Eleanor A Blakely

Eleanor A Blakely
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | LBL · Life Sciences Division

About

173
Publications
14,772
Reads
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5,198
Citations
Citations since 2017
22 Research Items
1677 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250300
Additional affiliations
March 1975 - present
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Position
  • Senior Staff Biophysicist

Publications

Publications (173)
Preprint
Full-text available
Nanostructured surfaces enhance ion yields in matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The spike protein complex, S1, is one fingerprint signature of Sars-CoV-2 with a mass of 75 kDa. Here, we show that MALDI-MS yields of Sars-CoV-2 spike protein ions in the 100 kDa range are enhanced 50-fold when the matrix-analyte...
Article
Full-text available
Laser-driven ion beams have gained considerable attention for their potential use in multidisciplinary research and technology. Preclinical studies into their radiobiological effectiveness have established the prospect of using laser-driven ion beams for radiotherapy. In particular, research into the beneficial effects of ultrahigh instantaneous do...
Article
Full-text available
For missions beyond low Earth orbit to the moon or Mars, space explorers will encounter a complex radiation field composed of various ion species with a broad range of energies. Such missions pose significant radiation protection challenges that need to be solved in order to minimize exposures and associated health risks. An innovative galactic cos...
Article
Full-text available
There is a limited published literature reporting dose-dependent data for in vivo tumorigenesis prevalence in different organs of various rodent models after exposure to low, single doses of charged particle beams. The goal of this study is to reduce uncertainties in estimating particle-radiation-induced risk of lung tumorigenesis for manned travel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Laser-driven ion beams have gained considerable attention for their potential use in multidisciplinary research and technology. Pre-clinical studies into their radiobiological effectiveness have established the prospect of using laser-driven ion beams for radiotherapy. In particular, research into the beneficial effects of ultra-high instantaneous...
Article
Full-text available
Helium ion beam therapy for the treatment of cancer was one of several developed and studied particle modalities in the 1950’s, leading to clinical trials beginning in 1975 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The trial shutdown was followed by decades of research and clinical silence on the topic while proton and carbon ion therapy made d...
Article
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Radiotherapy is the current standard of care for more than 50% of all cancer patients. Improvements in radiotherapy (RT) technology have increased tumor targeting and normal tissue sparing. Radiations at ultra‑high dose rates required for FLASH‑RT effects have sparked interest in potentially providing additional differential therapeutic benefits. W...
Article
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Addressing the uncertainties in assessing health risks from cosmic ray heavy ions is a major scientific challenge recognized by many previous reports by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) advising the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These reports sugg...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to low doses of gamma irradiation (γ-IR), high-charge-and-energy (HZE) particle IR may have different biological response thresholds in cardiac tissue at lower doses, and these effects may be IR type and dose dependent. Three- to four-month-old female CB6F1/Hsd mice were exposed once to one of four different doses of the following types of...
Article
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Objective: Particle radiobiology has contributed new understanding of radiation safety and underlying mechanisms of action to radiation oncology for the treatment of cancer, and to planning of radiation protection for space travel. This manuscript will highlight the significance of precise physical and biologically effective dosimetry to this tran...
Article
Full-text available
Health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in space travel above low earth orbit remain a concern. For many years accelerator experiments investigating space radiation induced prevalence of murine Harderian gland (HG) tumorigenesis have been performed to help estimate GCR risks. Most studies used acute, relatively low fluence, exposures. Results...
Article
The biological effectiveness of proton beams relative to photon beams in radiation therapy has been taken to be 1.1 throughout the history of proton therapy. While potentially appropriate as an average value, actual relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values may differ. This Task Group report outlines the basic concepts of RBE as well as the bi...
Chapter
The use of ionising radiation to treat cancer has a long history since the first treatment of cancer with X-rays in the late 1800s. Many types of radiation have been employed to achieve control of tumour viability. The depth–dose profile of four current types of external beam radiations – a ‘low’ linear energy transfer (LET) beam of photons, two ‘h...
Article
To describe the international landscape of clinical trials in carbon‐ion radiotherapy (CIRT), the authors reviewed the current status of 63 ongoing clinical trials (median, 47 participants) involving CIRT identified from the US clinicaltrials.gov trial registry and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Platform Registry. The o...
Book
Full-text available
