Eleanor L S Leavens

Eleanor L S Leavens
University of Kansas Medical Center · Department of Population Health

PhD

About

54
Publications
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Publications

Publications (54)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: One possible reason for the rapid proliferation of waterpipe (WP) smoking is the pervasive use of flavoured WP tobacco. To begin to understand the impact of WP tobacco flavours, the current study examined the impact of a preferred WP tobacco flavour compared with a non-preferred tobacco flavoured control on user's smoking behaviour,...
Article
Background and aims: Concurrent alcohol use and waterpipe (WP) smoking is common among young adults. WP smokers are more than twice as likely to use alcohol as non-users and frequently consume alcohol immediately before and during a WP smoking session. It is unclear what impact alcohol has on WP smoking patterns and resultant exposure to tobacco-r...
Article
Introduction Electronic cigarettes’ (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine de...
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Purpose: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has risen dramatically in recent years. However, there are currently no published data on the use of e-cigarettes among cardiac patients. The current study reports on the prevalence, reasons for use, and perceived risks of e-cigarettes among patients with post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS)....
Article
Full-text available
As opposed to smoking cessation with nicotine-replacement therapy and/or varenicline, nicotine-containing e-cigarette use does not improve some airway inflammatory markers. https://bit.ly/3FyqIt9.
Article
Background: As the US Food and Drug Administration takes regulatory action on menthol cigarettes, debate continues about how restricting menthol e-liquids might impact adult menthol smokers in switching to e-cigarettes. Methods: Switching patterns and e-cigarette acceptability were assessed at week 6 among 64 black and Latinx menthol cigarette s...
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The primary aim of the current study is to determine the incremental efficacy of adding a novel values component to a personalized feedback intervention for young adult drinking. Undergraduate students (N = 254) were randomized to receive either traditional, traditional with values assessment, or values enhanced feedback. Results showed significant...
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Reasons for Black-White disparities in smoking abstinence are not well understood. This study examined area-level socioeconomic disadvantage as a contributor to lower quit rates for Blacks who smoke among 223 Black and 221 White low-income individuals who smoke enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Outcome was cotinine-verified abstinence at week...
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Objective: The present study developed a measure assessing the emotional responses, "Displacement Imposition," of cigarette and e-cigarette users on a college campus with a smoking/vaping ban. It also examined the relationship between Displacement Imposition and readiness to quit smoking/vaping, and how this relationship differed between cigarette...
Article
Background and Aims For e-cigarettes to be a viable substitute for combustible cigarettes, it is likely that they must be rewarding enough for regular use, indicated by factors such as craving and dependence, important aspects of reinforcement. This study aimed to understand short-term changes in measures of nicotine dependence between groups diffe...
Article
Introduction: Most adult cigarette smokers who use e-cigarettes are dual cigarette and e-cigarette (CC-EC) users, yet little is known about relative consumption of cigarettes to e-cigarettes and any associated harm reduction. Methods: Rate of substitution from cigarettes to e-cigarettes at week 6 and change in biomarkers of exposure and potentia...
Article
Introduction Initiation of e-cigarette use by young adults is a significant public health issue within the debate on vaping. The current study is an exploratory evaluation of brief educational information among young adults and investigated outcomes as a function of JUUL use and smoking status. Methods Participants (N=947) were young adults (<30 y...
Article
Full-text available
IMPACT: This research suggests that African American and Latinx smokers who bear a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related harms are able to switch to e-cigarettes that present reduced harm to the user due to their similar reinforcement profile to cigarettes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Complete switching from combustible to electronic cigarettes (ECs) re...
Article
Introduction Flavourants and humectants in waterpipe tobacco (WT) increase product appeal. Removal of these constituents, however, is associated with increased intensity of WT puffing, likely due to reduced nicotine delivery efficiency. To clarify the potential public health outcomes of restrictions on flavourants or humectants in WT, we evaluated...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adults experiencing homelessness have higher rates of disease and premature morbidity compared to the general population. Tobacco use is a primary contributing factor to these disparities; however, less is known regarding e-cigarette use patterns among adults experiencing homelessness and whether e-cigarettes are used in a manner that is...
Article
Aims To examine if changes in select measures of e-cigarette puffing topography are associated with changes in smoking behavior. Methods Sixteen current cigarette smokers were instructed to completely switch from smoking combustible cigarettes to using e-cigarettes over a two-week period. The study was completed in the Southern Midwestern region o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Monitoring trends and perceptions of new nicotine salt-based electronic cigarettes (ECs), like JUUL, is important to identify associations with product experimentation and use. Understanding harm perceptions of these new devices will inform prevention and intervention efforts. The current study assesses perceptions of the absolute harm...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Initiation of JUUL use by young adults is one of the most significant issues of concern within the debate on vaping. Despite the proliferation of products and the surge in prevalence, no studies have investigated individual-level interventions or prevention strategies for pod-mod use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants ( N = 9...
