Eiji Yamamura

Eiji Yamamura
Seinan Gakuin University · Department of Economics

About

184
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Publications

Publications (184)
Preprint
Background The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine is key to reducing the probability of contracting COVID-19. The vaccine is generally known to prevent severe illness, death, and hospitalization as a result of the disease and for considerably reducing COVID-19 infection risk. Accordingly, this might significantly change an individual’s perceive...
Preprint
Using Japanese professional chess (Shogi) players records in the novel setting, this paper examines how and the extent to which the emergence of technological changes influences the ageing and innate ability of players winning probability. We gathered games of professional Shogi players from 1968 to 2019. The major findings are: (1) diffusion of ar...
Preprint
Vaccination has been promoted to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination is expected to reduce the probability of and alleviate the seriousness of COVID-19 infection. Accordingly, this might significantly change an individuals subjective well-being and mental health. However, it is unknown how vaccinated people p...
Preprint
Vaccination against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key measure to reduce the probability of getting infected with the disease. Accordingly, this might significantly change an individuals perception and decision-making in daily life. For instance, it is predicted that with widespread vaccination, individuals will exhibit less rigid pre...
Chapter
In Chap. 2, I mentioned that, according to previous research in economics of education, the younger the children are, the greater the effect of education is, citing “Oshin” as an analogy.
Chapter
I put on the radio at mealtime at home. One day, the letters-from-listeners part of the program was on a topic of farcical domestic situations.
Chapter
As a resident of Fukuoka, I find myself excited being in Tokyo on occasional business trips. The first thing I do on arrival is to find a noodle stand. Noodle stands are small establishments with a long high counter, at which customers consume their orders standing. They are frequented by office workers, freelancers, and other people from different...
Chapter
“There are a good side and bad to a community life. You are obliged to do favors or be nice to your neighbors all the time, you know…”.
Article
Full-text available
This study applies the difference-in-difference method on panel data collected from internet surveys to investigate changes in the preventive behaviors and mental health of individuals as influenced by the COVID-19 state of emergency declaration between March and June 2020. The key findings are: (1) The declaration led people to exhibit preventive...
Article
Full-text available
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by harsh environmental conditions. For this reason, two Internet surveys were distributed to the same i...
Preprint
A summer high school baseball tournament is held every mid-summer in Koshien Stadium. “Koshien Baseball” is very popular in Japan; however, it faces the problem of extremely high temperatures during games. Thus, high school players are threatened by the harsh environment. For this reason, Internet surveys were conducted twice to purposefully engage...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how people in Japan perceived the severity of and probability of infection from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and how their willingness to purchase a hypothetical vaccine depends on these perceptions and their risk attitudes. We conducted a large-scale panel survey three times between 13 March to 13 April 2020 in Japa...
Article
Full-text available
The slogans of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics were “symbol of resilience from the Great East Japan Earthquake” and “Compact Olympics”. The Olympics were also expected to demonstrate “gender equality” and to enhance sustainability in modern society. However, in practice, the cost of the Tokyo Olympics 2020 was far greater than estimated. The slogan was cha...
Article
Full-text available
The spread of the novel coronavirus disease caused schools in Japan to close to cope with the pandemic. In response to the school closures, parents of students were obliged to care for their children during the daytime, when children usually were at school. Did the increase in the burden of childcare influence parents’ mental health? Based on short...
Article
In Japan, teacher and student is randomly matched in the first year of elementary school. Under the quasi-natural experimental setting, I examine how learning in female teacher homeroom class in the elementary school influence pupils’ smoking behaviour after they become adult. I found that pupils are unlikely to smoke later in life if they belonged...
Preprint
A tailor-made internet survey experiment provides individuals with information on their income positions to examine their effects on subjective well-being. In the first survey, respondents were asked about their household income and subjective well-being. Based on the data collected, three different respondents' income positions within the resident...