The use of ionising radiation to treat cancer has a long history since the first treatment of cancer with X-rays in the late 1800s. Many types of radiation have been employed to achieve control of tumour viability. The depth–dose profile of four current types of external beam radiations – a ‘low’ linear energy transfer (LET) beam of photons, two ‘h...
Chapter
This chapter will discuss the fundamental concepts and factors important in radiation biology and physics as they apply to radiation therapy.
Article
Purpose: This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of the new NCRP Commentary No. 26 guidance on radiation dose limits for the lens of the eye. The NCRP also addressed radiation protection principles with respect to the lens of the eye, discussed the current understanding of eye biology and lens effects, reviewed and evaluated epid...
Article
Full-text available
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) is a Congressionally-chartered United States (U.S.) advisory body with an express mission, “to support radiation protection by providing independent scientific analysis, information, and recommendations that represent the consensus of leading scientists”. At the request of the U.S...
Article
Full-text available
This Commentary has been prepared to provide guidance on whether existing dose limits to the lens of the eye should be changed in the United States. The guidance is based on a detailed evaluation of recent studies on the radiation dose response for the development of cataracts. A number of National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (...
Article
Complex mixed radiation fields exist in interplanetary space, and little is known about their late effects on space travelers. In silico synergy analysis default predictions are useful when planning relevant mixed-ion-beam experiments and interpreting their results. These predictions are based on individual dose-effect relationships (IDER) for each...
Article
Although clinical studies with carbon ions have been conducted successfully in Japan and Europe, the limited radiobiological information about charged particles that are heavier than protons remains a significant impediment to exploiting the full potential of particle therapy. There is growing interest in the U.S. to build a cancer treatment facili...
Article
Increased cancer risk remains a primary concern for travel into deep space and may preclude manned missions to Mars due to large uncertainties that currently exist in estimating cancer risk from the spectrum of radiations found in space with the very limited available human epidemiological radiation-induced cancer data. Existing data on human risk...
Article
Full-text available
Previous National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) publications have addressed the issues of risk and dose limitation in radiation protection and included guidance on specific organs and the lens of the eye. NCRP decided to prepare an updated commentary intended to enhance the previous recommendations provided in earlier repo...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (N...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer is an important long-term risk for astronauts exposed to protons and high-energy charged particles during travel and residence on asteroids, the moon, and other planets. NASA's Biomedical Critical Path Roadmap defines the carcinogenic risks of radiation exposure as one of four type I risks. A type I risk represents a demonstrated, serious pr...
Article
Full-text available
The interplay between host genetics, tumor microenvironment and environmental exposure in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. Here we assessed the genetic control of stromal mediation of mammary tumor susceptibility to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) using backcrossed F1 into BALB/c (F1Bx) between cancer susceptible (BALB/c) and res...
Article
Charged particle therapy is generally regarded as cutting-edge technology in oncology. Many proton therapy centres are active in the USA, Europe, and Asia, but only a few centres use heavy ions, even though these ions are much more eff ective than x-rays owing to the special radiobiological properties of densely ionising radiation. The National Ins...
Article
Full-text available
The concept that a breast cancer patient's menstrual stage at the time of tumor surgery influences risk of metastases remains controversial. The scarcity of comprehensive molecular studies of menstrual stage-dependent fluctuations in the breast provides little insight in this observation. To gain a deeper understanding of the biological changes in...
Article
The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiat...
Article
Physical measurements of absorbed particle radiation doses are currently inadequate to estimate biological outcome at the stopping ranges of particle beams from protons to heavier ions. Estimates of biological significance and clinical impact are essential additional elements to implement ion beam therapy (IBT). This chapter provides a brief review...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has suggested that Zn(2+) plays a critical role in regulating acidity within the secretory compartments of isolated gastric glands. Here, we investigate the content, distribution and demand for Zn(2+) in gastric mucosa under baseline conditions and its regulation during secretory stimulation. Content and distribution of zinc were evalua...
Article
In this study, we investigated γH2AX{sup ser139} and 53BP1{sup ser25}, DNA damage pathway markers, to observe responses to radiation insult. Two Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) lines were utilized to research the role of immortalization in DNA damage marker expression, HMEC HMT-3522 (S1) with an infinite lifespan, and a subtype of HMEC 184 (1...
Article
