Eiji Ohtani

Eiji Ohtani
Tohoku University | Tohokudai · Graduate School of Science

About

876
Publications
66,671
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16,532
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Osaka University
January 2005 - present
January 2004 - December 2006
Kyushu University

Publications

Publications (876)
Article
Full-text available
Neumann band in iron meteorites, which is deformation twins in kamacite (Fe–Ni alloy), has been known to be a characteristic texture indicating ancient collisions on parent bodies of meteorites. We conducted a series of shock recovery experiments on bcc iron with the projectile velocity at 1.5 km/s at various initial temperatures, room temperature,...
Article
Full-text available
Earth's deep water cycle impacts the physical and chemical properties and geodynamics in its deep interior. However, how dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMSs) influence the thermal evolution and dynamics of sinking slabs remains poorly understood. We have precisely measured thermal conductivity of phase D, an important DHMS that could carry lar...
Article
We clarified the phase relations of MgSiO3-Al2O3-H2O system under the uppermost lower-mantle conditions and the partitioning of aluminum and hydrogen between bridgmanite and hydrous minerals of hydrous phase δ-H solid solution and aluminous hydrous phase D. Bridgmanite coexists with hydrous phase D and δ-H at 25-28 GPa and 1000-1100◦C. Hydrous phas...
Article
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The Earth’s inner core comprises iron-nickel alloys with light elements. However, there is no clarity on the phase properties of these alloys. Here we show phase relations and equations of state of iron–nickel and iron–nickel–silicon alloys up to 186 gigapascals and 3090 kelvin. An ordered derivative of the body-centred cubic structure (B2) phase w...
Article
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Bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral of the Earth’s lower mantle, has been reported in only a few shocked chondritic meteorites; however, the compositions of these instances differ from that expected in the terrestrial bridgmanite. Here, we report the first natural occurrence of Fe-bearing aluminous bridgmanite in shock-induced melt veins within...
Article
Bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral of the Earth’s lower mantle, has been reported in only a few shocked chondritic meteorites; however, the compositions of these instances differ from that expected in the terrestrial bridgmanite. Here, we report the first natural occurrence of Fe-bearing aluminous bridgmanite in shockinduced melt veins within t...
Article
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The (plagioclase) lherzolitic shergottite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7397 consists of poikilitic and non-poikilitic lithologies. Coarse-grained low-Ca pyroxene oikocrysts enclose olivine and chromite grains in the poikilitic lithology. The major constituents of the non-poikilitic lithology are olivine, Ca-pyroxene, and plagioclase. Minor amounts of chr...
Article
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A widely accepted explanation for deep-focus earthquakes is that they are caused by the delayed transformation kinetics of dry olivine, which would seem to require dry subducting slabs. However, many geochemical and geophysical observations and mineral physics data indicate that water is present within both hydrous and nominally anhydrous minerals,...
Article
The Front Cover shows a possible deep oxygen cycle in early Earth. FeOOH (“rust”), produced by anoxygenic photosynthesis and accumulated on the ocean floor, was transferred to the lower mantle by subducting slabs. At high pressures and temperatures, FeOOH decomposes into a mixture of complex iron oxides, water, and oxygen. Oxidizing fluids rising t...
Article
High‐pressure minerals in the eucrite Padvarninkai were investigated. Parts of anorthitic plagioclase and tridymite in the host rock of Padvarninkai vitrified, indicating that the shock pressure was 22–27 GPa. Tissintite, coesite, and a majorite‐bearing garnet occurred in the shock‐melt veins of Padvarninkai as high‐pressure minerals. Tissintite, k...
Article
Goethite, α‐FeOOH, is a major phase among oxidized iron species, commonly called rust. We studied the behavior of iron (III) oxyhydroxide up to 81 GPa and 2100 K using in situ synchrotron single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction. At high pressure‐temperature conditions FeOOH decomposes forming oxygen‐rich fluid and different mixed valence iron oxides (prev...
