Elaine Carolyn Rush

Elaine Carolyn Rush
Auckland University of Technology | AUT · Centre for Child Health Research

MNZM, MSc(First class honours), PhD

About

257
Publications
66,964
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15,224
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Additional affiliations
January 2010 - December 2011
January 2009 - present
January 2001 - December 2012
Auckland University of Technology

Publications

Publications (257)
Article
Full-text available
Bread is a commonly consumed staple and could be a viable medium to deliver plant-based ingredients that demonstrate health effects. This review brings together published evidence on the bioactive properties of bread formulated with plant-based ingredients. Health effects associated with the consumption of bread formulated with plant-based function...
Article
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Cocoa is a major dietary source of polyphenols, including flavanols, which have been associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). While earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown significant effects of cocoa consumption on systolic BP, limitations include small sample sizes and study heterogeneity. Questions regarding food matrix and d...
Article
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Tamarillo extract is a good source of phenolic and anthocyanin compounds which are well-known for beneficial antioxidant activity, but their bioactivity maybe lost during digestion. In this study, promising prospects of tamarillo polyphenols encapsulated in cubosome nanoparticles prepared via a top-down method were explored. The prepared nanocarrie...
Article
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Laird’s Large tamarillo powder is high in protein (10%) essential amino acids (EAAs), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and polyphenols (0.6% phenolics plus anthocyanins) and fibre 25%. This study aimed to investigate, using a standardized static in vitro digestion model, the stability of amino acids and antioxidant capacity of polyphenols in yoghurt...
Article
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The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is a birth cohort study designed to increase knowledge about the growth and development of Pacific children living in Auckland, New Zealand. Adolescence is a critical time of growth and development, yet the roles of physical function and body composition in metabolic health at this life stage are not clear....
Article
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Bright-red Laird’s Large tamarillo is a unique and under-utilised fruit that is a dietary source of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, and dietary fibre. The effects of the addition of freeze-dried tamarillo powder (5–15%) to milk and yoghurt starter either before (PRE) or after (POS) fermentation on physicochemical properties were examined. Using LC-M...
Article
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Bread, a frequently consumed food, is an ideal vehicle for addition of ingredients that increase nutrient density and add health benefits. This experimental cross-over study sought to test the effect of a vegetable-enriched bread (VB) in comparison to commercial white bread (WB) and wheatmeal bread (WMB) on serum glucose, insulin response and subje...
Article
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For community-living older people, the ability to estimate total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) with validated predictive equations based on anthropometry is limited. To our knowledge no studies exist for non-Caucasian populations To design and validate an anthropometry-based equation to estimate TDEE using doubly-labelled water (DLW) as the crite...
Article
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New Zealand (NZ), a food-producing, geographically isolated nation has set a domestic dietary guideline of 5 servings a day/person of vegetables. The question “does New Zealand produce enough servings and diversity of vegetables to meet dietary recommendations of 5 diverse servings/day?” was explored. Publicly available data for weight of vegetable...
Article
Aim: COVID-19 has exacerbated food insecurity, unemployment, inequities and poverty in Aotearoa. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to malnutrition due to household food insecurity during foetal life and early infancy is associated with body composition in adolescence. Methods: As part of the Pacific Islands Families Study, 1,376 Pacif...
Article
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Tamarillo is a nutrient-dense fruit with a unique aroma from its volatile compounds (VCs). In this study, we aimed to compare the volatile profiles: (i) of fresh and freeze-dried tamarillo; (ii) detected using Thermal Desorption–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) and Solid-Phase MicroExtraction–Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPM...
Article
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Characteristics of food that influence liking and ease-of-chewing and swallowing are not well-understood. Reformulation of bread to improve nutrient density may improve liking, ease-of-chewing and swallowing which could improve dietary intake particularly with aging. The study aimed to compare objectively and subjectively four breads of increasing...
