Eleanor J Milner-Gulland

Eleanor J Milner-Gulland
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Zoology

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520
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Publications

Publications (520)
Article
Marine tourism is promoted as a substitute economic activity to unsustainable fishing, which is compatible with conservation. However, benefits of marine tourism do not typically accrue in small-scale fisheries (SSFs), which often bear the costs of conservation; they accrue to tourists and tourist-focussed businesses. We explored how marine tourism...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural intensification and expanding protected areas are proposed sustainable development approaches. But, their consequences for mental health are poorly understood. This study aims to predict how forest conservation and contract farming may alter resource access and depression risk in rural Uganda. Residents (N = 695) in 11 communities in M...
Article
Promoting human-wildlife coexistence is one of the most complex and pressing global conservation challenges faced today, particularly for large carnivore species. Effective conservation of large carnivores rests on interventions fostering coexistence in human-dominated landscapes, across the large ranges on which they depend. However, there is a pa...
Article
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Power analyses help to improve the cost‐effectiveness of monitoring strategies for wildlife populations, but rarely account for variation in detection probability, affecting the power of data to detect trends in occupancy. We explore the power of occupancy models informed by two locally‐informed methods (interviews and daily diaries) to detect chan...
Article
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Participatory decision tools enable stakeholders to reconcile conflicting natural resources management objectives. Fisheries targeting highly productive species can have profound impacts on co-occurring bycatch species with low fecundity and other life history traits that make them vulnerable to anthropogenic sources of mortality. This study develo...
Article
Many shark and ray species (Class Chondrichthyes, herein ‘sharks’) are threatened by overfishing. Tackling this requires implementation of context-specific fisheries management measures, which are both technically effective and socio-economically feasible. Here we explore the cost-effectiveness of various input-oriented management measures for miti...
Preprint
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Conservationists can use social network analysis to improve targeting for behaviour-change interventions, selecting individuals to target who will go on to inform or influence others. However, collecting sociometric data is expensive. Using empirical data from a case study in Cambodia and simulations we examine the conditions under which collecting...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marine tourism is promoted as a substitute economic activity to unsustainable fishing, which is compatible with conservation. However, benefits of marine tourism do not typically accrue in small-scale fisheries (SSFs), which often bear the costs of conservation; they accrue to tourists and to tourist-focussed businesses. We explored how marine tour...
Article
Every large organization should plot a path to net gain in biodiversity — here’s how. Every large organization should plot a path to net gain in biodiversity — here’s how. Bright orange and yellow California poppies flowering in front of an Oxford building Bright orange and yellow California poppies flowering in front of an Oxford building
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A series of international sustainability policies currently in negotiation will shape biodiversity conservation for decades to come. However, discussions of current sustainability policy have a huge blind spot: the absence of Fungi, one of the eukaryotic Kingdoms. Wild fungi are a key component of natural ecosystems (e.g., through parasitic symbios...
Article
There is a need to include local people’s voices in research and planning processes to better understand what they see as opportunities and challenges for their future. This is necessary because of the intrinsic importance of public participation, and because it can help produce more useful and implementable adaptation plans. We apply participatory...
Article
Unauthorised use of natural resources is one of the challenges facing protected areas in Africa. Understanding factors influencing this behaviour can help improve the efficiency of conservation efforts. We conducted focus group discussions with authorised resource users and managers in the Ugalla ecosystem of western Tanzania to determine factors f...
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Few studies explicitly assess the robustness and practicality of occupancy analysis informed by local inhabitants, compared to estimates from conventional monitoring methods within different contexts. This study evaluates the efficacy and robustness of occupancy models based on camera trap data, and two locally informed methods: seasonal interviews...
Article
Contact between wild and domestic ungulates is increasing across rangelands, enabling disease co-transmission. Disease management is difficult given uncertainties in complex system behavior, limited empirical data, and logistical obstacles to interventions. We studied gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) transmission in a rangeland shared by both livest...