Article
Full-text available
The high-pressure phases of oxyhydroxides (δ-AlOOH, ε-FeOOH, and their solid solution), candidate components of subducted slabs, have wide stability fields, thus potentially influencing volatile circulation and dynamics in the Earth’s lower mantle. Here, we report the elastic wave velocities of δ-(Al,Fe)OOH (Fe/(Al + Fe) = 0.13, δ-Fe13) to 79 GPa,...
Article
Systematic change of structural transition and high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition of Fe2+ in synthetic (Mg0.6Fe0.4)O-ferropericlase for pressures up to that of the lower mantle region were investigated using synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopic methods. The XRD patterns and the Mössbauer spectra were m...
Preprint
Precise information about the composition of the Earth's core is critical to understand planetary evolution and for discussing current hot topics in geodynamic behavior, such as core-mantle boundary heat flow. However, samples from deep in the Earth's interior are not available, so our knowledge is based on comparison of laboratory measurements wit...
Article
Shock‐induced melting textures and high‐pressure polymorphs in 178 ordinary chondrites of all chemical groups and petrologic types were investigated. The shock‐induced melting modes were classified into three types, namely pocket, line, and network. The type of shock‐induced melting depends on the petrologic type. The width of the shock‐induced mel...
Article
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Abstract The longitudinal sound velocity (V P ) and the density (ρ) of wüstite, FeO, were measured at pressures of up to 112.3 GPa and temperatures of up to 1700 K using both inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction combined with a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The linear relationship between V P and ρ, Birch’s law, for wüstite can be ex...
Article
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Plain Language Summary The physical properties of minerals are determined by the interaction of atoms in the crystal lattice. Water can be incorporated into the crystal structure and alter its behavior. Ringwoodite is a high‐pressure mineral that can host large quantities of water and is expected to be abundant in the lower part of Earth's mantle t...
Article
We investigated the back‐transformation mechanisms of ringwoodite and majorite occurring in a shock‐melt vein (SMV) of the Yamato 75267 H6 ordinary chondrite during atmospheric entry heating. Ringwoodite and majorite in the shock melt near the fusion crust have back‐transformed into olivine and enstatite, respectively. Ringwoodite (Fa~18) occurs in...
Chapter
Carbon is a plausible candidate for a light element in the Earth's core. Here, we show that Fe3C melts incongruently to form Fe7C3 and liquid at least up to 200 GPa based on in‐situ X‐ray diffraction measurements and textural observations of the recovered samples, and Fe3C is stable at least up to 300 GPa at high temperatures. The C content of the...
Article
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Seismic anomalies observed in Earth's deep mantle are conventionally considered to be associated with thermal and compositional anomalies, and possibly partial melt of major lower‐mantle phases. However, through deep water cycle, impacts of hydrous minerals on geophysical observables and on the deep mantle thermal state and geodynamics remain poorl...
Article
An overview of the recently renovated high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) BL10XU beamline for the diamond anvil cell at SPring-8 is presented. The renovation includes the replacement of the X-ray source and monochromator, enhanced focusing systems for high-energy XRD, and recent progress in the sample environment control techniques that are avail...
Article
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Geophysical observations suggest that the transition zone is wet locally. Continental and oceanic sediment components together with the basaltic and peridotitic components might be transported and accumulated in the transition zone. Low-velocity anomalies at the upper mantle–transition zone boundary might be caused by the existence of dense hydrous...
Article
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The density and sound velocity structure of the Earth’s interior is modeled on seismological observations and is known as the preliminary reference Earth model (PREM). The density of the core is lower than that of pure Fe, which suggests that the Earth’s core contains light elements. Carbon is one plausible light element that may exist in the core....