Article
This study analyzes the altruistic and selfish motivations that underlie the payment made toward Japan’s Hometown Tax Donation system by the citizens, whereby they can pay the tax to municipalities other than the ones in which they reside and receive reciprocal gifts. Using the local government level panel data for 2008–2015, we find that the Great...
Preprint
A customized internet survey experiment is conducted in Japan to examine how individuals' relative income position influences preferences for income redistribution and individual perceptions regarding income tax burden. I first asked respondents about their perceived income position in their country and their preferences for redistribution and perc...
Preprint
Internet survey experiment is conducted to examine how providing peer information of evaluation about progressive firms changed individual's evaluations. Using large sample including over 13,000 observations collected by two-step experimental surveys, I found; (1) provision of the information leads individuals to expect higher probability of rising...
Article
Full-text available
This paper attempts to investigate how information transparency affects human behavior. Thus, we empirically examine the influence of information disclosure ordinances on the income of mayors and chief executives in local governments in Japan. For the estimation, we use panel data of local governments covering 1999–2010, during which time many loca...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 has led to the closure of various schools in Japan to cope with the pandemic. This study explores how school closure influences parents’ work style based on short panel data for the period of school closure from mid-March to mid-April 2020. Specifically, we analyze how the presence of their children influences parents’ work at home and exa...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11150-021-09548-9
Preprint
This study examines the influence of grandchildren's gender on grandparents' voting behavior using independently collected individual-level data. The survey was conducted immediately after the House of Councilors election in Japan. I observed that individuals with a granddaughter were more likely to vote for female candidates by around 10 % than th...
Preprint
In Japan, the increase in the consumption tax rate, a measure of balanced public finance, reduces the inequality of fiscal burden between the present and future generations. This study estimates the effect of grandchildren on an older person's view of consumption tax, using independently collected data. The results show that having grandchildren is...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how spousal age gaps influence the allocation of housework between husbands and wives. Further, we consider the identity formed as a result of respondents’ family backgrounds by exploring the effects of the age gaps between the respondents’ parents. We collected an individual-level panel dataset for 3 years through monthly s...
Article
This paper examined how and the extent to which obtaining skills to meet team specific human capital is important to improve football player’s performance by comparing the top league and the second league. Based on panel data of individual players during the 2012-2016 seasons of the Japan Professional Football League (J League), we found; (1) In th...
Preprint
Healthcare workers are more likely to be infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) because of unavoidable contact with infected people. Although they are equipped to reduce the likelihood of infection, their distress has increased. This study examines how COVID-19 influences healthcare workers' happiness, compared to other workers. We con...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spread of the novel coronavirus disease caused schools in Japan to close to cope with the pandemic. In response to this, parents of students were obliged to care for their children during the daytime when they were usually at school. Does the increase in burden of childcare influence parents mental health? Based on short panel data from mid-Mar...
Preprint
COVID-19 has led to school closures in Japan to cope with the pandemic. Under the state of emergency, in addition to school closure, after-school care has not been sufficiently supplied. We independently collected individual level data through internet surveys to construct short panel data from mid-March to mid-June 2020, which covered before and a...
Preprint
This study examines the influence of learning in a female teacher homeroom class in elementary school on pupils' voting behavior later in life, using independently collected individual-level data. Further, we evaluate its effect on preference for women's participation in the workplace in adulthood. Our study found that having a female teacher in th...
Preprint
In Japan, teacher and student is randomly matched in the first year of elementary school. Under the quasi-natural experimental setting, we examine how learning in female teacher homeroom class in the elementary school influence pupils' smoking behavior after they become adult. We found that pupils are unlikely to smoke later in life if they belonge...
Preprint
In this study, we explored how the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affected the demand for insurance and vaccines in Japan from mid-March to mid-April 2020. Through independent internet surveys, respondents were asked hypothetical questions concerning the demand for insurance and vaccines for protection against COVID-19. Using the collected short-pa...
Article
Using a large sample of individual-level records in Japan speedboat racing where men and women racers participate, we investigated how racers’ performance meets fans’ pre-race expectations. To control for endogeneity bias, we measured the order of racers’ attractiveness randomly determined in each race and then used this order as instrument for mea...
