Elena I. Gaura

Elena I. Gaura
Coventry University | CU · Faculty of Engineering Environment and Computing

BSc, MSc, PhD

About

187
Publications
28,854
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,248
Citations
Citations since 2016
39 Research Items
699 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120
Introduction
My latest projects bring together intra-disciplinary teams of engineers, computer scientists, social scientists, economists and entrepreneurs to design future proof energy systems for the UK and humanitarian contexts in South America, Africa and Asia. I design, build and deploy Cyber Physical Systems that integrate intelligent (often ML based) decision making and knowledge extraction algorithms to deliver cost and utility benefits. I design tools to research Energy as a socio-technical system.
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
Coventry University
Position
  • Associate Dean Research
Description
  • Pervasive Computing
August 2013 - present
Coventry University
Position
  • Associate Dean Research
Description
  • wireless sensor networks, intelligent systems, internet of things, body sensor networks, WSN deployments
Education
January 1998 - April 2000
Coventry University
Field of study
  • MEMS Intelligent sensors

Publications

Publications (187)
Article
Full-text available
Community micro-grid energy projects are needed to drive de-carbonisation and increase equity of energy systems among displaced communities. However, micro-grid solutions are often inflexible and lack functionality to respond to displaced community energy needs and ensure the long-term sustainability of interventions. This paper explores the use of...
Article
To address the need for improved access to energy and meet the United Nations Clean Energy Challenge (2019), humanitarian agencies require robust, valid, and meaningful data that documents the everyday energy practices of displaced people. Collecting data through sensor monitoring is one way of providing quality energy data that will aid humanitari...
Article
Our planet is currently in the midst of a global humanitarian crisis. Yet, there is a widening gap between over 80 million displaced people and the political will to meet their needs. Improving energy access in the displaced setting to build capacity and resilience requires meaningful integration of the needs of communities throughout the design, d...
Article
Full-text available
Car-cabin thermal systems, including heated seats, air-conditioning, and radiant panels, use a large proportion of the energy budget of electric vehicles and thus reduce their effective range. Optimising these systems and their controllers might be possible with computationally efficient simulation. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art simulators are ei...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adding renewable energy sources and storage units to an electric grid has led to a change in the way energy is generated and billed. This shift cannot be managed without a unified view of energy systems and their components. This unified view is captured within the idea of a Smart Local Energy System (SLES). Currently, various isolated control and...
Article
Full-text available
The continuous integration of renewable energy sources into power networks is causing a paradigm shift in energy generation and distribution with regard to trading and control. The intermittent nature of renewable sources affects the pricing of energy sold or purchased. The networks are subject to operational constraints, voltage limits at each nod...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Besides efforts to promote the universal access to electrification, the Brazilian Amazon basin has yet 82 thousand families without electricity. The basin is huge, with few roads, with many rivers and conservative areas, which put an enormous challenge in terms of logistics and electrification costs. This paper describes a case study at the Nova Es...
Article
We propose a differential radial basis function (RBF) network termed RBF-DiffNet—whose hidden layer blocks are partial differential equations (PDEs) linear in terms of the RBF—to make the baseline RBF network robust to noise in sequential data. Assuming that the sequential data derives from the discretisation of the solution to an underlying PDE, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
We have designed a two-stage, 10-step process to give organisations a method to analyse small local energy systems (SLES) projects based on their Cyber Physical System components in order to develop future-proof energy systems. SLES are often developed for a specific range of use cases and functions, and these match the specific requirements and ne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Continuous integration of renewable energy sources into power networks is causing a paradigm shift in energy generation and distribution with regards to trading and control; the intermittent nature of renewable sources affects pricing of energy sold or purchased; the networks are subject to operational constraints, voltage limits at each node, rate...
Article
Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) are extensively used for data clustering and dimensionality reduction. However, if applications are to fully benefit from SOM based techniques, high-speed processing is demanding, given that data tends to be both highly dimensional and yet “big”. Hence, a fully parallel architecture for the SOM is introduced to optimize...