Article
Hydrogen transport from the surface to the deep interior and distribution in the mantle are important in the evolution and dynamics of the Earth. An aluminum oxy-hydroxide, δ-AlOOH, might influence hydrogen transport in the deep mantle because of its high stability extending to lower mantle conditions. The compressional behavior and spin states of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Goethite, α-FeOOH, is a major component among oxidized iron species, called rust, which formed as a product of metabolism of anoxygenic prokaryotes (1, 2) inhabiting the Earth from about 3.8 billion years (Gy) ago until the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) of about 2.5 Gy ago. The rust was buried on the ocean floor (1, 2) and had to submerge into the Ea...
Preprint
Goethite, {\alpha}-FeOOH, is a major component among oxidized iron species, called rust, which formed as a product of metabolism of anoxygenic prokaryotes (1, 2) inhabiting the Earth from about 3.8 billion years (Gy) ago until the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) of about 2.5 Gy ago. The rust was buried on the ocean floor (1, 2) and had to submerge into...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrogen is likely one of the light elements in the Earth’s core. Despite its importance, no direct observation has been made of hydrogen in an iron lattice at high pressure. We made the first direct determination of site occupancy and volume of interstitial hydrogen in a face-centered cubic (fcc) iron lattice up to 12 GPa and 1200 K using the in s...
Article
Shock-induced melting textures and assemblages in the chassignite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 were investigated. NWA 2737 consists mainly of coarse-grained olivine (Fa 19.6–20.5 ) and minor amounts of low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase (now maskelynite), and chromite. Several melt inclusions formed through pre-igneous activity are enclosed in the olivine...
Article
Planetary cores are composed mainly of Fe with minor elements such as Ni, Si, O, and S. The physical properties of Fe alloys depend on their composition. Changes in c/a ratio, center shifts, and elastic properties of Fe and Fe–Ni alloys were reported previously. However, such properties of Fe light-element alloys have not yet been extensively studi...
Article
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The stability of anhydrous phase B, Mg14Si5O24, has been determined in the pressure range of 14–21 GPa and the temperature range of 1100–1700 °C with both normal and reversal experiments using multi-anvil apparatus. Our results demonstrate that anhydrous phase B is stable at pressure–temperature conditions corresponding to the shallow depth region...
Article
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Moganite, a monoclinic SiO2 phase, has been discovered in a lunar meteorite. Silica micrograins occur as nanocrystalline aggregates of mostly moganite and occasionally coesite and stishovite in the KREEP (high potassium, rare-earth element, and phosphorus)–like gabbroic-basaltic breccia NWA 2727, although these grains are seemingly absent in other...
Article
The roles of water in the mantle transition zone, lower mantle, and the core-mantle boundary are investigated. The evidence for a wet mantle transition zone has been suggested based on hydrous mineral inclusions in diamond. Seismic wave velocity and electrical conductivity profiles together with mineral physics data are consistent with existence of...
Article
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We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In...
Article
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We investigated the phase relations of the Fe-H2O system at high pressures based on in situ X-ray diffraction experiments and first-principles calculations and demonstrate that FeHx and FeO are present at pressures less than ~78 GPa. A recently reported pyrite-structured FeO2 was identified in the Fe-H2O system at pressures greater than ~78 GPa aft...
Article
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The sound velocity of hcp Fe0.89Si0.11 (Fe-6wt% Si) alloy was measured at pressures from 45 to 84 GPa and temperatures of 300 and 1800 K using inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) from laser-heated samples in diamond-anvil cells (DACs). The compressional velocity (νP) and density (ρ) of the Fe-Si alloy are observed to follow a linear relationship at a...
Article
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The phase and melting relations in the Fe–S–Si system were determined up to 60 GPa by using a double-sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with X-ray diffraction. On the basis of the X-ray diffraction patterns, we confirmed that hcp/fcc Fe–Si alloys and Fe3S are stable phases under subsolidus conditions in the Fe–S–Si system. Both solidus...