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In the face of unprecedented biodiversity loss, the belief that conservation goals can be met could play an important role in ensuring they are fulfilled. We asked conservationists how optimistic they felt about key biodiversity outcomes over the next 10 years; 2341 people familiar with conservation in 144 countries responded. Respondents expressed...
Article
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An important rationale for legally‐farmed and synthetic wildlife products are that they reduce illegal wild‐sourced trade by supplying markets with sustainable alternatives. For this to work, more established illegal‐product consumers must switch to legal alternatives than new legal‐product consumers drawn to illegal wild products. Despite widespre...
Article
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Rangelands are multi‐use landscapes which are socially and ecologically important in different ways. Among other interactions, shared use of rangelands by wildlife and livestock can lead to disease transmission. Understanding wildlife and livestock health and managing disease transmission in rangelands requires an integration of social and ecologic...
Book
Este guia é destinado a profissionais da conservação e do desenvolvimento sustentável no mundo todo, que elaboram e implementam projetos para o manejo da carne de caça em comunidades rurais. Esses projetos são motivados pela preocupação com a sustentabilidade do consumo da carne de caça e a proteção de espécies silvestres ameaçadas ou afetadas pela...
Article
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The effectiveness of behavioural interventions in conservation often depends on local resource users' underlying social interactions. However, it remains unclear to what extent differences in related topics of information shared between resource users can alter network structure—holding implications for information flows and the spread of behaviour...
Preprint
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Fisheries bycatch is the greatest threat to migratory, long-lived marine animals. Managing bycatch can be particularly problematic in small-scale mixed-species fisheries, where perceptions of target and non-target vary widely, and all catches have economic or subsistence value. Such fisheries are ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans, and repres...
Preprint
Full-text available
Large, long-lived marine animals (‘marine megafauna’) play critical roles in ocean ecosystems, however, they are threatened by overfishing. Technologies and practices that reduce fisheries’ impacts on marine megafauna are well documented, yet less is known about how to encourage their adoption. This is particularly challenging in small-scale fisher...
Preprint
Agricultural intensification and expanding protected areas are proposed sustainable development approaches. But, their consequences for mental health – a global priority – are poorly understood. We predict how forest conservation and contract farming may alter resource access and depression risk in rural Uganda. We asked 695 residents in 11 communi...
Article
Goals play important roles in people's lives by focusing attention, mobilizing effort, and sustaining motivation. Understanding conservationists’ satisfaction with goal progress may provide insights into real‐world environmental trends and flag risks to their well‐being and motivation. We asked 2694 conservationists working globally how satisfied t...
Article
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Robust evaluation of the impact of biodiversity conservation actions is important not only for ensuring that conservation strategies are effective and maximise return on investment, but also to identify and celebrate successful conservation strategies. This evaluation can be retrospective (comparing the current situation to a counterfactual scenari...
Article
Full-text available
Conservationists can use social network analysis to improve targeting for behaviour-change interventions, selecting individuals to target who will go on to inform or influence others. However, collecting sociometric data is expensive. Using empirical data from a case study in Cambodia and simulations we examine the conditions under which collecting...
Article
Full-text available
Social networks are critical to the success of behavioural interventions in conservation as network processes such as information flows and social influence can enable behaviour change to spread beyond a targeted group. We investigated these mechanisms using social network data and longitudinal behavioural data from a conservation intervention in C...
Article
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There are calls to ground policies aimed at addressing the illegal wildlife trade (IWT), and biodiversity conservation more generally, on the best available evidence. However, evidence on IWT can be highly uncertain and difficult to obtain due to the illegal nature of the trade. Even when the evidence exists, there are numerous barriers to its upta...
Article
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The complexities of multi-use landscapes require sophisticated approaches to addressing disease transmission risks. We explored gastro-intestinal nematode (GINs) infections in the North India Trans-Himalayas through a socio-ecological lens, integrating parasite transmission modelling with field surveys and local knowledge, and evaluated the likely...
