Eiliv Lund

Eiliv Lund
UiT The Arctic University of Norway · Department of Community Medicine

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779
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Publications

Publications (779)
Article
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Smoking-related epigenetic changes have been linked to lung cancer, but the contribution of epigenetic alterations unrelated to smoking remains unclear. We sought for a sparse set of CpG sites predicting lung cancer and explored the role of smoking in these associations. We analysed CpGs in relation to lung cancer in participants from two nested ca...
Article
Background Since March 2020, 440 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with COVID-19, but the true number of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is higher. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence can add crucial epidemiological information about population infection dynamics. Aim To provide a large population-based SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence survey from N...
Article
Full-text available
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a 5-year relative survival of 50%, partly because markers of early-stage disease are not available in current clinical diagnostics. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether EOC is associated with transcriptional profiles in blood collected up to 7 years before diagnosis. For this, we used RNA-stabi...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence on sunscreen use and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) risk is limited. Most studies did not take sun protection factor (SPF) into consideration, and used nonusers of sunscreen as the reference group. Nonusers are likely a priori at lower cSCC risk than users. No study has investigated the effect of high versus low SPF sunscreens on...
Article
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Background Second-hand smoke (SHS) is not an established risk factor for breast cancer. We examined exposure to SHS from parents during childhood and breast-cancer risk overall and by oestrogen- and progesterone-receptor status in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Furthermore, we utilized our nationally representative prospective cohort study t...
Article
Dear Editor, the association between menopausal hormone therapy (HT) and risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) has received renewed attention. A number of recent studies indicate increased CM risk in HT users, especially among estrogen therapy (ET) users1,2. However, the issue remains controversial. The recent study by Olsen et al., reported no associati...
Article
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Recent studies have indicated that there are functional genomic signals that can be detected in blood years before cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to assess gene expression in prospective blood samples from the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort focusing on time to lung cancer diagnosis and metastatic cancer using a nested case–control design. We...
Preprint
Since early 2020, over 123 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease (Covid-19), but the true number of infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is undoubtedly higher. The seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide crucial epidemiological information about the extent o...
Article
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Objective This explorative study aimed to assess if there are any time-dependent blood gene expression changes during the first one to eight years after breast cancer diagnosis, which can be linked to the clinical outcome of the disease. Material and methods A random distribution of follow-up time from breast cancer diagnosis till blood sampling w...
Article
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Objective: In this exploratory work we investigate whether blood gene expression measurements predict breast cancer metastasis. Early detection of increased metastatic risk could potentially be life-saving. Our data comes from the Norwegian Women and Cancer epidemiological cohort study. The women who contributed to these data provided a blood samp...
Article
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Background: We examined the association between active and passive smoking and lung cancer risk and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of lung cancer due to active smoking, in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study. Methods: We followed 142,508 women, aged 31-70 years, who completed a b...
Article
Background: Age-related epigenetic dysregulations were associated with several diseases, including cancer. The number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) has been suggested as biomarker of life-course accumulation of exposure-related DNA damage; however, the predictive role of SEMs in cancer has seldom been investigated. Methods: A SEM, at...
Article
Background: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialised nations. Animal and epidemiological human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence UC risk. Methods: We used an analytic cohort of 333 919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort (EPIC). As...
Article
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Background Concerns have been raised that extensive use of personal care products that contain endocrine disrupting compounds increase the risk of hormone sensitive cancers. Objective To assess the effect of skincare product use on the risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer, estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) breast cancer...
Article
Importance No study, to our knowledge, has prospectively investigated a dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Objective To investigate the dose-response association between lifetime indoor tanning and SCC risk, the association between duration of use and age at initiation wit...
