El-Sayed M Abdelwhab

El-Sayed M Abdelwhab
Friedrich Loeffler Institute | FLI

BSc, MVs, DVM, Dipl.ECPVS
"V" for Virus, Virulence, Vaccine

About

164
Publications
45,995
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Introduction
Our research aims to understand the genetic basis for adaptation and virulence of avian influenza virus, interspecies transmission, virus-host interaction and development and evaluation of vaccines.
Additional affiliations
September 2016 - present
Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Position
  • Head of Department
April 2014 - present
Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Position
  • Project Manager
Description
  • Virulence Determinants, Adaptation and Within-Host Infection Dynamics of Low and High Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Poultry
April 2012 - March 2014
Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (164)
Article
Full-text available
The unprecedented spread of H5N8- and H9N2-subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) in birds across Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America poses a serious public health threat with a permanent risk of reassortment and the possible emergence of novel virus variants with high virulence in mammals. To gain information on this risk, we studied the potentia...
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 caused outbreaks in poultry at an unprecedented global scale. The virus was spread by wild birds in Asia in two waves: clade-2.3.4.4A in 2014/2015 and clade-2.3.4.4B since 2016 up to today. Both clades were highly virulent in chickens, but only clade-B viruses exhibited high virulence in...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 pose a public health threat but the viral factors relevant for its potential adaptation to mammals are largely unknown. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza viruses is an essential interferon antagonist. It commonly consists of 230 amino acids, but variations in the disordered C-terminus r...
Article
Waterfowl is the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV), where the infection is mostly asymptomatic. In 2016, the panzootic high pathogenicity (HP) AIV H5N8 of clade 2.3.4.4B (designated H5N8-B) caused significant mortality in wild and domestic ducks, in stark contrast to the predecessor 2.3.4.4A virus from 2014 (designated H5N8-A). He...
Article
Infection with HPAIV in chickens and turkeys, two closely related galliform species, results in severe disease and death. Although the presence of a polybasic cleavage site (pCS) in the hemagglutinin of AIV is a major virulence determinant for the transition of LPAIV to HPAIV, there are knowledge gaps on the genetic determinants (including pCS) and...
Article
Full-text available
The global spread of avian influenza virus (AIV) of clade 2.3.4.4b since 2016 has caused severe losses in wild birds and poultry and has posed a risk for the infection of mammals including humans. The vaccination of poultry has been used to limit the spread of the virus and mitigate its socioeconomic impact. Here, we describe H5N8 epidemics in chic...
Article
Full-text available
To date, only low pathogenic (LP) H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses (AIV) have been observed to naturally shift to a highly pathogenic (HP) phenotype after mutation of the monobasic hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site (HACS) to polybasic motifs. The LPAIV monobasic HACS is activated by tissue-restricted trypsin-like enzymes, while the HPAIV polybasic...
Article
Full-text available
Cleavage of the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) by host proteases is indispensable for virus replication. Most IAVs possess a monobasic HA cleavage site cleaved by trypsin-like proteases. Previously, the transmembrane protease TMPRSS2 was shown to be essential for proteolytic activation of IAV HA subtypes H1, H2, H7 and H10 in mice. In c...
Article
Full-text available
The main findings of the post-mortem examination of poultry infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) include necrotizing inflammation and viral antigen in multiple organs. The lesion profile displays marked variability, depending on viral subtype, strain, and host species. Therefore, in this study, a semiquantitative scoring...
Article
Full-text available
The visualization of viral pathogens in infected tissues is an invaluable tool to understand spatial virus distribution, localization, and cell tropism in vivo. Commonly, virus-infected tissues are analyzed using conventional immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded thin sections. Here, we demonstrate the utility of volumetric three-dimensional (3...
Preprint
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 caused outbreaks in poultry at an unprecedented global scale. The virus was spread by wild birds in Asia in two waves: clade-2.3.4.4A in 2014/2015 and clade-2.3.4.4B since 2016 up to today. Both clades were highly virulent in chickens, but only clade-B viruses exhibited high virulence in...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, spread among humans, and to date, more than 100 million of laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported worldwide. The virus demonstrates 96% similarity to a coronavirus from a horseshoe bat and most probably emerged from a spill over from bats or wild animal(s) to humans. Currently, two variants are circulating...
Article
Full-text available
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) is the most widespread low pathogenic (LP) AIV in poultry and poses a serious zoonotic risk. Vaccination is used extensively to mitigate the economic impact of the virus. However, mutations were acquired after long-term circulation of H9N2 virus in poultry, particularly in the hemagglutinin (HA) proteolytic cleavage...
Article
Full-text available
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) is the most widespread low pathogenic (LP) AIV in poultry and poses a serious zoonotic risk. Vaccination is used extensively to mitigate the economic impact of the virus. However, mutations were acquired after long-term circulation of H9N2 virus in poultry, particularly in the hemagglutinin (HA) proteolytic cleavage...
Preprint
Full-text available
The visualization of viral pathogens in infected tissues is an invaluable tool to understand spatial virus distribution, localization, and cell tropism in vivo . Commonly, virus-infected tissues are analyzed using conventional immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded thin sections. Here, we demonstrate the utility of volumetric three-dimensional (...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2003, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have not only caused outbreaks in poultry but were also transmitted to humans with high mortality rates. Vaccination is an efficient and economical means of increasing immunity against infections to decrease the shedding of infectious agents in immunized animals and to reduce the pr...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 is the first known pandemic caused by a coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which is the third virus in the family Coronaviridae to cause fatal infections in humans after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Animals are involved in the COVID-19 pandemic. This review summarizes the role of animals as reservoirs, natural hosts and experimental models. SARS-CoV-2 ori...
