Eileen Smith Anderson Bill

Eileen Smith Anderson Bill
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | VT · Department of Psychology

Ed.D.

About

54
Publications
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4,182
Citations

Publications

Publications (54)
Conference Paper
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among adults in the United States has increased dramatically since the 1990's and the trend continues. African Americans suffer disproportionately from type 2 diabetes and its complications. Program/purpose: Balanced Living with Diabetes (BLD) is a community-based type 2 diabetes education program developed and coo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: High prevalence rates of prehypertension require nonpharmaceutical lifestyle interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial efficacy of a primarily electronically delivered intervention for prehypertension. Methods: Twenty-three adults with prehypertension (M age of 54.3; systolic blood pressure [...
Article
Background: Dairy intake by college students is markedly lower than recommendations. Interventions to improve dairy intake based on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) have potential to successfully change behavior by improving mediators that influence dietary choices. Objective: We aimed to use SCT to improve social support, self-efficacy, outcome ex...
Conference Paper
Introduction: College students do not appear to be meeting the current physical activity recommendations, potentially contributing to unhealthy weight gain in college and establishing poor health habits that will carry into adulthood. The purpose of this study is to identify potential associations between the perceived university environment and st...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: Dining with Diabetes in Virginia (DwDVA) was piloted in 2006-2007 in eight counties with high prevalence of type 2 diabetes via collaboration between Virginia Cooperative Extension and Virginia's Diabetes Prevention and Control Project. METHODS: DwDVA, managed by local Extension agents, included four weekly 2-hour sessions and a 3-mon...
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Full-text available
Part one of this study investigated the effect of aging on social-cognitive characteristics related to physical activity (PA) among adults in the baseline phase of a health promotion intervention. Participants' questionnaire responses and activity logs indicated PA levels and self-efficacy declined with age, while social support and the use of self...
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The Internet is a trusted source of health information for growing majorities of Web users. The promise of online health interventions will be realized with the development of purely online theory-based programs for Web users that are evaluated for program effectiveness and the application of behavior change theory within the online environment. Li...
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Background Evaluation of online health interventions should investigate the function of theoretical mechanisms of behavior change in this new milieu. Objectives To expand our understanding of how Web-based interventions influence behavior, we examined how changes at 6 months in participants’ psychosocial characteristics contributed to improvements...
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Background: Theory-based, efficacious, long-term, completely Internet-based interventions are needed to induce favorable shifts in health behaviors and prevent weight gain. Purpose: To assess nutrition, physical activity, and, secondarily, body weight outcomes in the tailored, social cognitive theory Guide to Health (WB-GTH) program with all rec...
Article
Dairy consumption declines substantially during young adulthood. Interventions that incorporate theory-based nutrition education can provide insight into factors associated with dietary choices. The aim of this experimental study was to improve outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and behavior related to dairy intake in college stu...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the ongoing impact of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium training program on RNs' death anxiety, concerns about dying, and knowledge of the dying process utilizing the principles of the Comfort Theory and Practice by Kolcaba (New York: Springer Publishers; 2003) at the institutional level. The resea...
Article
In an evaluation of the theoretical foundations of behavior change, the current study examined whether social cognitive (SCT) variables mediated treatment effects on physical activity and nutrition in the recently reported Guide-to-Health trial (GTH). Adults (N = 661) were assessed at baseline, seven months and 16 months to examine whether treatmen...
Article
Dairy calcium may help prevent excess weight gain and obesity when consumed in adequate amounts (three or more servings per day) and combined with energy balance. This prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate dairy intake and examine the association between low-fat dairy intake and body weight and composition changes in college students....
Article
When physicians advise patients to attain more physical activity, they usually recommend a walking program. However, in a similar way to no exercise, those embarking on a walking program will typically lose 4 to 6 lb of lean weight and reduce their resting metabolic rate 2% to 3% every decade. These effects may be mitigated by the inclusion of resi...
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Young adults attending college are more vulnerable to weight gain than the general population. We sought to identify health behavior change targets related to weight management in college students. Based on the Social Cognitive Theory model for health behavior change, we investigated the health-related lifestyle behaviors and physiological characte...