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Introduction The present study examined how the lack of characterising flavours and low levels of humectants may affect users’ waterpipe tobacco (WT) smoking topography, subjective effects, toxicant exposure and intentions for continued use. Methods 89 WT smokers completed four ad libitum smoking sessions (characterising flavor/high humectant (+F+...
Article
Background Personalized normative alcohol feedback (PNF) is associated with decreased alcohol use among young adults. However, limited research has examined the influence of depressive symptoms on PNF efficacy. This study examined symptoms of depression as a moderator of college student response to a computerized PNF intervention for alcohol use....
Article
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to proliferate with fast-paced product evolution. Pod mod e-cigarettes emerged in the market in 2015 and have changed the tobacco landscape again. However, little is known regarding their addiction potential among users. The current study describes e-cigarette dependence and demand among pod mod user...
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Introduction: Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) are associated with small but reliable decreases in alcohol consumption among college students. While they often include information regarding protective behavioral strategies (PBS), PFIs do not typically include feedback aimed to modify normative perceptions of PBS. This study aimed to enha...
Article
Objectives: College student alcohol interventions utilizing public health messaging describe consequences that are delayed and significantly negative, a strategy shown to be ineffective. It is possible that messaging related to immediate, likely, and less negative consequences may be better at reducing problematic drinking. Although research has in...
Article
Poor sleep health is associated with numerous health concerns, and sleep problems are exacerbated by cigarette smoking. Although rates of traditional tobacco use are declining, rates of electronic cigarette (e‐cigarette) use are comparatively high and growing. Given that nicotine is a primary mechanism by which smoking negatively impacts sleep heal...
Article
Full-text available
Background: JUUL electronic cigarettes have surged in popularity since their emergence on the market in 2015. JUUL is slim and simple in design and is capable of delivering cigarette-like levels of nicotine. However, little research has examined JUUL use patterns, reasons for use, and normative perceptions of JUUL among young adults. Methods: Pa...
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Full-text available
Personal Feedback Interventions (PFIs) have been widely used to reduce the amount of time and money individuals spend on gambling. A central component of these interventions is personalized information about an individual’s gambling behavior, often in comparison to others’ gambling. The purpose of the present review and meta-analysis was to evaluat...
Article
Objectives: Waterpipe smoking can lead to negative health outcomes. In this study, we examined responses to anti-waterpipe smoking public service announcements (PSAs). Methods: In a pilot study, current waterpipe smokers (N = 20) and susceptible waterpipe never smokers (N = 25) were randomized to view either 3 anti-waterpipe PSAs, created by the Tr...
Article
Introduction: Relative to non-waterpipe (WP) smokers, WP smokers are more than twice as likely to use alcohol and frequently consume alcohol before or during smoking sessions. Co-use of alcohol and WP may result in greater toxicant exposure compared to WP smoking alone. To date, no study systematically has investigated the impact of acute alcohol...
Article
Introduction: JUUL, an e-cigarette from PAX Labs, has captured 70% of the e-cigarette market. The current study examines JUUL use patterns and reasons for initiation in a large convenience sample of U.S. adults. Methods: Respondents were 979 U.S. adults registered on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) who reported ever using JUUL. Items included fre...
Article
The current study examined changes in prevalence of e-cigarette use and perceptions of the harmfulness of e-cigarette and combustible cigarettes following a campus-wide tobacco ban. Undergraduate students completed surveys of tobacco use and perceived product harmfulness. Four samples were collected: in 2013 prior to the ban (n = 792) and in fall 2...
Article
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for American Indian (AI) young adults. Alcohol use is a well-established risk factor for suicide. On average, AIs ages 12 to 20 exhibit the second-highest rate of binge drinking compared to all other ethnic groups. The current study investigated the relation between alcohol use and suicide ideation in an...
Article
Background JUUL, an electronic cigarette, is estimated to occupy 50% of the e-cigarette market and appears to be particularly common among youth. However, there is little research on perceptions of JUUL. The aim of the current study was to examine posts on Reddit specific to JUUL and youth to better understand the context and perceptions of JUUL u...
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Introduction: Polytobacco use and experimentation is common among young adults. Additional research is needed to determine how these patterns of use impact perceptions of tobacco-related harm and risk. The current study examined whether a relationship exists between an increased number of tobacco products used and decreases in perceptions of harmf...
Article