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are naturally restricted to H5 and H7 subtypes with a polybasic cleavage site (CS) in hemagglutinin (HA) and any AIV with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) ≥ 1.2. Although only a few non-H5/H7 viruses fulfill the criteria of HPAIV; it remains unclear why these viruses did not spread in d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are naturally restricted to H5 and H7 subtypes with a polybasic cleavage site (CS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) and any AIV with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) ≥1.2. Only few non-H5/H7 viruses fulfill the criteria of HPAIVs; nevertheless, it remains unknown why these viruses did not spre...
Chapter
The viruses under the family Orthomyxoviridae are responsible for a variety of important respiratory diseases in humans and different animal species. The seven genera under the family are the influenza viruses A, B, C and D, Quaranjavirus, Thogotovirus and Isavirus. Viruses are highly evolving, and the genetic reassortment among viruses is seen onl...
Chapter
The viruses under the family Orthomyxoviridae are responsible for a variety of important respiratory diseases in humans and different animal species. The seven genera under the family are the influenza viruses A, B, C and D, Quaranjavirus, Thogotovirus and Isavirus. Viruses are highly evolving, and the genetic reassortment among viruses is seen onl...
Article
Full-text available
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (HA; H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (NA; N1-N9) subtypes. All AIV are low pathogenic (LP) in birds, but subtypes H5 and H7 AIV can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) forms. In the last two decades evolution of HPAIV H7 from LPAIV has been frequently reported. However, little is known a...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is paucity of data on the virulence of highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) H7 in ducks compared to HPAIV H5. Here, the virulence of HPAIV H7N1 (designated H7N1-FPV34 and H7N1-It99) and H7N7 (designated H7N7-FPV27) was assessed in Pekin and/or Muscovy ducklings after intrachoanal (IC) or intramuscular (IM) infection...
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in poultry caused devastating mortality and economic losses. HPAIV of subtypes H5 and H7 emerge from precursor viruses of low pathogenicity (LP) by spontaneous mutation associated with a shift in the susceptibility of the endoproteolytic cleavage site of the viral hemagglutinin protein from...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with differe...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with differe...
Article
Full-text available
Zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have raised serious public health concerns of a novel pandemic. Their prime virulence determinant is the polybasic hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site. However, required coadaptations in the HA (and other genes) remained uncertain. Here, we identified the dual motif 123R/124I in the HA head th...
Article
Full-text available
After high mortality rates among commercial poultry were reported in Egypt in 2017, we genetically characterized 4 distinct influenza A(H5N8) viruses isolated from poultry. Full-genome analysis indicated separate introductions of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 reassortants from Europe and Asia into Egypt, which poses a serious threat for poultry and humans.
Data
Additional information about influenza A(H5N8) viruses isolated from domestic poultry in Egypt, 2017.
Data
Laboratories that submitted sequences to the GISAID database.
Article
Full-text available
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) of clade 2.2.1 is endemic in poultry in Egypt where the highest number of human infections worldwide was reported. During the last 12 years the Egyptian A/H5N1 evolved into several genotypes. In 2007-2014 vaccinated poultry suffered from antigenic drift variants of clade 2.2.1.1 and in 2014/2015...
Article
Full-text available
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed u...
Article
Full-text available
H9N2 is the most widespread avian influenza virus subtype in poultry worldwide. It infects a broad spectrum of host species including birds and mammals. Infections in poultry and humans vary from silent to fatal. Importantly, all AIV, which are fatal in humans (e.g. H5N1, H7N9) acquired their ‘internal’ gene segments from H9N2 viruses. Although H9N...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Egypt is the country with the highest number of human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus of clade 2.2.1 and the virus still circulate in domestic poultry despite of vaccination. HPAI H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1.1 were isolated from vaccinated farmed poultry whereas viruses in clade 2.2.1.2 were isolated from poultry...
Article
Full-text available
Egypt has a unique geographical location connecting the three old-world continents Africa, Asia and Europe. It is the country with the highest population density in the Middle East, Northern Africa and the Mediterranean basin. This review summarizes the prevalence, reservoirs, sources of human infection and control regimes of common bacterial, para...
Article
Long-term circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 in Egyptian poultry since February 2006 resulted in the evolution of two distinct clades: 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic-drift variants isolated from vaccinated poultry and 2.2.1.2 that caused the newest upsurge in birds and humans in 2014/2015. In the present stud...
Article
Full-text available
In Egypt, zoonotic A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (gs/GD-like) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1.2 is entrenched in poultry populations and has co-circulated with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus H9N2 of the G1 lineage since 2010. Here, the impact of H9N2 infection or vaccination on the course of consecutive infection...
Article
Full-text available
A totalof 256fecalspecimenswererandomlycollectedfromfarmedpoultryin GermanyandscreenedforthepresenceofCryptosporidiumspp.byPCRandfurthercharacterizedbydirectautomatedDNAsequencing.Usinga nestedPCRamplifyingapproximately830bp18SrDNAfragment,7.03%(n = 18)of thesampleswereCryptosporidium-positive.In detail,Cryptosporidiumwasdetectedin 9.3%(8/86)of tur...
Data
Raw data for all poultry farms included in the study. (XLSX)
Conference Paper
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have a multipartite single-stranded RNA genome with eight gene segments coding for at least 10 viral proteins. According to the variation in the antigenicity of the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), there are 16 and 9 HA and NA distinct subtypes, respectively. Some H5 and H7 viruses exhi...
Conference Paper
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) contain one of 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and one of 9 neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes which are used for classification. Whereas the majority of AIVs exhibit low pathogenicity in infected birds, H5 or H7 subtypes can naturally transform into highly pathogenic (HP) AIV by single mutations, recombination and/or reassortmen...
Article
Full-text available
Background Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades. Clade 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic drift variants in vaccinated commercial poultry while clade 2.2.1.2 variants are detected in h...