Eiji Ito

Eiji Ito
Chukyo University · School of Health and Sport Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

75
Publications
11,399
Reads
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426
Citations
Citations since 2017
62 Research Items
394 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
Dr Eiji Ito is an associate professor in the School of Health and Sport Sciences, Chukyo University, Japan. He was awarded his BSc and MSc by Juntendo University, Japan, and earned his PhD at the University of Alberta, Canada. His areas of research include sport tourism, leisure studies, and cultural psychology.
Additional affiliations
April 2020 - present
Wakayama University
Position
  • Managing Director
April 2019 - March 2020
Wakayama University
Position
  • Managing Director
April 2018 - present
Wakayama University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2009 - January 2014
University of Alberta
Field of study
  • Leisure Studies
April 2006 - March 2008
Juntendo University
Field of study
  • Sport Sociology
April 2002 - March 2006
Juntendo University
Field of study
  • Sport Management

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare and verify the effects of differences in specifications among domes on the realism of dome image. Until now, there has been little research on how external factors affect the realism of dome image. This was because the equipment used to show dome image is proprietary, and it has been very difficult to show t...
Article
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Leisure engagement, especially sports experiences, has been identified as a robust predictor of subjective well-being (SWB). Two aspects of SWB are hedonic well-being (HWB) and eudaimonic well-being (EWB). HWB emphasizes pleasure and positive affect, whereas EWB involves meaning, purpose, and virtue. The majority of empirical leisure and sports stu...
Article
Research on leisure and subjective well-being has focused on hedonic well-being (e.g., positive affect). Leisure’s relationships with eudaimonic well-being (e.g., meaning) remains underexplored. The literature also lacks non-Western perspectives. This study examined leisure’s relations with shiawase and ikigai, Japanese concepts that represent hedo...
Article
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The extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have evidently led to increased levels of cycle commuting and cycle tourism closer to and around the home (we refer to this as everyday cycling mobilities). Cycling is a popular tourism pursuit in Japan and in the pandemic era, is acknowledged to be a COVID-secure activity. In response to, an...
Article
Guided by the affect valuation theory, this study examined the relationships among tourism ideal affect (i.e. how people want to feel at tourism destinations), tourism actual affect (i.e. how people really feel at tourism destinations), and tourism satisfaction. Online surveys were conducted before and after travel, and 418 Japanese adults provided...
Article
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This study conceptualizes the perceived risk of participating in trail running events from a trail runner’s perspective. To this end, we modified the Twenty Statements Test, asking: “What is the risk?” Respondents were required to respond with 10 statements beginning with “The risk is.” Relevant data were obtained from online panels (N = 93) regist...
Article
The purpose of this research note was to examine relationships between specialization factors and sport and video game experiences among e-sport players. Based on a literature review, two research hypotheses were established; (a) e-sport players’specialization factors positively associated with sport experiences, and (b) e-sport players’specializat...
Article
Although identified in the definition of leisure constraints, leisure enjoyment has been rarely studied as an outcome of constraints and constraint negotiation. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine the associations among leisure constraints, constraint negotiation, and enjoyment, within the context of leisure-time physical activity (...
Article
The purpose of this research note is to examine (a) how involvement with masters games participation is associated with interdependent happiness among Japanese masters athletes, and (b) how the relationship differs between Japanese sport tourists who have competed at domestic and international masters games events. A questionnaire survey was conduc...
Article
Affect valuation theory holds that ideal affect differs from actual affect in that the former refers to a goal whereas the latter refers to a response. More importantly, this theory proposes that culture influences ideal affect, in which Westerners and East-Asians value high- (e.g. excitement) and low-arousal (e.g. relaxing) positive affect, respec...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether walking on a World Heritage pilgrimage route, Kumano Kodo, provided tourists with awe-inspiring experiences. An open-ended questionnaire survey was conducted for participants in the masters sport event (i.e., the Nenrinpic Kinokuni Wakayama 2019). A total of 85 people took part in either the Kumano K...