Article
Full-text available
There has been much work on interventions aimed at changing consumer energy consumption behaviour, but the progress on emissions reductions is limited. We argue that further gains can be made through new examinations and developments of the theory that informs interventions, offering a critique of two major areas of theory in energy reduction: beha...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose a differential radial basis function (RBF) network termed RBF-DiffNet -- whose hidden layer blocks are partial differential equations (PDEs) linear in terms of the RBF -- to make the baseline RBF network robust to noise in sequential data. Assuming that the sequential data derives from the discretisation of the solution to an underlying...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
O Estado do Amazonas tem cerca de 5% de sua população ainda vivendo em comunidades isoladas, sem energia elétrica ou usando geradores a diesel por algumas horas por dia, causando impacto ambiental, contribuindo para as mudanças climáticas. Iniciativas com extensão de rede são as mais utilizadas, e projetos usando energia solar fotovoltaica têm se m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With an increase in the adoption of renewable energy sources and storage, microgrids and smart local energy systems have made considerable headway in recent years. The unreliable nature of renewable resources and the high costs of storage infrastructure, however, pose challenges to designers. Research in distributed control, multi-agent systems and...
Presentation
Full-text available
An e-resource, which was developed in line with UK KS4 and KS5 Engineering and Computing curriculum, explaining the work of the HEED project
Poster
Full-text available
E-resources developed in line with UK KS4 and KS5 Engineering and Computing curriculum to explain the work of the HEED project, which provided energy to refugee camps in Rwanda and Nepal.
Poster
Full-text available
Activity e-resources developed in line with UK KS4 and KS5 Engineering and Computing curriculum to explain the work of the HEED project, which provided energy to refugee camps in Rwanda and Nepal.
Article
Full-text available
Since 2003, Brazil has striven to provide energy access to all, in rural areas, in an effort to economically empower the communities. Unpacking fuel stacking behaviour can shed light onto the speed of transition toward the exclusive use of advanced fuel types. This paper presents findings from surveys that were carried out with 14 non-electrified c...
Conference Paper
Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) are widely used as a data mining technique for applications that require data dimensionality reduction and clustering. Given the complexity of the SOM learning phase and the massive dimensionality of many data sets as well as their sample size in Big Data applications, high-speed processing is critical when implementing...
Research
Full-text available
As we recognise the need to transform our future energy systems, there is a rapid acceleration in concept designs, demonstrator systems and early-adopter installations. These all attempt to harness low carbon energy generation and dynamically deal with the challenges around generation, transmission, distribution, and end-use from an increasingly wh...
Article
We have designed a two-stage, 10-step process to give organisations a method to analyse small local energy systems (SLES) projects based on their Cyber Physical System components in order to develop future-proof energy systems. SLES are often developed for a specific range of use cases and functions, and these match the specific requirements and ne...
Article
Full-text available
A number of algorithms now exist for using model-based prediction at the sensor node of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to enable a dramatic reduction in transmission rates, and thus save energy at the sensor node. These approaches, however, sometimes reduce the rate so substantially as to make the health state of the network opaque. One solution i...
Article
Full-text available
Kiln-dried fruit drying time is readily predicted from initial moisture content since the environment is tightly controlled. For uncontrolled environments, such as a greenhouse solar dryer, a product's drying time varies depending on ambient conditions and is thus more difficult to predict. Prediction of the drying time is needed to better schedule...
Article
Full-text available
The fixed-size non-overlapping sliding window (FNSW) and fixed-size overlapping sliding window (FOSW) approaches are the most commonly used data-segmentation techniques in machine learning-based fall detection using accelerometer sensors. However, these techniques do not segment by fall stages (pre-impact, impact, and post-impact) and thus useful i...
Article
Smart city and smart grid are stimulating topics which have spurred a wealth of multidisciplinary research activities for the past few years. Cities and their grids are undergoing remodeling to assure effective services to growing population with heightened demand. Users continuously define new requirements, thus becoming active part in the managem...
Article
Supervised linear dimensionality reduction (LDR) performed prior to classification often improves the accuracy of classification by reducing overfitting and removing multicollinearity. If a Bayes classifier is to be used, then reduction to a dimensionality of K−1 is necessary and sufficient to preserve the classification information in the original...