Article
Several hundred species are hunted for wild meat in the tropics, supporting the diets, customs, and livelihoods of millions of people. However, unsustainable hunting is one of the most urgent threats to wildlife and ecosystems worldwide and has serious ramifications for people whose subsistence and income are tied to wild meat. Over the past 18 yea...
Article
Several hundred species are hunted for wild meat in the tropics, supporting the diets, customs, and livelihoods of millions of people. However, unsustainable hunting is one of the most urgent threats to wildlife and ecosystems worldwide and has serious ramifications for people whose subsistence and income are tied to wild meat. Over the past 18 yea...
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Abstract Understanding wildlife consumption is essential for the design and evaluation of effective conservation interventions to reduce illegal trade. This requires understanding both the consumers themselves and those who influence their behaviour. For example, in markets for wildlife‐based medicines, both consumers and medical practitioners have...
Article
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Sustainable wildlife trade is critical for biodiversity conservation, livelihoods, and food security. Regulatory frameworks are needed to secure these diverse benefits of sustainable wildlife trade. However, regulations limiting trade can backfire, sparking illegal trade if demand is not met by legal trade alone. Assessing how regulations affect wi...
Article
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Overexploitation is a key driver of biodiversity loss but the relationship between the use and trade of species and conservation outcomes is not always straightforward. Accurately characterizing wildlife trade and understanding the impact it has on wildlife populations are therefore critical to evaluating the potential threat trade poses to species...
Article
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Global commitments prioritize protection of wildlife and improvements to human wellbeing. Local disconnects in these commitments are rarely acknowledged—or their implications assessed—preventing the development of effective solutions. National and international efforts to protect marine mammals along South America's west coast have contributed to s...
Preprint
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Key Points: 1. A rare example of a wildlife trade initiative that covers all stages of an evidence-based behaviour change intervention. 2. Intervention development involved combining extensive consumer research with human behaviour theory and past research. 3. Intervention used a cutting-edge, powerful combination of online news coverage and target...
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Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
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Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
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Full-text available
Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a “Green List of Species” (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species’ progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
Article
Full-text available
Recognizing the imperative to evaluate species recovery and conservation impact, in 2012 the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) called for development of a "Green List of Species" (now the IUCN Green Status of Species). A draft Green Status framework for assessing species' progress toward recovery, published in 2018, proposed 2 s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mental illness is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, but there is limited understanding of how it is influenced by socio-ecological context, particularly in the global south. We asked how interactions with ecological systems influence stressors associated with psychological distress in a rural Ugandan case study. We conducted an...
Article
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The Convention on Biological Diversity’s post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will probably include a goal to stabilize and restore the status of species. Its delivery would be facilitated by making the actions required to halt and reverse species loss spatially explicit. Here, we develop a species threat abatement and restoration (STAR) metric...
Article
Understanding how markets drive unsustainable wildlife use is key for biodiversity conservation. Yet most approaches to date look at isolated components of wildlife markets, hindering our ability to intervene effectively to improve sustainability. To better assess and intervene in wildlife markets, we propose a framework that integrates three analy...
Technical Report
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This guide is for conservation and development practitioners worldwide, who are designing and implementing projects to reduce the consumption of wild meat in rural communities. These projects are motivated by concerns for sustainability and threatened wild species. Our guide takes you through five steps to design a successful wild meat alternative...
Article
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Shared use of rangelands by livestock and wildlife can lead to disease transmission. To align agricultural livelihoods with wildlife conservation, a multi‐pronged and interdisciplinary approach for disease management is needed, particularly in data‐limited situations with migratory hosts. Migratory wildlife and livestock can range over vast areas,...
Article
Full-text available
Economic activities in the ocean (that is, the ‘blue economy’) provide value to society, yet also jeopardize marine ecosystems. For example, fisheries are an essential source of income and food security for billions of people, yet bycatch poses a major threat to marine biodiversity, creating trade-offs between economic growth and biodiversity conse...