Article
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Teaching and learning online will be the new normal at tertiary education, including tourism education programs due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine current situations and challenges of online programs in tourism studies offered by universities and to discuss future directions toward the development of online...
Article
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Due to the extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai as well as the Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games have been postponed for a year. To re-energize the Masters Games culture after the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, this study aimed to examine similarities and differences in constraints and constraint n...
Article
Theoretical integration has been called for in sport tourism research in order to capture the synergies of existing contributions. In response, this article proposes a conceptual framework of supplemental tourism activities, which are motivated by secondary and/or tertiary tourism attractions that complement or reinforce tourism benefits and opport...
Article
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By focusing on risk management of trail running events, this study aimed to (a) identify event organizers' risk and risk countermeasures, and (b) examine these relationships between the risk and risk countermeasures. This study conducted semi structured interviews with six event managers engaged in risk management for the trail running events. The...
Article
This study aimed to examine the relationships between involvement and happiness across a typology of Masters Games participants. The typology of Trauer, Ryan, and Lockyer [(2003). The South Pacific Masters’ Games – competitor involvement and games development: Implications for management and tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 8(4), 240–259. doi:1...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this case study was to investigate, separately for Mainland Chinese tourists with and without ski experience, differences between four types of ideal and overall tourism affect (i.e., high-arousal positive [HAP], low-arousal positive [LAP], low-arousal negative [LAN], high-arousal negative [HAN]). A questionnaire survey was conducted...
Article
Full-text available
Wakayama Prefecture hosted the 32nd National Health and Welfare Festival, Nenrinpic Kinokuni Wakayama 2019 in November 2019. This sporting event is an annual festival of sports competition and cultural activities by older persons aged 60 or over. As the cumulative total number of participants was 559,600, this participant sporting event was a great...
Article
There are two types of measurement models: reflective and formative. Kyle and Jun critiqued that while past leisure constraints studies assumed the reflective model, the formative counterpart may better fit extant measures; this was empirically supported by Kono, Ito, and Loucks-Atkinson. The purpose of this short research note is to extend this ke...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this research note was to examine relationships between ideal positive affect and repurchase intention among professional sport event spectators based on the affect valuation theory. This research note focused on spectators of Osaka Evessa, which actively promotes high-arousal entertainment at home games, and tested the hypothesis th...
Article
Although prediction is a stated goal of leisure constraints and constraint negotiation research, to date, empirical studies have solely focused on statistical explanation when comparing competing models. Our research, therefore, examined the predictive power of five leisure constraint-negotiation models within the context of leisure-time physical a...
Article
Full-text available
The two main purposes of this research paper are to review the history of sport tourism policies in Japan and discuss sport tourism policies after the Olympic and Paralympic Games Tokyo 2020 (henceforth, Tokyo 2020). To date, the Japan Sport Tourism Alliance and regional sports commissions have been launched and developed to build a foundation for...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and differences in the relationships between kyudo (Japanese archery) college athletes' psychological skills and performance among the following three different sport value orientations: "enjoyment orientation," "self-discipline orientation," and "winning orientation." A questionnaire survey...
Article
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Serious leisure (SL) is a specific leisure experience characterised by perseverance, leisure career, personal effort, durable benefits, unique ethos, and identification with the activity. As it results in self-actualisation and self-expression, Robert Stebbins has proposed that SL does not only increase participants’ hedonic well-being (e.g. pleasa...
Article
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Although several studies have demonstrated a significant influence of destination image on behavioral intention of sport event participants, the comprehensive assessment of participant-based brand equity for a destination (PBBED) in the context of sport events participation has been limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of...
Article
The purposes of this study were to examine (a) similarities and differences in constraints to and constraint negotiation for masters games (MG) participation, and (b) the relationships among constraints, constraint negotiation, and intention to participate in the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai, across international sport tourists, domestic sport t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between involvement with the masters games participation and interdependent happiness across leisure participation patterns. An online survey was conducted and usable data were collected from 449 Japanese who participated in masters games within the last three years. They were categorized i...