Article
The spin states of iron in deep magmas are one of the most important properties that affect the partitioning of iron between magmas and minerals and, thus, the gravitational stability of magmas in the Earth. We investigated the spin state and electronic environments of iron in a basaltic glass containing ~70 Fe³⁺/ΣFe at room temperature and pressur...
Article
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Jadeite occurs as the shocked product of albite feldspar in shocked meteorites, and is one of the most common high–pressure polymorphs in shock–melt veins of meteorites. The characteristic textures of jadeite in shocked ordinary chondrites show that some of jadeite crystals were formed from originally albite feldspar by a solid–state transformation...
Article
An impact event recorded in the Northwest Africa (NWA) 8275 LL7 ordinary chondrite was investigated based on high-pressure mineralogy of pervasive shock-melt veins present in the rock. NWA 8275 consists of olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase (albite–oligoclase composition), and minor high-Ca pyroxene, K-feldspar, phosphate minerals, metallic Fe–N...
Article
We have examined the decomposition of naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene and coronene at high pressures and temperatures. Experiments were performed using in situ X-ray diffraction in multianvil apparatus at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. In the pressure range of 1.5–3.7 GPa decomposition of studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...
Article
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High-pressure minerals - majorite-pyrope garnet and jadeite - were found in the Pervomaisky L6 ordinary chondrite. Majorite-pyrope (79 mol% majorite) was observed within the fine-grained silicate matrix of a shock-melt vein (SMV), coexisting with olivine and high-Ca pyroxene. This is the first report of a garnet-olivine-high-Ca pyroxene assemblage...
Article
Akimotoite [(Mg,Fe)SiO3-ilmenite] was encountered in shock-induced melt veins of Grove Mountains (GRV) 052082, a highly equilibrated low iron ordinary chondritic meteorite (L6). Coexistence of ringwoodite, majorite, and majorite-pyrope solid solution indicates the shock pressure at 18-23 GPa and temperature of 2000-2300 °C during the natural dynami...
Article
The reaction between clinopyroxene and Mg-carbonate is supposed to define the solidus of carbonated lherzolite at pressures exceeding 5 GPa. To investigate the effect of alkalis on this reaction, subsolidus and melting phase relations in the following systems have been examined at 6 GPa: CaMgSi2O6 + 2MgCO3 (Di + 2Mgs); CaMgSi2O6 + NaAlSi2O6 + 2MgCO...
Article
Full-text available
High–pressure and high–temperature experiments were conducted to determine the stability field of phase Egg, AlSiO3OH, in the pressure range of 16.5–23.5 GPa and in the temperature range of 800–1500 °C. We found that phase Egg decomposes to δ–AlOOH + stishovite below ~ 1200 °C (16.5 GPa and 800 °C; 20.6 GPa and 1000 °C) and to Al–phase D + corundum...
Article
Mineral inventories of enstatite chondrites; (EH and EL) are strictly dictated by combined parameters mainly very low dual oxygen (fO2) and sulfur (fS2) fugacities. They are best preserved in the Almahata Sitta MS-17, MS-177 fragments, and the ALHA 77295 and MAC 88136 Antarctic meteorites. These conditions induce a stark change of the geochemical b...
Article
Single crystals of δ-AlOOH, δ-(Al0.953,Fe0.047)OOH, and δ-(Al0.878,Fe0.122)OOH with dimensions up to ~0.4-0.6 mm were synthesized by the high-pressure hydrothermal method. Synthesis experiments were performed at 21 GPa and 1470 K for 4 h using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus. The crystals of δ-AlOOH, δ-(Al0.953,Fe0.047)OOH, and δ-(Al0.878,Fe0.12...
Article
The critical issue in the study of kimberlites, known as principal host rocks of diamonds, is the reconstruction of their primary melt composition, which is poorly constrained due to contamination by xenogenic materials, significant loss of volatiles during eruption, and post-magmatic alteration. It is generally accepted that the last equilibration...