Article
黑色素瘤是最严重的皮肤癌,2012年,在世界范围内其导致232,000例新发癌症病例及55,000例死亡。黑色素瘤最重要的风险因素是日光紫外线辐射、室内日光浴、皮肤白皙、有许多痣(色素痣)和雀斑、浅色头发及皮肤日晒反应。女性性激素(如雌激素和孕激素)也表明对黑色素瘤的出现有作用,这是因为黑色素瘤在女性中绝经期前较男性更常见,然而在绝经期后恰恰相反。研究激素与出现黑色素瘤的风险的相关性的一种方法是研究与女性生育史相关的因素,即所谓的生育因素,例如,初潮年龄(第一次月经来潮)、月经周期、绝经年龄及从初潮到绝经的时间、子女人数、首次和末次生育年龄及哺乳总时长。在挪威女性与癌症(NOWAC)研究中,作者研究了生育因素与黑色素瘤风险的总体、身体局部和黑色素瘤亚型方面的相关性。NOWAC成立于1991年...
Article
Melanoma is the most severe form of skin cancer and in 2012 it accounted for 232,000 new cancer cases and 55,000 deaths worldwide. The most important risk factors for melanoma are exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, indoor tanning, fair skin complexion, the presence of many nevi (moles) and freckles, light hair and skin reaction to sun....
Data
Supplemental Table 1 Rules applied to choose the minimally and maximally adjusted estimate to be included in the meta‐analysis Supplemental Table 2: Skin cancer related characteristics of participants in the studies included (n = 28) Supplemental Table 3: Description of the methodological quality of the studies included (n = 28) Supplemental Tab...
Data
Supplemental Figure 1 Forest plot comparing three levels of sunscreen use (no – medium – high) and melanoma risk, stratified by study design Supplemental Figure 2: Sources of heterogeneity: forest plot of summary estimates from stratified meta‐analyses Supplemental Figure 3: Funnel plot and Egger's regression to estimate publication bias Supplem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Standardizing and documenting computational analyses are necessary to ensure reproducible results. It is especially important for large and complex projects where data collection, analysis, and interpretation may span decades. Our objective is therefore to provide methods, tools, and best practice guidelines adapted for analyses in epide...
Article
Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exog...
Article
This abstract was withdrawn by the authors. Citation Format: Gram IT, Braaten T, Lund E, Licaj I. Withdrawn [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2018 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; 2018 Dec 4-8; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2019;79(4 Suppl):Abstract nr P4-10-19.
Article
Background The association between reproductive factors and risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) is unclear. We investigated this issue in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study. Objectives To examine the association between the reproductive factors age at menarche, menstrual cycle length, parity, age at first and last birth, menopausal st...
Article
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Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Physical activity (PA) has been associated with reduced risk of CRC; however, this has been demonstrated more consistently in men, while results of studies in women have been largely equivocal. We aimed to further examine the relationship between PA patte...
Article
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Background: Obesity is an established risk factor for several common chronic diseases such as breast and colorectal cancer, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases; however, the biological basis for these relationships is not fully understood. To explore the association of obesity with these conditions, we investigated peripheral blood leucocyte (PB...
Article
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The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data colle...
Article
Importance: Two pathways have been hypothesized for the development of cutaneous melanoma: one typically affects the head and neck, a site with chronic sun damage, and the other affects the trunk, which is less exposed to the sun. However, the possible cause of limb melanomas is less studied under this hypothesis. Objective: To investigate the ass...
Article
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Whether sunscreen use affects melanoma risk has been widely studied with contradictory results. To answer this question we performed a systematic review of all published studies, accounting for sources of heterogeneity and bias. We searched for original articles investigating the sunscreen-melanoma association in humans to February 28, 2018. We the...
Article
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Abstract The majority of lung cancer is caused by tobacco smoking, and lung cancer-relevant epigenetic markers have been identified in relation to smoking exposure. Still, smoking-related markers appear to mediate little of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. Thus in order to identify disease-relevant markers and enhance our understanding of path...
