Elena M. Bennett

Elena M. Bennett
McGill University | McGill · Department of Natural Resource Sciences

About

227
Publications
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Publications

Publications (227)
Article
1. At global scales, species richness is declining. However, at local scales, understanding exactly how, where, and why biodiversity is changing becomes challenging since researchers have assessed biodiversity trends using different indicators, data sources, and methods (e.g. repeated measurements at the same site over time versus space‐for‐time su...
Article
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Managing Arctic marine resources to be resilient to environmental changes requires knowledge of how climate change is affecting marine food webs and fisheries. Changes to fishery resources will have major implications for coastal Indigenous communities whose livelihoods, health, and cultures are strongly connected to fisheries. Understanding these...
Article
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Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for...
Article
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The increasing frequency of extreme events, exogenous and endogenous, poses challenges for our societies. The current pandemic is a case in point; but "once-in-a-century" weather events are also becoming more common, leading to erosion, wildfire and even volcanic events that change ecosystems and disturbance regimes, threaten the sustainability of...
Article
Primary parasitoid species, usually Hymenopteran wasp species, contribute to pest regulation services in agroecosystems by parasitizing crop pests and reducing their abundance. However, this positive effect can be limited if primary parasitoids themselves are parasitized by secondary parasitoids, also known as hyperparasitoids. These trophic dynami...
Article
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Social-ecological interactions have been shown to generate interrelated and reoccurring sets of ecosystem services, also known as ecosystem service bundles. Given the potential utility of the bundles concept, along with the recent surge in interest it is timely to reflect on the concept, its current use and potential for the future. Based on our ec...
Article
Hydropower production is one of the greatest threats to fluvial ecosystems and freshwater biodiversity. Now that we have entered the Anthropocene, there is an opportunity to reflect on what might constitute a ‘sustainable’ Anthropocene in the context of hydropower and riverine fish populations. Considering elements of existing practices that promot...
Article
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Co-production, the collaborative weaving of research and practice by diverse societal actors, is argued to play an important role in sustainability transformations. Yet, there is still poor understanding of how to navigate the tensions that emerge in these processes. Through analyzing 32 initiatives worldwide that co-produced knowledge and action t...
Article
The intensification of farming practices negatively impacts the provision of many non-food ecosystem services (ES), including pollination, pest regulation and water quality regulation. Incorporating greater landscape heterogeneity in cropped areas, especially by increasing crop diversity and the density of field edges (i.e. greater farmland heterog...
Article
1. Mitigating climate change is an urgent challenge for society. Increasing carbon storage in forests, which cover more than 30% of the global land surface, presents a key opportunity to meet this challenge. Although the biophysical and ecological factors that affect carbon storage have been well studied, the relative importance of social factors i...
Article
The promise of co-production to address complex sustainability challenges is compelling. Yet, co-production, the collaborative weaving of research and practice, encompasses diverse aims, terminologies and practices, with poor clarity over their implications. To explore this diversity, we systematically mapped differences in how 32 initiatives from...
Article
Different regions, with different contexts and values, will follow different sustainability transformation pathways, giving rise to tensions and opportunities as the outcomes of regional pathways interact. To navigate these changes, we need a better understanding of how regional pathways interact to produce outcomes for people and nature. Different...
Chapter
Global social and economic changes, alongside climate change, are affecting the operating environment for agriculture, leading to efforts to increase production and yields, typically through the use of agrochemicals like pesticides and fertilizers, expanded irrigation, and changes in seed varieties. Intensification, alongside the expansion of agric...
Article
Climate change is having a significant influence on global fish production as well as on small-scale fishers' livelihoods, nutrition, and food security. We compared two climate-sensitive small-scale fisheries (SSFs)-an Inuit community in the Canadian Arctic and the Coastal-Vedda in Sri Lanka-to broaden our understanding of how fisheries-dependent I...
Article
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To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, conservation approaches must be underpinned by robust information. Canada is uniquely positioned to contribute to meeting global biodiversity targets, with some of the world's largest remaining intact ecosystems, and a commitment to co-application of Indigenous ways of knowing alongside scientific,...
Preprint
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Creating a sustainable and just future necessitates a transformation in how people interact with the Earth system and one another. Yet there is no “one-size fits all” approach; different regions with different contexts and values are likely to follow different pathways. These will give rise to both tensions and opportunities as the outcomes of thos...
Article
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The social-ecological effects of agricultural intensification are complex. We explore farmers’ perceptions about the impacts of their land management and the impact of social information flows on their management through a case study in a farming community in Navarra, Spain, that is undergoing agricultural intensification due to adoption of large s...
Article
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Effectively conserving ecosystem services in order to maintain human wellbeing is a global need that requires an understanding of where ecosystem services are produced by ecosystems and where people benefit from these services. However, approaches to effectively identify key locations that have the capacity to supply ecosystem services and actually...
Article
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Global Environmental Assessments (GEAs) are in a unique position to influence environmental decision-making in the context of sustainability challenges. To do this effectively, however, new methods are needed to respond to the needs of decision-makers for a more integrated, contextualized and goal-seeking evaluation of different policies, geared fo...