Article
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Background: Healthy eating is crucial for optimal development during all stages of life and most particularly during pregnancy. According to Stats NZ, Pasefika people make up 8.1% of the total Aotearoa New Zealand population. Information from the Ministry of Health suggests that Pasefika people have the highest level of food insecurity and the high...
Article
We examined the association between availability (count), proxy physical activity intensity opportunities from physical activity outlets and obesity prevalence in New Zealand. This cross-sectional study collected data from two urban and 51 rural geographical locations in Waikato and Lakes District (May 2004-March 2006). Physical activity outlets we...
Article
Hidden hunger is widespread in India. Individual dietary diversity score (IDDS) is a measure of the nutrient adequacy of the diet. The FAO has set guidelines for the measurement of dietary diversity: the IDDS and the minimum dietary diversity score for women (MDD-W) to assess nutritional deficiency, but validation against nutritional biomarkers is...
Article
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The industrial and small-scale processing of plant-based food materials is associated with by-products that may have a negative impact on the environment but could add value to bread-based products. The bioactivity of plant-based food by-products, their impact on the properties of functional bread, and their bioavailability/bioaccessibility leading...
Article
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Background: Since 2004, Sport Waikato has delivered Project Energize, a through-school nutrition and physical activity program to primary schools in the Waikato. As part of the program's continued assessment and quality control, the programme was evaluated in 2011 and 2015. This paper's aim was to compare the cardiorespiratory fitness (time to run...
Article
Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is a sub-tropical fruit with unique flavour and colour, known to be highly nutritious. Tamarillo has nutritional adequacy score of 7.4 (red type) to 7.9 (gold type) and it is a rich source of vitamins A, B6, C, dietary fibre and potassium. Phenolics, carotenoids and anthocyanins are considered as the main bioactive...
Chapter
Retailers today are in a pivotal position to help reduce rising obesity rates. As the choice architects, retail managers and retail designers can shape the retail food space to better assist the shopper. Until recently, there has been little evidence to suggest how retailers could use ambient scents to influence the purchase and selection of health...
Article
Measurement of body composition is increasingly important in research and clinical settings but is difficult in very young children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) are well-established, but require specialist equipment so are not always feasible. Our aim was to determine if anthropometry and skinf...
Article
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It has not been reported that previously how much food New Zealand (NZ), population 4.9 million (M), exports and imports in terms of how many people this food would feed if the food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) were followed. In New Zealand, 40% of adults and 20% of children live in a household with severe to moderate food insecurity. Official d...
Article
Introduction: The relationships among food access, foods consumed, and nutritional status and health in developing countries are not well understood. Between 2013 and 2018, differences in the rural food environment and access to food, nutritional status, and body size in the rural villages where the Pune Maternal Nutrition birth cohort was recruit...
Article
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted, church-based lifestyle intervention among Australian Samoans living in Sydney. Methods: This was a prospective, pre-post study of a church-wide education and support programme delivered by Community Coach Facilitators and Peer Support Facilitators to prevent, and promote self-managemen...
Article
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Carotenoids, orange-coloured pigments found in vegetables, fruit, eggs and dairy foods, act as antioxidants and vitamin A precursors in the human body. Skin carotenoid concentration is a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake. The aim was to identify determinants of skin carotenoid concentration by measuring “Veggie Meter™” carotenoid reflection s...
Conference Paper
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All food based dietary guidelines recommend a diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits. More than half New Zealand adults and children report consumption of less than the recommended 3 vegetables and 2 fruits each day. The concentration of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A found in vegetables, fruit, eggs, dairy and liver have a characteristic...
Conference Paper
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As well as obtaining nourishment from bread, consumer acceptability is dependent on the appearance, texture, aroma, taste and swallowablity. A nutrient-dense vegetable-enriched bread (VB) was produced and in a series of 3 experimental studies physical properties, sensory attributes, ease of swallowing, glycaemic response, satiety, lipid profile and...
Article
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In New Zealand, the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in Pacific youth. [...]