Article
Temporary earth retaining structures (TERS) help prevent collapse during construction excavation. To ensure that these structures are operating within design specifications, load forces on supports must be monitored. Current monitoring approaches are expensive, sparse, off-line, and thus difficult to integrate into predictive models. This work aims...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle climate control systems aim to keep passengers thermally comfortable. However, current systems control temperature rather than thermal comfort and tend to be energy hungry, which is of particular concern when considering electric vehicles. This paper poses energy-efficient vehicle comfort control as a Markov Decision Process, which is then...
Presentation
A Review of the Experiences, Feedback and Best Practice PULP SEED Project. A collaboration between Coventry University, UK & the University of San Carlos, Cebu, Philippines.
Article
Full-text available
Under normality and homoscedasticity assumptions, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is known to be optimal in terms of minimising the Bayes error for binary classification. In the heteroscedastic case, LDA is not guaranteed to minimise this error. Assuming heteroscedasticity, we derive a linear classifier, the Gaussian Linear Discriminant (GLD), t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This case study describes the deployment of a prototype wireless sensor network (WSN) onthe temporary earth restraining structure (TERS) of a mass rapid transit (MRT) constructionsite in Singapore, monitoring strain and environmental conditions. The primary goal of thisdeployment is to validate the WSN design (i.e. wireless communication and validi...
Article
Full-text available
Super dense wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become popular with the development of Internet of Things (IoT), Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications and Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) networks. While highly-dense wireless networks provide efficient and sustainable solutions to collect precise environmental information, a new channel access schem...
Article
Reducing energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes extends battery life and / or enables the use of energy harvesting and thus makes feasible many applications that might otherwise be impossible, too costly or require constant maintenance. However, theoretical approaches proposed to date that minimise WSN energy needs generally lead to less than...
Conference Paper
Low power protocols and data compression techniques can bring the average energy requirements for a WSN node within the capability of energy harvesting techniques. However, peak energy use may still exceed this capability. In this paper, based on our experience implementing a prototype WSN for an aerospace application, we identify two practical app...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on a study at Universitas Indonesia's Computing Department, where there is interest in students' contributions to energy reduction, particularly related to use of air conditioning (AC). We ran a survey with 190 students, complemented by environmental monitoring together with observational work, to understand energy attitudes and behaviour...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wearable sensors are becoming popular for remote health monitoring as technology improves and cost reduces. One area in which wearable sensors are increasingly being used is falls monitoring. The elderly, in particular are vulnerable to falls and require continuous monitoring. Indeed, many attempts, with insufficient success have been made towards...
Article
Full-text available
Temporary earth retaining structures help prevent collapse during construction excavation. To ensure that these structures are operating within design specifications, load forces on supports must be monitored. Current approaches are expensive, often manual, and difficult to integrate into predictive models. We developed a wireless strain gauge suit...
Chapter
Full-text available
In a wireless sensor network, transmissions consume a large portion of a node’s energy budget. Data reduction is generally acknowledged as an effective means to reduce the number of network transmissions, thereby increasing the overall network lifetime. This paper builds on the Spanish Inquisition Protocol (SIP), to further reduce transmissions in...
Article
Full-text available
Occupant comfort oriented Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) control rises to the challenge of delivering comfort and reducing the energy budget. Equivalent temperature represents a more accurate predictor for thermal comfort than air temperature in the car cabin environment, as it integrates radiant heat and airflow. Several machine...
Conference Paper
The current machine learning algorithms in fall detection, especially those that use a sliding window, have a high computational cost because they need to compute the features from almost all samples. This computation causes energy drain and means that the associated wearable devices re- quire frequent recharging, making them less usable. This stud...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cogent Labs is a world-leading applied research centre at Coventry University, dedicated to analysis and development of sensing-based socio-technical systems. It has a dual focus: robust, deployable pervasive IoT sensing systems for real-life applications at scale; and effective packages for empowering users to maximise the benefits of those system...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Car cabins are non-uniform and asymmetric environments in relation to both air velocity and temperature. Estimating and controlling vehicle occupant thermal comfort is therefore a challenging task. This paper focuses on evaluating the suitability of four existing thermal comfort models, namely the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Taniguchi's model, Zhang...
