Elena F. Kranioti

Elena F. Kranioti
University Hospital of Heraklion · Forensic Sciences

MD, PhD

About

158
Publications
57,307
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1,661
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Introduction
Elena F. Kranioti is assistant Professor in Forensic Medicine and the Department of Forensic Sciences of the University of Crete. Elena does research in Forensic Pathology and Anthropology. Her current project is 'VIRTOPSY.GR.'
Additional affiliations
April 2019 - present
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Lecturer
April 2019 - present
University Hospital of Heraklion
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2010 - present
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Lecturer in Forensic Anthropology

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Currently in physical anthropology there is a need for reliable methods of sex estimation for immature individuals and highly fragmented remains. This study develops a sex estimation technique from discriminant function analysis of the bony labyrinth as it matures before puberty and can survive taphonomic conditions that would destroy most other sk...
Article
Full-text available
The commingling of human remains often hinders forensic/physical anthropologists during the identification process, as there are limited methods to accurately sort these remains. This study investigates a new method for pair-matching, a common individualization technique, which uses digital three-dimensional models of bone: mesh-to-mesh value compa...
Article
Full-text available
Age estimation remains one of the most challenging tasks in forensic practice when establishing a biological profile of unknown skeletonised remains. Morphological methods based on developmental markers of bones can provide accurate age estimates at a young age, but become highly unreliable for ages over 35 when all developmental markers disappear....
Article
Gun violence is a global phenomenon with regional variation in frequency and severity. Handguns are often used in violent deaths such as suicides and homicides. Hence, ballistic trauma is a critical subject of forensic investigations. Trauma patterns are fundamental evidence for the reconstruction of the incident and for the determination of the ma...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical and structural properties of bone are known to change significantly with age. Within forensic and archaeological investigations, the medial end of the clavicle is typically used for estimating the age-at-death of an unknown individual. Although, this region of the skeleton is of interest to forensic and clinical domains, alterations...
Article
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Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence bone remodelling rates and have shown to affect the accuracy of histological aging methods. The present study investigates the rib cortex from two Mediterranean skeletal collections exploring the development of population-specific standards for histomorphometric age-at-death estimation. Eighty-eigh...
Article
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Isotopic analysis has been proven a valuable tool for reconstructing dietary habits in the ancient world. In this work we examine the evolution of Greek diet from the Neolithic period (6800–3000 BC) to modern times. We present isotopic analysis results for δ13C and δ15Ν of adult human bone collagen from ancient (Kaiadas in Sparta) and modern popula...
Article
Full-text available
Rifles are often involved in violent deaths such as homicide and suicide. Consequently, expert knowledge and experimental forensic investigations are important to clarify the nature of ballistic trauma when applied to the human head and neurocranium. This study investigated differences in entrance wound morphology with Synbone® spheres which are de...
Article
Understanding what maturity entails for bone, when it arrives, and its pre- and post-maturity traits and properties is very important for understanding its evolution and physiology. There is a clear but fine distinction between the chronological age of bone (the age of its donor) and the tissue age of the bone packets it comprises at the microscopi...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of stature from bones plays an important role in identifying unknown bodies, body parts, or skeletal remains, as it is an important component of the biological profile in forensic identification. The objective of this study is to enhance the development of forensic anthropology in Romania by creating a new regression formula for stat...
Article
Full-text available
Many cases encountered by forensic anthropologists involve commingled remains or isolated elements. Common methods for analysing these contexts are characterised by limitations such as high degrees of subjectivity, high cost of application, or low proven accuracy. This study sought to test mesh-to-mesh value comparison (MCV), a relatively new metho...
Article
Full-text available
Sex estimation from skeletal remains is crucial for the estimation of the biological profile of an individual. Although the most commonly used bones for means of sex estimation are the pelvis and the skull, research has shown that acceptable accuracy rates might be achieved by using other skeletal elements such as vertebrae. This study aims to cont...
Article
Identified (documented) osteological collections represent an important resource in the development of forensic anthropology standards and methods as well as a precious tool for learning and training of practitioners. Even though the number of papers presenting identified collections worldwide increases, many of the collections have still not been...
Article
It has been suggested that the inner ear attains its final morphology already in utero and that environmental factors do not influence its size or shape after birth. Thus, direct comparison between the adult and the subadult bony labyrinths can be made. Herein, this hypothesis was tested in a sample of 170 subadult individuals. Three-dimensional (3...