Article
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A key sustainability challenge in human-dominated landscapes is how to reconcile competing demands such as food production, water quality, climate regulation, and ecological amenities. Prior research has documented how efforts to prioritize desirable ecosystem services such as food and fiber have often led to tradeoffs with other services. However,...
Chapter
Phosphorus is an essential element, playing an important role in limiting or colimiting primary production in many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The P cycle is one of the slowest biogeochemical cycles on Earth, moving from rocks through terrestrial and aquatic systems to ocean sediments and then back into rock deposits on geologic timescales....
Article
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Place-based social-ecological research is often designed to improve local environmental governance, but it can also inform decisions at larger scales or in other places. However, the focus on local perspectives in such research creates challenges for transferring insights to other locations, and for aggregating understanding to larger scales. In th...
Article
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Rural coastal fishery systems in tropical island nations are undergoing rapid change. Using a case study from eastern Sri Lanka, this paper examines the ways in which indigenous Coastal-Vedda fishers experience and respond to such change. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 74), focus group discussions (n = 17, 98 participants), and key in...
Chapter
Nutrient loading from agriculture is a critical threat to aquatic ecosystems, affecting their ability to provide safe drinking water, and limiting the provision of ecosystem services such as water-based recreation. Efforts to manage the problem typically focus on encouraging, incentivising, or requiring use of best management practices to reduce nu...
Article
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Environmental decision-makers and practitioners need and deserve high quality environmental evidence for effective decision-making. We collate and share a suite of best practices for applied environmental researchers to support their capacity to inform such decision-making processes. This raises a number of important questions: What does “relevant”...
Article
Discrepancies between desired ecosystem services (the types, amounts and qualities of services a person would ideally like to benefit from) and the actual provision of ecosystem services (services actually obtained) reflect people’s inability to receive the benefits they would like from nature, and can lead to conflict. We developed a novel process...
Article
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Abstract Amplifying the impact of sustainability initiatives to foster transformations in urban and rural contexts, has received increasing attention in resilience, social innovation, and sustainability transitions research. We review the literature on amplification frameworks and propose an integrative typology of eight processes, which aim to inc...
Article
Innovative solutions to improve the condition and resilience of ecosystems are needed to address societal challenges and pave the way towards a climate-resilient future. Nature-based solutions offer the potential to protect, sustainably manage and restore natural or modified ecosystems while providing multiple other benefits for health, the economy...
Article
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Scenario development helps people think about a broad variety of possible futures; however, the global environmental change community has thus far developed few positive scenarios for the future of the planet and humanity. Those that have been developed tend to focus on the role of a few common, large-scale external drivers, such as technology or e...
Article
Research practice, funding agencies and global science organizations suggest that research aimed at addressing sustainability challenges is most effective when ‘co-produced’ by academics and non-academics. Co-production promises to address the complex nature of contemporary sustainability challenges better than more traditional scientific approache...
Article
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Climate change affects Arctic marine ecosystems, the ecosystem services they provide, and the human well-being that relies on these services. The impacts of climate change in the Arctic and elsewhere involve cascading effects and feedbacks that flow across social-ecological systems (SES), such as when sea ice loss alters food security through chang...
Article
Full text: https://rdcu.be/bVy8H | https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-019-0412-1 | doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0412-1 | Regional and global assessments periodically update what we know, and highlight what remains to be known, about the linkages between people and nature that both define and depend upon the state of the environment. To guide resear...
Article
The magnitude and pace of global change demand rapid assessment of nature and its contributions to people. We present a fine-scale global modeling of current status and future scenarios for several contributions: water quality regulation, coastal risk reduction, and crop pollination. We find that where people's needs for nature are now greatest, na...
Article
Coastal fishery systems in the Arctic are undergoing rapid change. This paper examines the ways in which Inuit fishers experience and respond to such change, using a case study from Pangnirtung, Canada. The work is based on over two years of fieldwork, during which semi-structured interviews (n = 62), focus group discussions (n = 6, 31 participants...
Article
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Water quality, of critical importance to the ecological and social health of lake ecosystems, is maintained through complex interactions within lakes as well as between lakes and their watersheds. Often, water quality is managed by working toward improved water clarity, however, our ability to predict water clarity, and to manage lakes for it, is n...
Chapter
In recognition of the importance of nature, its contributions to people and role in underpinning sustainable development, governments adopted a Strategic Plan on Biodiversity 2011-2020 through the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) containing 20 ‘Aichi Biodiversity Targets’ and integrated many of these into the Sustainable Development Goals (...
Article
Protected areas are an important part of broader landscapes that are often used to preserve biodiversity or natural features. Some argue that protected areas may also help ensure provision of ecosystem services. However, the effect of protection on ecosystem services and whether protection affects the provision of ecosystem services is known only f...
Article
Access to ecosystem services and influence on their management are structured by social relations among actors, which often occur across spatial scales. Such cross-scale social relations can be analysed through a telecoupling framework as decisions taken at local scales are often shaped by actors at larger scales. Analyzing these cross-scale relati...