Article
Objective Cross-sectional data indicate that systemic inflammation is important in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether prediagnostic circulating markers of inflammation were associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and to what extent they mediated associations of obesity and cigarette smoking with cancer...
Article
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Background There is a large body of evidence demonstrating long-lasting protective effect of each full-term pregnancy (FTP) on the development of breast cancer (BC) later in life, a phenomenon that could be related to both hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancies. In this work, we studied the pregnancy-associated differences in periphe...
Article
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The theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease is an inversion of the current paradigm, which considers full-term pregnancies to be a protective factor and uses nulliparous women as the reference group. Instead, the theory of breast cancer as a child deficiency disease says that women with the highest parity (about 20, which is the limit...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate whether there is information in gene expression levels in blood that predicts breast cancer metastasis. Our data comes from the NOWAC epidemiological cohort study where blood samples were provided at enrollment. This could be anywhere from years to weeks before any cancer diagnosis. When and if a cancer is diagnosed, it could be so i...
Article
According to World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research, it is ‘probable’ that dairy products decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, meta-analyses restricted to women have not shown associations between milk intake and risk of CRC. The aim of this study was to examine the association between milk...
Article
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Potatoes have been a staple food in many countries throughout the years. Potatoes have a high glycaemic index (GI) score, and high GI has been associated with several chronic diseases and cancers. Still, the research on potatoes and health is scarce and contradictive, and we identified no prospective studies that had investigated the association be...
Article
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Introduction: Lifetime number of years of menstruation (LNYM) reflects a woman's cumulative exposure to endogenous estrogen and can be used as a measure of the combined effect of reproductive factors related to endometrial cancer (EC) risk. Material and methods: We aimed to study the association between LNYM and EC risk among postmenopausal wome...
Article
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Objective: Women with ovarian cancer have poor survival rates, which have proven difficult to improve; therefore primary prevention is important. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) prevents endometrial cancer, and recent studies suggested that it may also prevent ovarian cancer, but with a concurrent increased risk of breas...
Article
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Receptor-defined subtypes of breast cancer represent distinct cancer types and have differences in risk factors. Whether the two main hormonal forms of oral contraceptives (OCs); i.e. progestin-only (POC) and combined oral contraceptives (COC), are differentially associated with these subtypes are not well known. The aim of this study was to assess...
Article
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Background: The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) was implemented across the country in 2005 and has been criticised for potential 'overdiagnosis', i.e. a breast cancer diagnosis that otherwise would not have been detected or treated in a woman's lifetime. We aimed to estimate overdiagnosis in the NBCSP based on the Norwegian Women...
Article
This work was supported by the French Social Affairs & Health Ministry, Department of Health (Direction Générale de la Santé). The work undertaken by David C Muller for this project was performed during the tenure of an IARC-Australia fellowship supported by Cancer Council Australia. Elio Riboli was supported by the Imperial College Biomedical Rese...
Article
Full-text available
Although systemic immunity is critical to the process of tumor rejection, cancer research has largely focused on immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. To understand molecular changes in the patient systemic response (SR) to the presence of BC, we profiled RNA in blood and matched tumor from 173 patients. We designed a system (MIxT, Matched In...
Data
Enrichment of clinicopathological and tumor subtypes attributes across subtyping schemes. The table shows statistically significant associations between tumor attributes (columns) and subtypes (rows). For columns representing binary variables (ER, HER2, LN, as well as subtype/cohorts), the table shows the number of patients and the level of signifi...
Data
Top GO terms enriched in SR modules. Legend follows S2 Table. (XLSX)
Data
Gene expression and clinical data processing. (A) Preprocessing of the microarray data was performed identically in each of the five datasets: blood (bl) 1–4 and tumor (t. 1) datasets. Steps that trim samples and probes/genes are presented horizontally and vertically, respectively. In total, we investigated blood and tumor profiles from 173 BC pati...