Article
Full-text available
The paper demonstrates that wearable sensor systems, coupled with real-time on-body processing and actuation, can enhance safety for wearers of heavy protective equipment who are subjected to harsh thermal environments by reducing risk of Uncompensable Heat Stress (UHS). The work focuses on Explosive Ordnance Disposal operatives and shows that pred...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the benefits of edge mining -data mining that takes place on the wireless, battery-powered, and smart sensing devices that sit at the edge points of the Internet of Things. Through local data reduction and transformation, edge mining can quantifiably reduce the number of packets that must be sent, reducing energy usage, and remo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Equivalent Temperature is generally considered an accurate predictor for thermal comfort in car cabins. However, direct measurement of this parameter is impractical in fielded applications. The paper presents an empirical, multiple linear regression based approach for estimating body segment equivalent temperatures for car cabin occupants from diff...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper proposes an information generation and summarisation algorithm to detect behavioural change in applications such as long-term monitoring of vulnerable people. The algorithm learns the monitored subject's behaviour autonomously post-deployment and provides time-suppressed summaries of the activity types engaged with by the subject over the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Few Body Sensor Network (BSN) based posture classification systems have been fielded to date, despite laboratory based research work confirming their theoretical suitability for a range of applications. This paper reports and reflects on two algorithms which i) improve the accuracy of real-time, multi-accelerometer based posture classifiers when de...
Chapter
Full-text available
Regardless of the application domain and deployment scope, the ability to retrieve information is critical to the successful functioning of any wireless sensor network (WSN) system. In general, information extraction procedures can be categorized into three main approaches: agent-based, query-based and macroprogramming. While query-based systems ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an investigation into the design space for real-time, wearable posture classification systems; specifically, it analyses the impact of various factors/design choices on classification accuracy when using C4.5 decision trees. The factors can be broadly divided into: 1) system factors (such as sensor sampling rate and number of se...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The use of heavy protective clothing (such as by EOD operatives) brings problems related to the build-up of heat within the clothing, potentially endangering the health of the wearer and their activities. This paper presents a method of autonomously predicting the onset of thermally dangerous conditions such as Uncompensable Heat Stress in EOD oper...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy, both in terms of its production and its usage has occupied a prime place in research as well as politics and world economy for the past few years. The majority of nations are aiming to deliver severe carbon cuts in the next few years. However, achieving a carbon-free future needs more than infrastructure investment and novel efficient techn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is evidence that identical homes have different carbon footprints, due to occupant behaviour. Where occupant behaviour is a problem in terms of emissions, there is a need for behaviour change. Generic, educational interventions appear to have limited impact, while individual interventions are hard to achieve. We propose a solution, based on o...
Article
In a wireless sensor network, transmissions consume a large portion of a node's energy budget. Data reduction is generally acknowledged as an effective means to reduce the number of network transmissions, thereby increasing the overall network lifetime. This paper builds on the Spanish Inquisition Protocol, to further reduce transmissions in a sing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the application scenario, conceptual overview and implementation of a monitoring system targeted at monitoring EOD suit wearers during missions. The system's aim is to deliver prediction of heat stress risk in the operative and provide actuation of a cooling system integrated within the suit. Prior work established that such pre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Development of application-specific wireless monitoring systems can benefit from concept reuse and design patterns can form the enabling medium for such reuse. This paper proposes a set of five fundamental node-level patterns that resolve common problems when programming low-power embedded wireless sensing devices. The pattern set forms a framework...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The viability of wireless sensor applications often hinges on minimising power consumption whilst maximising the informational output. Although many low-level platform-oriented energy saving mechanisms have been developed, considerable savings are possible at application level. This work presents an approach to pushing the calculation of applicatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Car cabins are transient, non-uniform thermal environments, both with respect to time and space. Identifying representative locations for the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system sensors is an open research problem. Common sensor positioning approaches are driven by considerations such as cost or aesthetics, which may impact on t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The high rate of falls incidence among the elderly calls for the development of reliable and robust fall detection systems. A number of such systems have been proposed, with claims of fall detection accuracy of over 90% based on accelerometers and gyroscopes. However, most such fall detection algorithms have been developed based on observational an...
Chapter
Full-text available
Development of application-specific wireless monitoring systems can benefit from concept reuse and design patterns can form the enabling medium for such reuse. This chapter presents a set of five fundamental node-level patterns that resolve common problems when programming low-power embedded wireless sensing devices. Although the design patterns pr...