Article
Full-text available
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics have been postponed due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The implications for industries related to the Olympics—tourism, hotels and restaurants, and others—are expected to be affected by reduced demand. Japanese workers in these industries were prepared to offer their hospitality to visitors from around the wor...
Preprint
The 2020 Tokyo Olympics has been postponed due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The implications for industries related to the Olympics—tourism, hotels and restaurants, and others—are expected to be affected by reduced demand. Japanese workers in these industries were prepared to offer their hospitality to visitors from around the worl...
Preprint
During the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan between March and April 2020, Internet surveys were conducted to construct panel data to investigate changes at the individual level regarding preventive behaviors and mental conditions by surveying the same respondents at different times. Specifically, the difference-in-difference (DID) method was used to expl...
Article
Full-text available
We theoretically illustrate how the aversion to unfairness triggers an unselfish though rational demand for redistribution. This leads the well‐off to demand positive tax rates and the “poor” to reject extreme progressivity. We prove that the “rich” and the “poor” adjust their demand for redistribution in opposite ways when their sensitivity to fai...
Article
The Hakone Ekiden, a university‐level long‐distance relay race, is the premier New Year's sporting event in Japan. It is held immediately prior to the university application period. Using panel data for 2001 to 2015, I examined how this race influences the number of applicants for university entrance examinations. The major finding is that applican...
Article
We test how early childhood education creates preferences for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) through teacher-student random gender matching. Using originally collected individual-level data, we examine how female teachers in elementary school influence students’ CSR stated preferences in their adulthood. Our major finding is that female teac...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how gender equality influences difference in cognitive skills between genders. For the closer examination of Guiso et al. (2008), restricting the sample to immigrants allows us to reduce the possibility of reverse causality. Design/methodology/approach Using PISA 2012 matched with the gender wage gap...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how childhood education and experiences helped to form noncognitive skills and later, trade policy preferences. We used individual‐level data with approximately 10,000 observations collected in July 2016. Using the instrumental variables (IV) method, with sporting experience and informal education in the childhood as exogenous IV, w...
Article
Using panel data obtained from monthly surveys for 3 years, we examined how the effects of life events on smoking and drinking behaviours differ between men and women. The key findings were that: (i) consumption of alcohol and cigarettes by men and women were lower during pregnancy and after childbirth than before pregnancy; (ii) pregnancy and chil...
Article
In speedboat racing in Japan, men and women compete under the same conditions and are randomly assigned to mixed-sex or single-sex groups for each race. We use a sample of over 140,000 individual-level records to examine how male-dominated circumstances affect women's racing performance. Our fixed-effects estimates reveal that women's race time is...
Article
Public broadcasting of all games of high school baseball tournaments attests to their popularity in Japan. The present study uses individual-level data to test the hypothesis that nostalgia influences the level of happiness of Japanese people. Its key findings were: (i) the number of wins by a prefecture team increased the happiness level of its re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigated the extent to which educational levels in the nineteenth century have shaped present-day norms, which influence the perceptions of present-day individuals, such as individuals’ perceived inequality, preference for redistribution, and progressive taxation. Cross-country, individual-level data were used to examine historical e...
Article
Empirical results based on individual-level data from Japan were studied to determine the effect of social capital on the willingness to leave one's residential area. It was found that social capital accumulated through one's own experience in a residential area is not the only factor that reduces willingness to leave. Social capital inherited from...
Article
This paper explores how the role of men and women’s height in the marriage market has changed across generations. Using individual-level data from Japan, we compared the effect of height on marriages between men and women, and investigated how the effect of height on marriage has changed across generations. Our key findings are: (1) for men born be...
Article
During the period of 2001-2006, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) adopted a market-oriented policy under the Koizumi cabinet. Using data covering the Koizumi and first Abe cabinets, the present paper attempts to examine whether the effects of relative income differ between supporters and non-supporters of the Koizumi cabinet. Key findings are as f...