Data
Associations between the darkgrey tumor module and distinct SR by subtypes. (A) Scatter plot of ranksums of the darkgrey tumor module and the lightyellow SR module in CIT lumA patients. The top corner depicts the background distributions of the correlations coefficients between ranksums of every modules pairs across tissues in CIT lumA patients. (B...
Data
Expression patterns of the green tumor module. (A) Expression heatmap of genes in the green tumor module. Legend follows S3 Fig. Color coding for ER, HER2, pam50, hybrid, cit, claudin-low and lymph follows Fig 1D. In general, a tick for a binary clinical variable refers to a positive value (eg. a red tick in ‘basalL’ refers to patients with basalL...
Data
SR modules associated with clinico-pathological variable. (A) One (saddlebrown) modules in the patient SR is associated with HER2+ BC. (B) Three modules in the patient SR are associated with lumC BC. (C) One module in the patient SR are associated to both lumC and large (>2cm) tumors. (D) Three modules in the patient SR are associated with large (>...
Data
Top 5 gene sets of each signature set enriched in SR modules. Legend follows S3 Table. (XLSX)
Data
Gene co-expression networks in each tissue. (A) Heatmap of the topological overlap between genes expressed in tumors. Each row and column represent a gene, light color indicates low topological overlap and progressively darker red indicates higher topological overlap. Module assignment is displayed along the left and the top of the heatmap. (B) Hea...
Data
Top GO terms enriched in tumor modules. Top 5 GO terms that overlap with each module. “Annotated” indicates the number of genes in the GO term, “Significant” indicates the number of overlapping genes. “Expected” indicates the number of genes that we would expect by chance to be overlapping with the GO term. “classicFisher” presents the p-value from...
Data
Top 5 enrichments among each of the following signature sets. i) c1, c2.cgp, c2.cp, c6, c7 and h gene set collections from MSigDB signatures (v5.1) [66]. ii) peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptional modules (sig.set = i) from [52]. iii) our blood-based gene expression signatures (341- and 50-gene; sig.set = d) for BC [33] iv) immune...
Data
Significant univariate gene markers of subtypes in SR (false discovery rate, fdr ≤ 0.2). Blue and red shade correspond to under- and over- expression of the marker in a given subtype vs the others, respectively. Shading is proportional to the level of significance of the gene marker. (TIF)
Data
Gene expression heatmap of the 70 blood markers of lumC tumors. Rows correspond to genes and columns correspond to samples. Gene expression are scaled by row. Patients are linearly ordered based on their ranksum of gene expression. Genes are ordered by their correlation to the observed patient ordering. Genes that are positively and negatively corr...
Data
Background distributions of the correlations coefficients between ranksums of gene expression in modules across tissues within each subtype. The dotted lines represent the lower and higher bounds that were used to call significant associations between modules across tissues. Curves are colored according to the families of subtypes as listed in Fig...
Conference Paper
The significant increase in the rate of data generation by the systems biology community creates a need for interactive exploration tools to explore the resultant datasets. Such tools need to combine advanced statistical analyses, prior knowledge from biological databases, and interactive visualizations with intuitive user interfaces. Each specific...
Article
Full-text available
Marit Holden,1 Lars Holden,1 Karina Standahl Olsen,2 Eiliv Lund2 1Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Background: Functional genomics in a processual analysis cover the time-dependent changes in transcriptomics and epigenetics before diagnosis of a disease,...
Article
Background: Today, the majority of middle-aged women in Norway are ever (i.e. either former or current) smokers, who started to smoke in their teens. Many of those who never have smoked themselves were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as children. The purpose of the study, was to examine the effect of ETS in childhood on breast cancer r...
Article
Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited num...
Article
Uterine and ovarian carcinoma have the same major histological subtypes, but whether they originate from the same cell types is a matter of ongoing debate. Uterine and ovarian endometrioid and clear cell carcinoma (ECC) and uterine and ovarian serous carcinoma (SC) may originate in the same location, or share a common lineage of differentiation. Ep...