Chapter
Facial reconstruction is employed in medical science and archaeology. Though quite popular as anthropological method, it has not so far been used in the orthodox ecclesiastical tradition. This work presents the facial reconstruction of St Eftychios of Crete, who lived between the ninth and tenth centuries. Computed tomography and reverse engineerin...
Chapter
The mesh-to-mesh value comparison (MVC) method developed by Karell et al. (Int J Legal Med 130(5):1315-1322, 2016) facilitates the digital comparison of three-dimensional mesh geometries obtained from laser-scanned or computed tomography data of osteological materials. This method has been employed with great success to pair-matching geometries of...
Chapter
Human remains have been displayed in museums in Europe since many centuries for historical, cultural, and educational reasons. Of particular interest are skeletal remains and body parts that have suffered violent deaths and such remains often feature in Criminology Museums. Despite the well-acknowledged value of human remains in medical education,...
Article
Full-text available
Sex estimation is considered one of the first steps in the forensic identification process. Morphological and morphometrical differences between males and females have been used as means for morphoscopic and metric methods on both cranial and postcranial skeletal elements. When dry skeletal elements are not available, virtual data can be used as a...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to test the validity of a previously proposed lateral angle (LA) method for sex assessment of human skeletal remains in the forensic setting. Material and methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of 102 crania of Greek adults were used to test the validity of the LA method for sex estimation. The measurement p...
Article
Full-text available
Forensic anthropology includes, amongst other applications, the positive identification of unknown human skeletal remains. The first step in this process is an assessment of the biological profile, that is: sex, age, stature and ancestry. In forensic contexts, age estimation is one of the main challenges in the process of identification. Recently e...
Article
The present study explores the variability of frontal sinuses volume in modern Greeks and their potential use in the forensic identification process. Methods The sample consisted of 102 CT scan images from a modern Greek population. 50 (49%) were male and 52 (51%) were female. Ages ranged from 19 to 101 (mean age 70.6 for males and 69.6 for female...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic incidents are one of the most frequent causes of death in young adults worldwide. Depending on the location of the incident, the velocity of the vehicle(s), the weather condition, traffic incidents are often complicated making the investigation of the circumstances difficult. Here we report a case of an incinerated body involved in a vehicl...
Article
LETTER TO THE EDITOR Cioclovina fractures: Reply to Soficaru and Trinkaus: Perimortem versus postmortem damage: The recent case of Cioclovina 1, Am J Phys Anthropol 2020 172, 135–139 In our recent article (Kranioti et al., 2019), we conducted an exhaustive investigation of the fracture patterns presented by the Upper Paleolithic calvaria from Ciocl...
Article
Fragmented human remains present a challenge for forensic experts as they attempt to identify individuals using standard forensic methods. Several histological age estimation techniques have been developed during the last fifty years to aid in this process. However, very few validation studies have been conducted in order to test their accuracy and...
Article
Full-text available
This project is an innovative mixture of medical imaging and forensics with holography, animation, art and virtual reality. This alliance of art and science explores, presents and communicates the history of violence and the violence of history to diverse audiences. Anatomical detail provides the substrate for forensic analysis and interpretation w...
Article
In this position statement, the Board members of the Forensic Anthropology Society of Europe (FASE) argue that forensic anthropology methods can be used as means of personal identification, particularly in situations with limited availability of traditional identification methods (i.e. dactyloscopy, odontology, and molecular genetic analysis). This...
Article
Full-text available
In 2009 the Coimbra Method was created to standardized observations of entheseal changes, which are often studied as markers of vigorous physical activity formed during life. Low percentage agreement rates of inter‐observer replicability led to a revised version of the Coimbra Method published in 2016. Robust statistical significance should be expe...
Article
Morphometric analysis of the clavicle is a potential source of useful data for the estimation of sex. Clavicle is often retrieved intact from decomposed and scavenged remains when pelvis and skull, essential sex indicators, are often found damaged or missing. The objective of this study is to analyse clavicle morphometric data for sex estimation in...
Article
Forensic assessment of skeletal material includes age estimation of unknown individuals. When dealing with extremely fragmented human remains that lack macro-features used in age estimation, histological assessment of the skeletal elements can be employed. Historically, microscopic methods for age assessment used by forensic anthropologists have be...
Article
Sex estimation is one of the most important elements of forensic identification of unknown human individuals. The scapula is a potential source of information for sex assessment, even in cases in which it is the only item recovered in a forensic context. For this purpose, computed tomography (CT) images of 152 patients with an age range of 22–80 ye...