Article
The consumption of imported goods is thought to influence consumers’ views and attitudes toward export countries. It is important to consider this issue, especially when there is political tension and conflict between countries. Because of their historical background, political conflict exists between Korea and Japan. This paper examines the effect...
Article
Acemoglu and Robinson (2000) provide their hypothesis that the political elite extend the franchise to avoid revolution or social unrest. For the purpose of empirically testing this hypothesis, the present paper explores how the degree of conflict between rich and poor people is associated with individual preferences for income redistribution and p...
Article
This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008–2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5–7 years in 2010, the BMI z...
Chapter
Using Japan’s prefecture-level panel data from 1989 to 2001, this chapter examines the influence of the social norm on a person’s smoking behavior when the complementary relationship between smoking and drinking is taken into account. The key findings through a dynamic panel model controlling for unobserved prefecture-specific fixed effects are as...
Article
This paper examines the influence of government transparency on changing views regarding nuclear energy before and after Japan's natural and nuclear disaster of 2011. Individual-level data were used, covering 45 countries and containing 27 423 observations. It was observed in the majority of countries that the rate of favouring nuclear energy decli...
Chapter
The Japanese Professional Football League (JPFL) was established in 1993 in an attempt to enhance social interaction within teams’ home cities through football. In contrast, the Japan Professional Baseball League (JPBL) was created prior to World War II and has been supported mainly by corporate sponsorship. Using individual-level data from 1996, t...
Article
Full-text available
The positive relationship between trust and happiness has been demonstrated by the literature. However, it is not clear how much this relationship depends on environmental conditions. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 is considered one of the most catastrophic events in human history. This disaster caused not only physical damage for Japanese...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that height is positively associated with earnings. Based on individual level data, this paper investigates the channels through which height influences income in China. Our first key finding is that for males (females) a 1 centimeter (cm) increase in height leads to a 0.5% (0.02%) increase in the probability that he (she) becomes...
Article
An increasing number of studies have addressed the determinants of suicide. Social capital is a key factor in preventing suicide. However, little is known about the experience of suicide ideation using subjective values. From the viewpoint of suicide prevention, it is worth examining how people think of suicide. This paper attempts to examine the e...
Article
Full-text available
Although natural disasters have been found to influence economic growth, their impact on income inequality has not yet been explored. This paper uses cross-country panel data during the period 1965 to 2004 to examine how the occurrence of natural disasters has affected income inequality. The major findings of this study are that although natural di...
Article
This paper explores the role of mass media in people's perceptions of charismatic leaders. Using survey data collected immediately after Koizumi's 2005 landslide electoral victory, we empirically assess the influence of television (TV) and newspapers on individuals' support for Koizumi and for the most distinctive policy. Estimation results based o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
It is well known that height is positively associated with earnings. Based on individual level data, this paper investigates the channels through which height influences income in China. Our first key finding is that a 1 centimeter (cm) increase in height leads to a 0.3% increase in the probability that one becomes a Communist Party member. Further...
Article
This paper uses inter-country panel data from 1990 through 2010 to examine how the occurrence of natural disasters affects corruption within the public sector. For a closer analysis, disaster is classified into various categories, including general floods, other floods, tropical storms, other storms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides....
Article
Purpose – Japan's 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. The paper aims to discuss these...
Article
Smokers tend to be more impatient and prefer immediate benefits compared with non-smokers. If people follow their primitive instincts they will engage in sexual behavior. Impatient people are more likely to have sex. However, for married people, having sex with a spouse is considered to be an investment in family life. Based on individual level dat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the role of mass media in people perceptions of charismatic leaders, focusing on the case of Junichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. Using survey data collected immediately after his 2005 landslide electoral victory, this study empirically assesses the influence of television and newspapers on support for K...
Article
Full-text available
The Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake struck Japan in 1995, causing devastating damage to the economic landscape of South-central Japan. This study investigates how the earthquake enhanced participation in community activity. The key findings are: (i) people were more likely to participate in community activities in 1996 than in 1991; (ii) the...