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A recent review suggests that forest cover needs to be restored or maintained on at least 40% of land area. In the absence of empirical evidence to support this threshold, we discuss how this suggestion is unhelpful and potentially dangerous. We advocate for regionally defined thresholds to inform conservation and restoration.
Article
Developing interventions to change human behaviour at scale is critical to achieving the new Global Biodiversity Framework goals. One strategy that conservation practitioners can adopt in pursuing this ambition is to look for lessons from other fields engaged in sustainable development, such as development economics and behavioural science. Over th...
Article
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Recent seizures of jaguar body parts in Bolivia have prompted concern about illegal trade to China, but a detailed understanding of this emerging trade continues to be lacking. We interviewed 1,107 people in a rural area implicated in the trade, using direct and indirect questions through the Ballot Box Method (BBM) to explore the prevalence and ch...
Article
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The new global biodiversity framework (GBF) being developed under the Convention on Biological Diversity must drive action to reverse the ongoing decline of the Earth's biodiversity. Explicit, measurable goals that specify the outcomes we want to achieve are needed to set the course for this action. However, the current draft goals and targets fail...
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Trade in wildlife is increasingly moving online, which creates significant challenges for monitoring. Numerous reports have highlighted the extent of the trade but they rarely present a methodology to facilitate replication or any form of meta-analysis. Here we present a systematic approach to surveying online trade in wildlife that builds on the w...
Preprint
Understanding how markets drive unsustainable wildlife use is key for biodiversity conservation. Yet most approaches to date look at isolated components of wildlife markets, hindering our ability to intervene effectively to improve sustainability. To better assess and intervene in wildlife markets, we propose a framework that integrates three analy...
Article
Full-text available
Overexploitation for consumption of meat from wild animals in urban centres currently threatens numerous species across the globe. Indiscriminate offtake to satisfy demand for wild meat affects a range of wildlife of conservation concern in Vietnam. It is essential to understand the consumption of wild meat in Vietnam in order to ensure it is not d...
Article
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Pangolins have been exploited throughout history but evidence points to population declines across parts of their ranges since the 1960s, especially in Asia. This is the result of overexploitation for local use and international trade and trafficking of their derivatives. The prevalence of the consumption of pangolin products has been estimated for...
Article
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Interventions to shift the behaviour of consumers using unsustainable wildlife products are key to threatened species conservation. Whether these interventions are effective is largely unknown due to a dearth of detailed evaluations. We previously conducted a country-level online behaviour change intervention targeting consumers of the Critically E...
Article
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International commercial trade in wildlife, whether legal or illegal, is one of the greatest threats to multiple species of wildlife today. Opinions on how to address it are deeply divided across the conservation community. Approaches fall into two broad categories: making the trade illegal to protect against any form of commercial trade or allowin...
Article
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Illegal trade and human‐wildlife conflict are two key drivers of biodiversity loss and are recognized as leading threats to large carnivores. Although human‐wildlife conflict involving jaguars (Panthera onca) has received significant attention in the past, less is known about traditional use or commercial trade in jaguar body parts, including their...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge loss of life, and immense social and economic harm. Wildlife trade has become central to discourse on COVID-19, zoonotic pandemics, and related policy responses, which must focus on “saving lives, protecting livelihoods, and safeguarding nature.” Proposed policy responses have included extreme measures such as...
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1. Efforts to shift unsustainable human behaviour are at the crux of many conservation interventions, particularly when addressing illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade. These efforts, often in the form of behaviour change interventions, have proven largely unable to counteract this pervasive issue, however, leading to calls for more robust inter...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought humanity’s strained relationship with nature into sharp focus, with calls for cessation of wild meat trade and consumption, to protect public health and biodiversity.¹,² However, the importance of wild meat for human nutrition, and its tele-couplings to other food production systems, mean that the complete removal...
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The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that...