Article
Background Handguns and rifles are often involved in violent deaths such as homicide and suicide. Consequently, forensic investigations are important to clarify the nature of ballistic trauma. Methods This study investigated the differences in entrance and exit wound morphology with Bos taurus (bovine) scapulae that have two cortical layers surrou...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This study evaluated chronological changes in physiological stress and levels of habitual loading of Ibizan populations from the Late Roman-Early Byzantine (LREB) to the Islamic period (300-1,235 AD) using measures of body size and bone cross-sectional properties to compare Urban LREB, Urban Medieval Islamic, and Rural Medieval Islamic...
Chapter
The aim of this paper is to provide a methodological guide on how to select, test, and use statistical procedures for sex estimation using morphological traits of the cranium expressed on an ordinal scale. R functions were developed to implement binary logistic regression (BLR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and step-by-step instructions w...
Chapter
Forensic anthropologists are requested to give authorities estimates on the biological characteristics of unidentified decomposed remains in an effort to create a physical description that can be compared with a missing person’s profile, eventually leading to positive identification. To answer these questions, scientists traditionally follow a vari...
Poster
The aim of this study is to design and develop an MS-based paleoproteomics methodology for the study of ancient human samples, especially bones. Through advanced bioinformatics analysis it will be possible to identify, quantify, visualize ancient proteins, protein pathways and their post-translation modifications, facilitating the deeper understand...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analysis of human bone collagen from 38 individuals was undertaken to assess diet at the Late Roman-Early Byzantine (AD 300-700) cemetery site, Joan Planells, in Ibiza, Spain. The results (δ13C=-18.7±0.5‰ and δ15N=10.1±1.3‰) that the diet of this population was derived predominantly from C3 terrestri...
Chapter
Forensic cases may require craniofacial approximations for unidentifiable victims. The accuracy of these approximations is improved by using population-specific average soft tissue depths. This study used CT scans from 64 Cretan adults (32 male and 32 female) to produce three-dimensional models of each individual’s cranium and skin surface. Using t...
Presentation
Full-text available
The composite nature of bone has been largely studied in order to understand its unique mechanical properties. Although, for long time variations in bone mineral content and mass with age have been considered responsible for the increase of fracture risk, currently it is well recognized the importance of the spatial interaction between organic and...
Article
Full-text available
The Cioclovina (Romania) calvaria, dated to ca. 33 cal ka BP and thought to be associated with the Aurignacian lithic industry, is one of the few relatively well preserved representatives of the earliest modern Europeans. Two large fractures on this specimen have been described as taphonomic modifications. Here we used gross and virtual forensic cr...
Article
Blunt force trauma is the most common injury found during autopsies. Among the cases involving blunt force injuries, fractures to the skull are the most frequent, and these are often fatal to the victim. Understanding the circumstances surrounding the creation of such injuries is essential for investigating trauma-related deaths. This paper explore...
Article
Ancestry estimation from skeletal remains is a challenging task, but essential for the creation of a complete biological profile. As such, the study of human variation between populations is important for the fields of biological and forensic anthropology, as well as medicine. Cranial and dental morphological variation have traditionally been linke...
Presentation
Full-text available
One of the crucial steps for the creation of the biological profile of an individual is the estimation of age at death. The choice of the method depends on the nature of the remains, the equipment available and the expertise of the forensic anthropologist, among others. In cases of very fragmented remains, microscopic methods remain one of the only...
Article
One of the goals of the Forensic Anthropology Society of Europe (FASE) is to map the existing education and practice opportunities in the field of forensic anthropology in order to support the development of the discipline and to optimize the training courses provided by the Society. To address this goal, an online questionnaire was sent to Europea...
Article
Sex estimation methods based on skeletal remains vary on the selection of skeletal element, data acquisition and statistical approach resulting in variable classification accuracies that are highly dependent on the sample population. The only exception of this rule seems to be the os coxa, that appears to differ consistently between males and femal...
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates the value of magnetic resonance imaging analysis of proximal epiphyseal fusion in research examining the growth and development of the humerus and its potential utility in establishing forensic age estimation. In this study, 428 proximal humeral epiphyses (patient age, 12–30 years) were evaluated with T1-weighted turbo spin e...
