrological applications and water resources management. The accuracy and continuity of ground-based time series rely on the density and distribution of rain gauges over territories. In the context of a decline of rain gauge distribution, how to optimize and design optimal networks is still an...
Article
Full-text available
Study region We investigate samples from two Italian regions, i.e. Lazio and Sicily, located in central and south Italy, respectively, and characterized by two diverse climates. Study focus In engineering practice, the study of maxima daily rainfall values is commonly dealt with light-tailed probability distribution functions, such as the Gumbel....
Article
Full-text available
Knowing how people perceive multiple risks is essential to the management and promotion of public health and safety. Here we present a dataset based on a survey (N = 4,154) of public risk perception in Italy and Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both countries were heavily affected by the first wave of infections in Spring 2020, but their govern...
Conference Paper
Precipitation is a main input to many hydrological applications, such as water management, flood forecasting and hydrological modelling. The goodness of the rainfall field estimation can thus affect their performances. Despite radar-based and satellite-based measurements have nowadays become very common and accurate, rain gauges monitoring stations...
Conference Paper
Erosion is an exogenous phenomenon, antagonistic to the constructive forces both of an endogenous nature (i.e. orogeny) and of a biological nature (i.e. coral reef), leading to the dismantling of the earth's surface and filling, with the clastic material produced, sedimentary basins and depressions in order to level differences in altitude [1]. It...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of the design peak discharge is crucial for the hydrological design of hydraulic structures. A commonly used approach is to estimate the design storm through the intensity–duration–area–frequency (IDAF) curves and then use it to generate the design discharge through a hydrological model. In ungauged areas, IDAF curves and design disc...
Article
Full-text available
Recent literature in sociohydrology has shown the important role of flood memory in shaping hydrological risk. In this paper, we present a system dynamics model of human–flood interactions that simulates how the river proximity of human settlements is altered by changes in flood memory. We also compare our model outcomes with an unprecedented datas...
Article
Floods are the natural hazards that are causing the most deaths worldwide. Flood early warning systems are one of the most cost-efficient methods to reduce death rates, triggering decisions about evacuation of exposed population. Although previous studies have investigated the effect of human behaviours on evacuation processes, studies analysing a...
Article
en To retrieve the gamma drop size distribution (DSD) parameters from observed drop spectra, the most common approach is the method of moments (MM). However, the goodness of this method is still disputed. To assess its reliability, the aims of this paper are: (i) estimation of empirical values of rainfall rate (I ) and kinetic energy (KE) from DSD...
Article
Reservoir storage helps manage hydrological variability, increasing predictability and productivity of water supply. However, there are inevitable tradeoffs, with control of high frequency variability coming at the expense of robustness to low frequency variability. Tightly controlling variability can reduce incentives to maintain adaptive capacity...
Article
Full-text available
The flow duration curve (FDC) of streamflow at a specific site has a key role in the knowledge on the distribution and characteristics of streamflow at that site. The FDC gives information on the water regime, providing information to optimally manage the water resources of the river. In spite of its importance, because of the lack of streamflow ga...
Article
Full-text available
What implications do societies’ risk perceptions have for flood losses? This study uses a stylized, socio-hydrological model to simulate the mutual feedbacks between human societies and flood events. It integrates hydrological modelling with cultural theory and proposes four ideal types of society that reflect existing dominant risk perception and...
Article
Full-text available
Raindrop-impact-induced erosion starts when detachment of soil particles from the surface results from an expenditure of raindrop energy. Hence, rain kinetic energy is a widely used indicator of the potential ability of rain to detach soil. Although it is widely recognized that knowledge of rain kinetic energy plays a fundamental role in soil erosi...
Conference Paper
For the study and modeling of hydrological phenomena both in urban and rural areas, a proper estimation of the areal reduction factor (ARF) is crucial. The ARF is defined as the ratio between the average rainfall occurring on a specific area and the point rainfall. In literature there exist several methodologies to estimate this ratio, as a consequ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through on-line media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, p...
Article
Full-text available
The need of addressing “residual flood risk” associated with structural protection measures, such as levee systems and flood-control reservoirs, has fostered actions aimed at increasing flood risk awareness. Structural measures have lowered risk perception by inducing a false sense of safety. As a result, these structures contribute to an underesti...
Conference Paper
Although it is widely recognized how the knowledge of the kinetic energy (KE) of precipitation plays a fundamental role in soil erosion studies, its direct evaluation is not widespread. As a matter of facts, direct measurements of the kinetic energy of precipitation require the use of sophisticated and expensive tools. Commonly, the following appro...