Introduction: Tobacco remains one of the most commonly used substances during pregnancy. Despite the many health risks, pregnant women report low nicotine replacement ther- apy (NRT) adherence and associated quit rates due partially to perceptions of increased harm related to NRT use. The health risks coupled with the continuation of tobacco use re...
Article
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) can compound an already challenging set of health problems for youth with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Exposure to electronic cigarettes may also impact SCD symptomology and respiratory functioning. This study built on these previous findings by a) utilizing two objective measures of SHSe, salivary cotinine and exh...
Article
Background: Alcohol consumption and related consequences is a problem on many college campuses. Tailgating parties before college sporting events may be contributing, however, little recent research has investigated alcohol consumption at these events. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the drinking behaviors of college game day...
Article
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important public health concerns, with links to higher prevalence rates of both health-risk behaviors and physical health difficulties in adulthood. Research has demonstrated an association between early adversity and long-term health-risk behavior development. The current study assessed the role of emotion...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Recruitment and retention of participants are important factors in empirical studies. Methods that increase recruitment and retention can reduce costs and burden on researchers related to the need for over-recruitment because of attrition. Rideshare services such as Uber and Lyft are a potential means for decreasing this burden. OBJECTI...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recruitment and retention of participants are important factors in empirical studies. Methods that increase recruitment and retention can reduce costs and burden on researchers related to the need for over-recruitment because of attrition. Rideshare services such as Uber and Lyft are a potential means for decreasing this burden. Objecti...
Article
One-third of college students report past-year heavy episodic drinking, making college student alcohol use an important area for continued research. Research has consistently linked early experiences of adversity to problematic substance use in adolescence and adulthood. Given the negative health consequences associated with heavy episodic drinking...
Article
Alcohol-induced amnesia (“blackout”) is a reliable predictor of alcohol-related harm. Given its association with other negative consequences, experience of alcohol-induced amnesia may serve as a teachable moment, after which individuals are more likely to respond to intervention. To test this hypothesis, alcohol-induced amnesia was evaluated as a m...
Article
Disease management remains a challenge for many people living with HIV (PLWH). Digital health interventions (DHIs) may assist with overcoming these challenges and reducing burdens on clinical staff; however, there is limited data regarding methods to improve uptake and acceptability of DHIs among PLWH. This qualitative study aimed to assess patient...
Article
Background: Waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking delivers many of the same harmful toxicants as cigarette smoking and is on the rise in the US. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a brief personalized feedback intervention in affecting changes in WP smoking among current WP smokers. Methods: Participants (N=109) were recruited as they...
Article
Introduction: Smoking tobacco via a waterpipe (WP) is on the rise, particularly among college students. One reason for this may be normative perceptions of WP tobacco smoking (WTS) among this population. The current study examined the perceived and actual descriptive and injunctive norms of WTS among a college student sample. Methods: Participan...
Article
Introduction: The use of Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) has been strongly linked with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences, making them a potential target for intervention. Additionally, mindfulness is associated with decreased experience of alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a mo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Alcohol use and subsequent consequences are harmful for individual college students. Other students and the university can also be negatively impacted by the consequences of alcohol use. Method A field-based study was used to assess the alcohol use environment at college parties. Researchers replicated a previous study by driving and wa...
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Introduction: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the hy...
Article
Purpose: To examine the influence of providing multiunit housing (MUH) managers with a resource manual for MUH smoke-free policy implementation on manager perceptions of smoke-free policies. Design: One-group within-subject pretest-posttest design examining manager perceptions of smoke-free policies. Setting: Random sampling of MUH managers in...
Article
Developing discrepancy between one’s values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with import...
Article
Objective: Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) have been associated with decreased alcohol consumption and related problems among college students; however, the necessary and sufficient components responsible for efficacy remain unclear. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of 3 computerized PFIs with differing content, the...
Article
Abstract This study examined prevalence and potential impact of disordered gambling in a sample of individuals (N = 684) undergoing residential substance use disorders (SUD) treatment at 13 facilities. Lifetime disordered gambling prevalence was 20.2%, as identified by South Oaks Gambling Screen. Within individuals who screened positive for disorde...

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