Article
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A sustainable food supply is an ever-growing public and planetary health concern influenced by food culture, food practices, and dietary patterns. Globally, the consumption of plant foods that offer physiological and biochemical benefits is increasing. In recent years, products made from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tubers and leaves, e.g., in...
Article
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The research aim was to investigate associations between objectively-assessed built environment attributes and metabolic risk in adolescents of Pacific Islands ethnicity, and to consider the possible mediating effect of physical activity and sedentary time. Youth (n = 204) undertook a suite of physical assessments including body composition, blood...
Article
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Background: The variety, quality and quantity of foods consumed and eating patterns influencethe development of non-communicable diseases [...]
Article
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Background: Worldwide there is an increase in the consumption of snack foods and this is a keybusiness driver for the food industry [...]
Article
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Background: For children, body mass index, adjusted for age and gender is the globally acceptedmeasure of relative growth and risk of over and under-nutrition [...]
Article
Background: Pregnancy interventions that improve maternal and infant outcomes are urgently needed in populations with high rates of obesity. We undertook the Healthy Mums and Babies (HUMBA) randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of dietary interventions and or probiotics in a multiethnic population of pregnant women with obesity, living...
Article
We aimed to assess the impact of Project Spraoi: a school-based physical activity (PA) and nutrition intervention that reached 473 primary school children and 43 school staff in Cork (Ireland). Four primary schools (2 intervention, 2 control) with similar characteristics participated and for 2 school years, intervention schools were assigned an ‘En...
Conference Paper
Snacking impacts on the overall quality of dietary patterns, nutrition and health outcomes. Highly processed snack foods are normally unhealthy due to higher saturated fat content, refined grains (carbohydrates), and artificial ingredients. Snack product (re)formulation using plant-based wholesome ingredients has potential in the improvement of hea...
Article
Background The relationships between the trajectories of weight gain from early childhood to adolescence and risk for metabolic disease are not well understood. Objective The objective of the study is to examine the relationships between weight gain from 2 to 14 years and metabolic risk factors at age 14 years in Pacific Island children. Methods...
Article
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We know that eating a variety of vegetables every day is associated with favorable health across the lifecourse. Internationally, food-based dietary guidelines encourage the consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit but globally,people are not eating enough vegetables to meet the three-or-more-a-day guideline. Vegetables are good sources of...
Article
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A significant reduction in rice starch digestibility and subsequent postprandial blood glucose responses following extended cold treatment (at 4 °C for 24 h) have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. The impact of cold treatment was more significant for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties. This study aim...
Conference Paper
Background: Worldwide there is an increase in the consumption of snack foods and this is a key business driver for the food industry. Snacking impacts on the overall quality of dietary patterns, nutrition and health. In particular, unhealthy snacking is implicated in increasing body weight status and obesity. Consumers’ snacking habits have shifted...
Article
Early-life intervention to reduce obesity and poor dental health through early-life nutrition will improve health outcomes in later life. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity and visual dental decay in 4-year old children in New Zealand between 2013 and 2017, and the impact of a nutrition and physical activity intervention p...
Article
Aging reduces the absorption of nutrients. Literature related to functional bread processing techniques including sprouting of grains and the application of encapsulation technology and the bioavailability of bioactives was reviewed. Functional ingredients including sprouted/germinated grain particularly brown rice and wheat flours enhance the bioa...
Article
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Background; The purpose of this paper is to examine any association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and markers of health among 6 and 10 year old Irish children. Methods; A total of 917 children (6 year olds, N=459; 10 year olds, N=458) from 11 primary schools in Cork (Ireland) participated. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), CRF (550-m...
Article
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Objective To compare body composition and metabolic outcomes at 7–9 years in offspring of women with gestational diabetes (GDM) randomized to metformin (±insulin) or insulin treatment during pregnancy. Research design and methods Children were assessed at 7 years in Adelaide (n=109/181) and 9 years in Auckland (n=99/396) by anthropometry, bioimped...