Article
Full-text available
The Flow Duration Curve (FDC) set up at a specific site has a key role to the knowledge of the streamflow characteristic at that site. The FDC gives information on the water regime providing important information to optimally manage the water resources of the river. Spite of its importance, because of the lack of streamflow gauging stations, the FD...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are now filling in the gaps between spaceborne and ground-based observations and enhancing the spatial resolution and temporal coverage of data acquisition. In the realm of hydrological observations, UAVs play a key role in quantitatively characterizing the surface flow, allowing for remotely accessing the water body...
Article
For the study and modeling of hydrological phenomena, both in urban and rural areas, a proper estimation of the areal reduction factor (ARF) is crucial. In this paper, we estimated the ARF from observed rainfall data as the ratio between the average rainfall occurring in a specific area and the point rainfall. Then, we compared the obtained ARF val...
Preprint
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are now filling in the gaps between spaceborne and ground-based observations and enhancing the spatial resolution and temporal coverage of data acquisition. In the realm of hydrological observations, UAVs have a key role to quantitatively characterize the surface flow allowing for remotely accessing the water body of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used...
Conference Paper
This paper aims to evaluate the influence of hydrological similarity measures on the definition of homogeneous regions. To this end, several attribute sets have been analyzed in the context of the Region of Influence (ROI) procedure. Several combinations of geomorphological, climatological, and geographical characteristics are also used to cluster...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigate the performance of three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic modeling when dealing with river sinuosity and meander bends. In river bends, the flow is dominated by a secondary current, which has a key role on the flow redistribution. The secondary flow induces transverse components of the bed shear stress and increases the velo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The optimal design of water distribution systems (WDS) is a substantial issue that has been largely investigated by practitioners. The design of a WDS is made through optimization techniques which are based on specific and known future working conditions. However, the optimal solution may not be suitable for scenarios significantly different from t...
Article
One of the most crucial steps in flow frequency studies is the definition of Homogenous Regions (HRs), i.e. areas with similar hydrological behavior. This is essential in ungauged catchments, as HR allows information to be transferred from a neighboring river basin. This study proposes a new, entropy-based approach to define HRs, in which regions a...
Conference Paper
The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based con...
Article
A flood warning system based on rainfall thresholds makes it possible to issue alarms via an off-line approach. This technique is useful for mitigating the effects of flooding in small-to-medium-sized basins characterized by an extremely rapid response to rainfall. Rainfall threshold values specify the amount of precipitation that occurs over a giv...
Article
Full-text available
Pressure determination in water distribution systems (WDS) is important because it generally drives the operational actions for leakage and failure management, backwater intrusion and demand control. This determination would ideally be done through pressure monitoring at every junction in the distribution system. However, due to limited resources,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although Information Theory concepts have been successfully applied in hydrology and other fields to quantify the amount of information contained in singular variables and shared by multiple variables, the valuation of these quantities is sensible to different parameters. In particular, the bin size of histograms and the Pearson correlation coeffic...
Article
Full-text available
Information-theory provides, among others, conceptual methods to quantify the amount of information contained in single random variables and methods to quantify the amount of information contained and shared among two or more variables. Although these concepts have been successfully applied in hydrology and other fields, the evaluation of these qua...
Article
An accurate definition of river geometry is essential to implement one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models and, in particular, appropriate spacing between cross-sections is key for capturing a river’s hydraulic behaviour. This work explores the potential of an entropy-based approach, as a complementary method to existing guidelines, to determine the...
Article
Floods cause severe damage worldwide in terms of human injury and have severe economic consequences, causing landslides, road accidents and inundation of agricultural areas. Non-structural flood protection strategies offer the possibility to protect the land, preventing flood event effects. In particular, early warning systems can inform of flood o...
Article
This paper proposes aprocedure to determine the probability of a specific water demand scenario in a Water Distribution Network (WDN). Stochastic correlated demands are generated for each node of the network using scaling laws. In particular, each demand fits a normal probability density function (PDF). To determine the joint probability of water d...
Article
Miscalibration of radar determines a systematic error (i.e., bias) that is observed in radar estimates of rainfall. Although a rain gauge can provide a pointwise rainfall measurement, weather radar can cover an extended area. To compare the two measurements, it is necessary to individuate the weather radar measurements at the same location as the r...
Article
The lack of snowfall events observations make snow return time estimation a relevant issue. Where snowfalls are infrequent, areas are usually characterized by the absence of snow measurements. Thus the post-event effects, regarding electrical, hydraulic and road infrastructures on these regions, become difficult to be managed. The issue of snow eve...
Article
In recent years an increasing number of flood-related fatalities has highlighted the necessity of improving flood risk management to reduce human and economic losses. In this framework, monitoring of flood-prone areas is a key factor for building a resilient environment. In this paper a method for designing a floodplain monitoring network is presen...
Article
Whitin the context of flood management, and generally for performing environmental, climate, hydrological, and water resources analysis, it is useful and reliable to provide scenarios by rainfall simulation, in order to overcome data limitations in terms of time and spatial resolution. Generally, it is required that the stochastic model preservesi...