Article
Current obesity interventions use intensive behavior changes to achieve large initial weight loss. However, weight regain after treatment is common, and drop out rates are relatively high. Smaller behavioral changes could produce initial weight loss and be easier to sustain after active treatment. We examined the efficacy of an intervention that ta...
Article
Understanding the need for and accessibility to healthier foods have not improved the overall diets of the U.S. population. Social cognitive theory (SCT) may explain how other variables, such as self-regulation and self-efficacy, may be key to integrating healthier nutrition into U.S. lifestyles. To determine how SCT accounts for the nutritional co...
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Background: Theory-based interventions accessible to large groups of people are needed to induce favorable shifts in health behaviors and body weight. Purpose: The aim was to assess nutrition; physical activity; and, secondarily, body weight in the tailored, social cognitive Guide to Health (GTH) Internet intervention delivered in churches. Met...
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A social-cognitive model of physical activity was tested, using structural equation analysis of data from 999 adults (21% African American; 66% female; 38% inactive) recruited from 14 southwestern Virginia churches participating in the baseline phase of a health promotion study. Within the model, age, race, social support, self-efficacy, and self-r...
Article
Background: The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behavior (1-4) specifies that treatment effects on behavior occur largely as the result of treatment effects on behavioral skills, which follow from effects on information and motivation. Purpose: The objective was to determine whether the variables specified...
Article
Youth are increasingly at risk for contracting HIV infection, and community-level interventions are needed to reduce behavioral risk. A randomized, controlled, multi-site community-level intervention trial was undertaken with adolescents living in 15 low-income housing developments in five US cities. Baseline (n = 1172), short-term follow-up (n = 8...
Article
A major focus of Healthy People 2010 is promoting weight management and physical activity because overweight, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle are strongly associated with risk for heart disease and stroke, diabetes, cancers, and premature death. Prevalence data and a focused review of weight management and physical activity studies point to the...
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Outcome expectancy is a central construct in social cognitive models of health behavior widely used as frameworks for physical activity research. This article provides a review of the outcome expectancy construct and its application to research on physical activity. Theoretical articles describing definitions and placement of outcome expectancy wit...
Article
To describe patterns and predictors of HIV risk behaviors among ethnically diverse, low-income adolescents. Computer-assisted surveys were administered to 1172 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years living in 15 low-income housing developments in three urban areas in the United States to characterize and identify predictors of HIV risk beh...
Article
The study delineated depressive symptoms and modeled emotional distress in persons living with HIV disease in nonmetropolitan areas of 13 U.S. states. Participants (N=329) were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered, coping improvement group intervention, and 60% reported moderate or severe levels of depressive symptomatol...
Article
The purpose of this article is to evaluate an 8-week pilot intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory to improve quality of life for women with breast cancer. A total of 32 breast cancer patients were randomized to either the intervention or standard care. Outcome variables included quality of life, mood, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and...
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This study used a prospective design to test a model of the relation between social cognitive variables and physical activity in a sample of 277 university students. Social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation were measured at baseline and used to predict physical activity 8 weeks later. Results of structural equation m...
Article
The study assessed a way to increase the intensity and effectiveness of resistance training by comparing training with a slower repetition speed to training with a conventional repetition speed. Slower repetition speed may effectively increase intensity throughout the lifting phase while decreasing momentum. Two studies were done with untrained men...
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This study examined the direct and mediated impact of a self-administered, computer-based intervention on nutrition behavior self-efficacy, and outcome expectations among supermarket food shoppers. The intervention, housed in kiosks in supermarkets and based on social cognitive theory, used tailored information and self-regulation strategies delive...
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A social-cognitive model of nutrition behavior (A. Bandura, 1997) was tested using structural equation modeling of data from 307 food shoppers recruited from 5 supermarkets in Southwest Virginia. The shoppers were participating in the baseline phase of an ongoing nutrition promotion program. As part of the evaluation, data were collected on the sel...
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Women in impoverished inner-city neighborhoods are at high risk for contracting HIV. A randomized, multisite community-level HIV prevention trial was undertaken with women living in 18 low-income housing developments in 5 US cities. Baseline and 12-month follow-up population risk characteristics were assessed by surveying 690 women at both time poi...