Technical Report
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The Arctic is undergoing climatic, ecological, and socio-economic changes that will continue into the future, with consequences for humans in and outside the Arctic. Understanding how the Arctic will change, the implications for Arctic communities and humans from all around the world, and how to respond to future changes, requires innovative approa...
Preprint
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Ensuring ecosystem resilience is an intuitive approach to safeguard future provisioning of ecosystem services (ES). However, resilience is an ambiguous concept and difficult to operationalize. Focusing on resilience mechanisms, such as diversity, network architectures or adaptive capacity, has recently been suggested as means to operationalize resi...
Article
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Phosphorus (P) plays a crucial role in both agricultural production and water quality. There has been growing recognition of the importance of “legacy” P (surplus P that has accumulated in watersheds over time) for understanding contemporary water quality outcomes; however, little is known about how different watersheds respond to cumulative pressu...
Article
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The planet’s social–ecological systems are expected to change in rapid and surprising ways in the coming decades, with consequences for ecosystems, ecosystem services, and human well-being. One way to support local communities and decision-makers at higher scales in addressing such surprising changes is to develop scenarios that are locally actiona...
Article
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Anthropogenic activities have led to increased transfers of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to surface waters where changes in the absolute amounts of N and P delivery, and in N:P ratios, threaten water quality. While models of riverine fluxes are increasingly good at predicting total annual nutrient loads, our understanding of which features of a...
Chapter
Which ecosystem services are addressed? Provisioning: agricultural production (crops, pork), provision of clean water, maple syrup production, milk production
Article
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Excess anthropogenic phosphorus in watersheds, transported with runoff, can result in aquatic eutrophication, a serious global water quality concern. Watersheds can retain phosphorus, especially in their soils, which can serve as a buffer against the effect of excessive use of phosphorus. However, whether there is a quantifiable threshold at which...
Article
There is a rapidly growing body of scholarship on climate change adaptation in diverse contexts globally. Despite this, climate adaptation at the community level has not received adequate conceptual attention, and a limited number of analytical frameworks are available for assessing place-specific adaptations, particularly in a fisheries context. W...
Conference Paper
The ‘Coastal Vedda’ indigenous population in Sri Lanka is undergoing rapid social-ecological change. The main livelihood activity and primary protein source for Coastal Veddas is the fish that are grown in the village tank (reservoir) or caught from the lagoon. Climate change implications increase the uncertainties and complexities in human-environ...
Article
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The potential for agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity may vary greatly based on agricultural land use. Current knowledge suggests that agricultural composition and intensity are dominant drivers of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, with variable effects of agricultural configuration and landscape diversity. The aim of this study...
Article
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Organic waste, which contains essential plant nutrients such as phosphorus, constitutes 30%–50% of municipal solid waste in developed countries. Unfortunately, much of this resource is buried in landfills or incinerated. Many jurisdictions have, therefore, adopted the diversion of organic waste and the recycling of nutrients as policy goals. We use...
Article
1.Agriculture's influence on humanity is a dichotomy of promise and peril. Research on the food‐environment dilemma has highlighted the environmental consequences of food production, yet the identification of management solutions is an on‐going challenge. 2.We suggest “bright spots” as a promising tool to identify levers of change by finding areas...
Article
The global phosphorus cycle has been transformed in recent decades through increased use of mineral phosphorus fertilizer in agriculture and losses to water bodies, leading to risks of fossil phosphorus resource depletion and freshwater eutrophication. By moving phosphorus resources across world regions, international trade of agricultural products...
Chapter
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Chapter Highlights: 1. The rapid urbanization associated with the Anthropocene provides an imperative for humans to think differently about the future. 2. The “seeds” approach describes how niche experiments can, over time, coalesce to shift the dominant regime onto a more sustainable trajectory. 3. To achieve positive urban futures, it is vi...
Article
Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient, essential to plant growth and agricultural production, however it can also act as an aquatic pollutant. Anthropogenic activities have impacted global P flows—causing increased mobilization of P to waterways and accumulation of P in landfills. Cities play a unique role in P management because they tend to con...
Article
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Land-use change is known to affect biodiversity, and there is increasing concern regarding how these changes may impact the provision of ecosystem services. Although functional composition (diversity and identity) could influence ecosystem properties and services at the community level, there is little quantitative understanding of these relationsh...
Article
Increasing demand for benefits provided by riverine ecosystems threatens their sustainable provision. The ecosystem service concept is a promising avenue to inform riverine ecosystem management, but several challenges have prevented the application of this concept. 2.We quantitatively assess the field of riverine ecosystem services’ progress in mee...
Article
To evaluate the relative influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on ecosystem dynamics and regime shifts, we examined the algal response to historical catchment phosphorus loading from two shallow lakes located in Quebec, Canada. Roxton Pond is a eutrophic shallow lake with submerged macrophytes, and Lake Petit Saint-François (PSF) is a hypere...
Article
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We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or "safe limits": land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction o...
Data
Multiple ecosystem services (ES) can respond similarly to social and ecological factors to form bundles. Identifying key social-ecological variables and understanding how they co-vary to produce these consistent sets of ES may ultimately allow the prediction and modelling of ES bundles, and thus, help us understand critical synergies and trade-offs...