The threat of a dirty bomb or other major radiological contamination presents a danger of large-scale radiation exposure of the population. Because major components of such contamination are likely to be actinides, actinide decorporation treatments that will reduce radiation exposure must be a priority. Current therapies for the treatment of radion...
Article
Full-text available
HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. We me...
Article
Charged particles have moved from the physics laboratory to the clinic because of their advantageous dose profile and biologic effects. This brief review will summarize the basic phenomenological laboratory data that led to the successful clinical use of these modalities in selected tumor sites, and the emerging new genomic and proteomic research t...
Article
Full-text available
As aggressive, 3D‐conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged‐particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear‐energy‐transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to...
Article
Full-text available
We report that the pathologic components present within the atheromatous plaques of ApoE knockout mice can reflect significant amounts of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light. Furthermore, the reflected light spectra contained the unique signatures of a variety of biologic features including those found in unstable or "vulnerable" plaque. This discovery may...
Article
The future of manned space flight depends on an analysis of the numerous potential risks of travel into deep space. Currently no radiation dose limits have been established for these exploratory missions. To set these standards more information is needed about potential acute and late effects on human physiology from appropriate radiation exposure...
Article
Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a...
Article
Relatively low doses of space radiation have been correlated with an increased incidence and earlier appearance of cataracts in space travelers. The lens is a radiosensitive organ of the body with a very obvious late end point of radiation damage--cataract. However, many molecular changes occur in the lens soon after radiation exposure and long bef...
Article
Analysis of the numerous potential risks of travel into deep space is critical to future manned missions. Despite the availability of significant new information on heavy-ion radiobiology at high doses and high dose-rates, radiation effects on human physiology during space travel, and later in the career of the space traveler, remain high on the li...
Article
The low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor has been shown to be upregulated in GBM tumor cells and is therefore a potential molecular target for the delivery of therapeutic agents. A synthetic nano-LDL (nLDL) particle was developed and tested to determine its utility as a drug delivery vehicle targeted to GBM tumors. nLDL particles were constructed...
Article
The explosive development of microarray screening methods has propelled genome research in a variety of biological systems allowing investigators to examine large-scale alterations in gene expression for research in toxicology pathology and therapy The radiation environment in space is complex and encompasses a variety of highly energetic and charg...
Article
This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM...
Article
We have investigated molecular changes in cultured differentiating human lens epithelial cells exposed to high-energy accelerated iron-ion beams as well as to protons and X rays. In this paper, we present results on the effects of radiation on gene families that include or are related to DNA damage, cell cycle regulators, cell adhesion molecules, a...
Article
Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available...
Article
Full-text available
The calculations presented compared the performances of two Monte Carlo codes used for the estimation of microdosimetric quantities: Positive Ion Track Structure code (PITS) and a main user code based on the PENetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons code (PENELOPE-2000). Event-by-event track structure codes like PITS are believed to be...
Article
To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop, among other things, methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. Success with this challenge will be important to our understanding of how the brain works, as well as to the development of novel kinds of computer architecture that may parallel the org...
Article
To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop, among other things, methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. Success with this challenge will be important to our understanding of how the brain works, as well as to the development of novel kinds of computer architecture that may parallel the org...
Article
Full-text available
Microbeams of hydrogen and helium ions have become important tools for radiobiology. State-of-the-art systems can deliver defined numbers of ions onto cell targets with sub-micrometer resolution. Overcoming the limited LET range available at light-ion (proton and helium ion) microbeam facilities has been recognized as an important technical advance...
Article
Full-text available
Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging analytical tool capable of monitoring the biochemistry within an individual living mammalian cell in real time. This unique technique provides infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal to noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3-1...
Article
words Text: 4,132 words 2 tables 5 figures 39 references To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed: Mail Stop 70A-3317, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-0001. (510) 486-5943, HYHolman@lbl.gov Abstract Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy i...