Article
Experiences in childhood are hypothesized to influence preference formation for redistribution in adulthood. For example, eldest male children who suffer loss because of parental redistribution are less likely to endorse government-mandated redistributions as an adult. In contrast, younger children enjoy benefits from parental redistributions as a...
Article
This paper used individual level data in Japan to explore how a complainant’s past trial experience influences their satisfaction and incentive to bring a future lawsuit. Controlling for kinds of incidents and a complainant’s individual characteristics, the major findings were; (1) there is a positive relationship between the experience and satisfa...
Article
Japanese household-level data describing a husband's earnings, his wife's working status, and their schooling levels are used to test the implications of a model proposing a time-consuming process of human capital accumulation within marriages, in which an educated wife is more productive. The empirical results support the model’s predictions: in p...
Article
Full-text available
Anime is now considered an accepted form of animation and is considered to represent Japanese contemporary culture worldwide. There are many fans of anime and manga, creating a community known as otaku world. However, Japanese anime and manga have gained popularity in Western countries as well as in Japan. This paper attempts to ascertain the deter...
Article
Full-text available
Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan are the only cities in the world that have experienced an atomic bomb attack. This paper explores how this devastating experience affected victims’ tendency to trust others. Individual-level data were used to examine the long-term influence of experiencing an atomic bomb on individuals’ trust. After controlling for i...
Article
This study explored how social pressure related to parental preference for the sex of their children affects fertility. Pre-war and post-war generations were compared using individual level data previously collected in Japan in 2002. In the pre-war generation, if the first child was a daughter, the total number of children tended to increase not on...
Article
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A growing number of works have explored the influence of institution on the outcomes of disasters and accidents from the viewpoint of political economy. This paper focuses on the probability of the occurrence of disasters rather than disaster outcomes. Using panel data from 98 countries, this paper examines how public sector corruption is associate...
Article
Since the end of the 1990s, local governments in Japan have enacted Information Disclosure Ordinances, which require the disclosure of official government information. This paper uses Japanese prefecture-level data for the period 1998?2004 to examine how this enactment affected the rate of government construction expenditure. The Dynamic Panel mode...
Article
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Ethnic heterogeneity influences economic growth through various channels such as efficiency improvement and capital accumulation. However, it is open to discussion exactly how ethnic heterogeneity affects these channels. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the effects of heterogeneity on economic growth using data envelopment analysis. The empiri...
Article
The Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake in 1995 has had a significant detrimental effect on the economic conditions of southern-central Japan. However, the earthquake also led people to acknowledge the importance of the many volunteer activities in Japan at that time. Using a large sample of individual-level data from 1991 and 1996, this study in...
Article
Full-text available
The changing effects of wage disparity on team performance during the process of industry development are examined using data sourced from the Japanese professional football league. The results show that wage disparity leads to a reduction in team performance during the developing stage but does not influence performance during the developed stage....
Article
Sumo wrestling is a traditional fighting sport in Japan and has been popular since the 18th century (the Edo period). Using a data set for all sumo wrestlers in the post-World War II period, this paper investigates how wrestlers’ body mass index (BMI) is associated with their win rate and absence rate. Further, the effect of BMI is compared between...
Article
This paper explores how social capital influences individual preferences for income redistribution. Social capital is measured by participation in community activities. After controlling for individual characteristics, I find that people are more likely to express preferences for income redistribution in areas with higher rates of community partici...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the effect of a wife’s human capital on her husband’s earnings, using individual-level data for Japan in the period 2000–2003. We find a positive association between a wife’s education and her husband’s earnings, which can be attributed to the assortative mating effect as well as the positive effect of an educated wife on her husband’s p...
Article
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This paper uses individual-level data from Japan (2003) to examine the effects of government size and the disclosure of official government information on happiness. The major findings are as follows. (1) Disclosure of official information is positively associated with the happiness of workers, but not with that of non-workers. (2) Government size...