Article
Full-text available
The most commonly used radiological method for age estimation of living individuals is X-ray. Computed tomography is not commonly used due to high radiation exposure, which raises ethical concerns. This problem can be solved with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which avoids the use of ionizing radiation. The purpose of the present stud...
Chapter
Forensic anthropologists are frequently faced with the challenge of individualizing and sorting commingled remains in a variety of scenarios. A number of protocols have been proposed to standardize the methodological approach to individuating commingled remains, some of which are focused on pair-matching. A recent study by Karell et al. (2016) prop...
Article
Establishing a biological profile of skeletal remains is a key task of forensic anthropologists. Sex estimation is essential in forensic examination, as other elements of the biological profile, such as age at death or stature, are sex dependent. Visual assessment is considered low-cost and quick, therefore it is a commonly applied method of sex es...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction Sex assessment is an essential step for completing the biological profile of unknown skeletal remains. Accurate sex estimation remains one of the main challenges in forensic anthropology and the need for replicable and reliable techniques led to development of a large number of methods, catered to different possible scenarios. This stu...
Article
Full-text available
Pelvic morphology is highly reflective of both sex and age changes in humans, making it a popular research focus in forensic anthropology. Relevant studies range from traditional descriptive to more complicated approaches involving statistical modeling, with the latter having become excessively popular in the last decades. The present study examine...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews stable isotopic data concerning spring water in Greece in addition to new measurements (59); their spatial variations are investigated in order to provide basic information and identify the locally significant parameters that affect stable isotopic distributions. The area of interest was partitioned into eight sections according...
Article
Full-text available
Sex estimation of skeletal remains is one of the major components of forensic identification of unknown individuals. Teeth are a potential source of information on sex and are often recovered in archaeological or forensic contexts due to their post-mortem longevity. Currently, there is limited data on dental sexual dimorphism of archaeological popu...
Article
The estimation of ancestry is an essential benchmark for positive identification of heavily decomposed bodies that are recovered in a variety of death and crime scenes. This is especially true when reconstructing the biological profile of the deceased as most methods for sex, age and stature estimation are population-specific. Ancestry estimation m...
Article
Introduction The investigation of decomposed bodies is a difficult task for the forensic practitioner due to the effect of taphonomy on the remains. Facial characteristics are missing, soft tissue is altered, and the remains are often disarticulated and/or scattered, which makes both the identification and the reconstruction of the death scene very...
Article
Introduction Age estimation methods using MRI are dependent on staging systems used in T1, T2 and fast spin-echo proton density-weighted sequences. The staging system created by Dedouit [1] from images obtained by fast spin-echo proton density-weighted MRI sequences depends on the assessment of horizontal cartilage hyperintensity. Images obtained b...
Article
Currently, there are limited methods to individualize commingled human remains, despite it being a frequent challenge to forensic anthropologists. This study investigates a new method for pair-matching, a common individualization technique, using digital three-dimensional models of bone: mesh-to-mesh value comparison (MVC). The MVC method digitally...
Article
Currently there are limited methods to individualize commingled human remains, despite it being a frequent challenge to forensic anthropologists. This study investigates a new method for pair matching, a common individualization technique, using digital three-dimensional models of bone: mesh-to-mesh value comparison (MVC). The MVC method digitally...
Article
Creating a biological profile of an individual usually requires their stature estimation. However, until recently, studies on stature estimation among modern Turkish were few and far between. Hence, the current study aims to bridge the gap on the bio-anthropological database in this population. The research includes CT scans of 102 adult individual...
Article
Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) images in measuring cervical mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth sizes, by comparing the values obtained by 3D virtual models from CT images with those obtained using digital calipers. Materials and methods: In total, 530...
Presentation
The biological identification of an individual has always been a challenging task throughout the process of investigating unknown skeletal remains. Accuracy in estimating age can be achieved using methodologies that include developmental markers of specific elements that is mostly applicable in individuals under 35 years of age. Additionally, proto...
Poster
Full-text available
Creating a biological profile of an individual usually requires their stature estimation. However, until recently, studies on stature estimation among modern Turkish were few and far between. Hence, the current study aims to bridge the gap on the bioanthropological database in this population. The research includes CT scans of 102 adult individuals...
Poster
During the Edinburgh Unit for Forensic Anthropology (EUFA) 2017 field school season, students assessed a skeletal collection from the ST. Konstantinos and Pateles cemeteries of Heraklion, Crete dating to the 20th Century. Analysis of this collection revealed a male, 75 years of age, demonstrating several severe skeletal defects.