Article
Epidemiological analyses conclude that the major contributors to all-cause premature mortality and morbidity are smoking, alcohol abuse, inappropriate diet, and a sedentary lifestyle. Efforts to modify these health behaviors in populations with community and worksite interventions, although initially promising, have had difficulty in sustaining hea...
Article
The purpose of this study was to develop a system for characterizing food purchases by families using supermarket receipt data. One hundred and five shoppers contributed data that represented 363 people (138 children and 225 adults). Participants provided food purchase receipt data for at least 6 weeks, which included an average of at least 20 food...
Article
The Nutrition for a Lifetime System(NLS) is a multimedia, public-access system housed in a kiosk in supermarkets designed to help shoppers decrease fat and increase fiber and fruits and vegetables in their food purchases in order to meet nutritional guidelines. In the present study, the NLS was modified from previous versions so that users' time wa...
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Whereas previous researchers have described at–risk students' deficiencies, in the present study their academic success was investigated. Longitudinal data from 8,100 high school students participating in a national study were used to test a model of at–risk students' school learning. The results indicated that ability, quality of schooling, studen...
Article
A randomized-control test of a multimedia nutrition intervention-the Nutrition for a Lifetime System (NLS©)- utilized supermarket receipts to examine effects of NLS treatment on the daily per person nutritional content of participants' supermarket purchases. In regression analyses controlling for background variables, baseline purchases and trends...
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This study describes the prevalence and predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among women living in low-income, inner-city housing developments. Anonymous questionnaires were administered to 671 women living in 10 inner-city, low-income housing developments in five US cities to determine their levels of HIV risk behavior a...
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Background and Objectives:: To examine prevalence and predictors of condom use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test seeking among women living in inner‐city housing developments. Study Design:: Between April and June 1994, 671 women living in low‐income housing developments in five cities in the United States completed an anonymous self‐repo...
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Full-text available
A sample of 671 predominantly single, young black women living in 10 low-income housing developments in five cities completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing factors related to their risk of contracting the human immunodeficiency virus, including their sexual behavior and condom use, and their partners' risk-related behaviors. In the two month...
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Social diffusion theory has recently been recognized as a promising approach for large-scale disease prevention and health promotion efforts. This paper describes how principles and tactics from social cognitive theory, operant psychology, social psychology, social marketing, and the overarching stages of change model can be used to further develop...
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Provides an overall framework for the development, evaluation, and dissemination of HIV prevention programs for youth. Current AIDS epidemiological data and teen-risk behaviors are examined to more fully describe the problem. Aspects of an overall framework for HIV prevention programs for teens, the 1st wave of programs for youths, and the Family/M...
Chapter
With increasing urgency, attention is turning to preventing HIV infection in youth. There are several reasons for this perceptible shift in policy (and allocation of program resources) from a more exclusive focus on adult homosexual and bisexual men, adult intravenous drug users and their sexual partners, female prostitutes, and women of lower soci...
Article
Family-based communication about sexual behavior and sexuality is a predominate theme in the key risk reduction and service objectives for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and related issues in Healthy People 2000. These recommendations are particularly poignant for younger adolescents who are not yet sexually active and whose social o...
Article
We describe the first study with a home-based HIV prevention video program for parents and young teenagers. The objectives of the program are to inform parents and teenagers about the causes and prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, to increase family problem-solving skills, and to increase teen problem-solving and as...
Article
Evaluated a home-based HIV prevention video program with 45 families with at least 1 12–14 yr old. The objectives of the program are to inform parents and teenagers about the causes and prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, to increase family problem-solving skills, and to increase teen problem-solving and assertivene...
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A broader definition of social validity is proposed wherein a socially valid behavior-change intervention is directed to a problem of verifiable importance, the intervention is valued and used appropriately by designated target groups, and the intervention as used has sufficient behavioral impact to substantially reduce the probability of the probl...

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