Article
This study aims at identifying the factors of aggregate and disaggregate crime categories in Japan over the period 1964–2009. All crime categories are related to police outlays, police numbers, unemployment, divorce and urbanization rates. Bounds testing approach to cointegration is implemented to test the existence of a long-run relationship among...
Article
This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not wit...
Article
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Using individual survey data from Japan, this study investigates how frequency of contact with foreigners is associated with perceptions of the effects of increased immigration. The results show that frequency of contact with foreigners has a measurable effect on perceptions and that its influence varies according to household income level. More fr...
Article
The question to what extent corruption influences suicide still remains unanswered. This paper examines the effect of corruption on suicide using a panel data approach for 24 OECD countries over the period 1995–2004. Our results show that suicide rates are lower in countries with lower levels of corruption. We also find evidence that this effect is...
Article
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There is controversy between Putnam and Olson concerning the role of group. Putnam argued that small group makes a contribution to economic growth whereas Olson asserted that small group hampers the economic growth through rent-seeking behavior. Since the end of the 1990s in Japan, there has been a remarkable rise in the rate of enactment of public...
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Empirical results using Japanese data suggest that social trust improves student language and mathematics achievement test scores in primary and junior high school. After controlling for endogeneity bias, social trust had a greater effect on scores for primary school students than on scores for junior high school students.
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This paper uses individual level data (the Japanese General Social Survey) to examine how government size influences generalized trust. After controlling for the endogeneity of government size using instrumental variables, I found: (1) Using all samples, government size is not associated with generalized trust, and (2) After splitting the sample in...
Article
Full-text available
Using individual-level data for China,South Korea, and Japan for2006, this research examines how life satisfaction for married males and femalesin East Asian countries isinfluenced bythe age of theirchildren. Our results show that the life satisfaction of males is barely affected by a child of the relationship, whereas the life satisfaction of fema...
Article
Using cross-country data, this paper investigates how freedom of media influenced views regarding the security of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident in Japan. Key findings are: (1) citizens are less likely to agree that nuclear power plants are properly secured against accidents with the presence of a free media and higher levels of freedo...
Article
Using cross-country data, this paper investigates how governance influenced views regarding the security of nuclear energy after the 2011 disasters in Japan. Key findings are: (1) citizens are less likely to agree that nuclear power plants are properly secured against accidents with the presence of a free media and higher levels of freedom of expre...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research shows that the effect of decentralization on damage caused by natural disasters will differ according a country’s level of economic development. To investigate this matter further, this paper uses cross-country data from 1990 to 2001 to examine how decentralization, institution, and economic development influence the number of dea...
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese General Social Survey was used to determine how individual preferences for income redistribution are affected by family structure, such as the number of siblings and birth order where individuals grow up. After controlling for various individual characteristics, the important findings were as follows. (1) The first-born child was less...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses data from Japan to ascertain the determinants of government information disclosures by considering the role of special interest groups and government size. A IV-Tobit model is employed to control for endogeneity bias of government size. The major findings are as follows: (1) special interest groups have a detrimental effect on infor...
Article
Full-text available
The great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake, which occurred in 1995, resulted in tremendous economic damage to the city of Kobe. Using individual-level data of Japan during the period 2000–08, I investigated the long-term impact of the earthquake on the happiness of surviving victims. After controlling for individual characteristics and characteristi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how a trust in government shared by neighbors is associated with individual preferences for income redistribution and individual perceptions regarding income tax burden. Three measures for trust in government are used: “trust in ministries and government agencies”, “trust in diet members”, and “trust in members of municipal coun...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
Dear All,
I have obtained the individual level PISA data.
Existing works used the individual level's math score, reading score and science score for estimations.
However, I do not know how to calucuate these scores. In the code of PISA, to take a case of math, there are 5 plausible values  such as PV1MATH,  PV2MATH,  PV3MATH,  PV4MATH,  PV5MATH. Do researchers calculate mean score of them for individual math scores? 
  However, country level mean score of mathematics is not the same as its mean score culculated based on scores as above.

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