Article
Most problems in hydrological forecasting require the identification of appropriate model structures or parameter values. This is usually accomplished by model calibration techniques, which aim at comparing observed and predicted responses and attempting to improve some measure of model performance. There is a very extensive literature on methods o...
Article
To support the decision making processes of flood risk management and long term floodplain planning, a significant issue is the availability of data to build appropriate and reliable models. Often the required data for model building, calibration and validation are not sufficient or available. A unique opportunity is offered nowadays by the globall...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrological models are the basis of operational flood-forecasting systems. The accuracy of these models is strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of the input information represented by rainfall height. Finer space-time rainfall resolution results in more accurate hazard forecasting. In this framework, an optimum raingauge network is essen...
Article
Full-text available
Flash flood events are floods characterised by a very rapid response of basins to storms, often resulting in loss of life and property damage. Due to the specific space-time scale of this type of flood, the lead time available for triggering civil protection measures is typically short. Rainfall threshold values specify the amount of precipitation...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In medium and small size basins, floods are often characterised by a very rapid response to storms, leaving only a short lead time for triggering civil protection measures. For a given duration it is possible to identify rainfall values that generates a critical discharge in a given river cross section. If the rainfall threshold values are exceeded...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A flood warning system based on rainfall thresholds allows to overcome classical real time flood forecasting systems, that generally require to run in real time a hydrological model. This approach is useful when dealing with medium and small size basins, often characterised by a very rapid response to the storms, leaving only a short lead time for...
Article
Hydrological models, that are the base of operational forecasting systems, require an accuracy that is strongly dependent on the quality and quantity of the input information, represented by the rainfall depth. The finer the space-time rainfall resolution, the higher the accuracy of the hazard nowcasting. In this framework, an optimum raingauge net...
Article
Flash floods events are floods characterised by very rapid response of the basins to the storms, and often they involve loss of life and damage to common and private properties. Due to the specific space-time scale of this kind of flood, generally only a short lead time is available for triggering civil protection measures. Thresholds values specif...

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Projects (2)
Project
PROJECT SUMMARY Every year, more than 100 million people are affected by droughts or floods and the potentially negative effects of climatic and socio-economic changes are likely to exacerbate these risks (UN-ISDR, 2016). It is, therefore, essential to realistically capture where, how and why hydrological risk will plausibly change in the coming decade. HydroSocialExtremes aims to unravel the dynamics of risk emerging from the mutual shaping of hydrological extremes and society by developing models that explain the interplay of hydrological extremes and society, identifying the social and hydrological conditions in which certain dynamics tend to emerge and by unravelling the role of institutional change in long-term trajectories of hydrological risk. Building on socio-hydrology, this project conceptualises risk as feedbacks between society and hydrological extremes such as droughts and floods (Figure 1). Theoretical and empirical work is carried out by the PI Giuliano Di Baldassarre and an interdisciplinary team, working to integrate dynamic modelling, global data sets and selected case studies. The project is funded under H2020-EU.1.1. - EXCELLENT SCIENCE - European Research Council (ERC).  PROJECT TEAM Giuliano Di Baldassarre - I focus on droughts and floods in changing environments. I am fascinated by the interplay of water and society, and I explore the dynamics and risks generated by feedback mechanisms between physical, technical and social processes. Maria Rusca – I focus on interdisciplinary studies on urban water inequalities, including the politics of water, urban informality, gendered water supply, large water infrastructures and hydrological extremes in various geographical contexts and at different scales. Elisa Savelli - My research aims to provide an integrated understanding of the mutual shaping between hydrological extremes and society by historically and spatially retracing water and society dynamics within specific and instrumental case studies. Elena Mondino - My PhD research, in affiliation with CNDS, aims at understanding how disaster risk perception changes over time, with a focus on flood risk. Sara Andersson - PhD student in Environmental Analysis, exploring socio-hydrological patterns on a global scale. Maurizio Mazzoleni - My research focuses on human-flood-drought interactions using global datasets and advanced modelling tools like system dynamics and Agent Based Models. Elena Ridolfi - My research focuses on hydrological extreme events. I am interested in investigating the mutual feedback between society and extreme events aiming at mitigating floods and droughts risk. Hannah Cloke - My work centres on improving preparedness for natural hazards and disaster risk management through modelling the earth system. I work on developing early warning systems, particularly for floods, droughts and other weather driven natural hazards. Vincent Odongo - My main research ambition is to contribute to a water secure society. To realize this, I focus on understanding how human actions on land through socio-economic developments and land use changes modify (un)knowingly, the hydrological regime. Johanna Mård -Researcher in water and climate, with emphasis on interactions between water-human-ecosystem responses to environmental change