Article
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Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to serious health problems, whilst sub-optimal status is associated with raised biochemical markers of disease risk. Identifying at-risk groups could benefit both individuals and public health. Dietary data were sourced from the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/2009, involving a nationally representative sample o...
Chapter
Additional resources to support the content in Best Practice Protocols for Physique Assessment in Sport are available at the J.E. Lindsay Carter Kinanthropometry Clinic and Archive (JELCKCA) website jelckca-bodycomp.com, which links you to the YouTube channel http://tinyurl.com/YouTubeChannel-ProfPatria. YouTube videos include introduction of exper...
Chapter
In athletes the doubly labelled water technique is a non-invasive way of measuring the rate of carbon dioxide production over a period of 7-14 days. It allows the determination of total body water and total energy expenditure. The technique requires an athlete to consume a stable isotope water known as doubly labelled water and then provide urine s...
Article
Background and objectives: Examine availability and price of healthier foods-vs-regular counterparts and their association with obesity. Methods and study design: A cross-sectional survey of weight and height among Māori in 2 urban and 96 rural areas in the Waikato/Lakes Districts-NZ (year 2004-06) was undertaken. Concurrently, availability of 1...
Conference Paper
In New Zealand, bread remains the most consumed staple food. Demand for more nutrient-dense breads such as wholegrain is increasing, however supermarkets sell large volumes of nutrient-poor $1 loaves of white and wheatmeal breads. There is an opportunity in the bread market for healthier but low-priced breads that have health benefits. Breads with...
Conference Paper
Snacking is a habitual eating behaviour, and may be associated with poor nutrition because generally snack foods are energy and refined carbohydrate dense and nutrient poor. The incidence and impact of poor nutrition can be reduced by dietary behaviour modification and a systems approach of changes in the food supply.
Article
Full-text available
Aim: In Aotearoa/New Zealand, the proportion of Māori who participate in the national Green Prescription lifestyle programme is lower than for New Zealand Europeans. We compared the uptake and effectiveness of two modes of Green Prescription delivery: face-to-face and telephone among both Māori and New Zealand Europeans. Method: Sixty-eight Māor...
Preprint
Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that storage of cooked rice at 4 °C for 24 h and reheating to 65 °C significantly reduced starch digestibility and postprandial glycaemic responses. Moreover, the effect was greater for parboiled rice compared to other rice varieties commonly consumed in New Zealand. This study aim...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, yet 80% of strokes can be prevented through modifications of risk factors and lifestyle and by medication. While management strategies for primary stroke prevention in high cardiovascular disease risk individuals are well established, they are underutilized and existing practice o...
Article
Background: Depression and anxiety are the two most frequently studied emotional outcomes of stroke. However, few previous studies have been carried out at a population level or beyond 6 months post stroke. The aim of this study was to describe depression and anxiety across the first year following incident ischemic stroke (IS), and identify predic...
Article
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The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influ...
Article
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Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot- and cold-stored parboiled rice to widely available medium-grain white rice.Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three-treatment experiment...
Article
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To reduce weight gain and encourage healthy eating including reduced sugar intake, Under 5 Energize (U5E) was introduced to 121 early-childhood-centres in the Waikato region of New Zealand in July 2013. Using anonymized data collected from January 2013 to September 2016 through free physical assessments of all 4-year-olds provided by the NZ Ministr...
Preprint
Background: Globally, hot cooked refined rice is consumed in large quantities and is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load. This study aimed to compare the glycaemic potency of hot and cold stored parboiled rice to widely available medium grain white rice. Method: Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a three treatment experiment...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the differences in participant retention and associations between physical activity and key variables when a range of accelerometer data inclusion criteria are employed. Data were drawn from 204 adolescents of Pacific Island heritage (survey, body composition, 7-day accelerometry) and their parents (date of birth, socio-e...
Article
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Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the...