Article
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Supplemental tourism activities will be key in increasing sport event participants’ sense of satisfaction as well as economic impact. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine constraints to supplemental tourism activities among Japanese outbound sport tourists. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 23 Japanese participants at th...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of re-participation intention, word-of-mouth, and affect among cycle sport event participants based on the affect valuation theory. An online survey was conducted for the participants in a cycle sport event, and 110 participants completed the survey. Results of multiple regression analyses...
Chapter
The concept of volunteering grew widely in Japan after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995. Since then, the image of volunteering in Japan has been closely linked to altruism. Increases in volunteering in the country can be seen after each earthquake such as the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 and the Kumamoto Earthquake in 2016. Large-s...
Article
Moment- and memory-based leisure experiences appear to differ. Furthermore, prior research indicates that retrospective affective reports do not converge with their immediate counterparts, with the latter assumed to be more accurate. The experience sampling method (ESM) allows researchers to capture immediate experiences; however, it is more resour...
Article
The purpose of our study was to examine cultural similarities and differences in relationships between Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese university students’ types of leisure activity and their happiness. Stepwise multiple regression results indicated that: (a) personal happiness was associated with exercising among Canadians, social activities and o...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation of the cycling event participants and management cooperation, re-participation intention, and word-of-mouth. An online survey was conducted with the participants of the cycling event, and 110 participants completed the survey. The scale measuring motivation was comprised...
Article
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The purposes of this study were to (a) examine factor structures of motivation for marathon event participation and tourism activities; and (b) compare the motivation for marathon event participation and tourism activities across sport tourists without companions, sport tourists with companions, sport excursionists without companions, and sport exc...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine how affective experience changes while walking on Kumano Kodo. To this end, in May (Study 1) and September and October (Study 2) 2017, two questionnaire surveys were conducted for Japanese walkers on the Kumano Kodo trail. Based on the Affect Valuation Theory (Tsai et al., 2006), four types of affect (high-a...
Article
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Previous studies have indicated that both social and leisure contexts appear to lessen the discrepancy between ideal and actual affective states. However, research using the experience sampling method (ESM) to investigate relationships among ideal-actual affect discrepancies, leisure participation, and social contexts is rare. Therefore, the purpos...
Book
Accumulated knowledge in leisure studies overemphasizes Western samples and perspectives, and little research has been conducted in Japanese cultural contexts. This book, therefore, discusses contemporary meanings of leisure in Japan by conducting cross-cultural research and by employing culturally-informed psychological theories.
Article
Full-text available
Kyle and Jun raised a serious question against the way researchers have specified leisure constraints measurement model: Leisure constraints measures should be formatively measured, while the dominant model has been reflective. Despite their important theoretical contributions, Kyle and Jun’s empirical evidence has limitations. The purpose of this...
Article
Full-text available
Japan will host the Rugby World Cup 2019, the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, and the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai. A total of 30,000 domestic and 20,000 international athletes are expected to participate in the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai. However, little is known about constraints and constraint negotiation among such sport touris...
Article
Our study purposes were twofold: to inductively develop cross-culturally informed leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) constraint and constraint negotiation typologies and to investigate cultural similarities and differences in LTPA constraints and constraint negotiation using both the newly developed typologies and conventional Western typologies...
Article
Previous studies have indicated that control and positive affect, which are known to be important aspects of leisure experience, contribute to our psychological well-being. Recently, Ito and Walker’s (2016. Cultural commonality and specificity in Japanese and Euro-Canadian undergraduate students’ leisure experiences: An exploratory study on control...
Article
Japan is scheduled to host several major international sporting events in the next four years including the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. Its sport tourism sector is therefore well positioned for expansion but the issue of sustainability needs to be addressed. This research note sets out to clarify what is known about sustainable sport tourism in Japan as r...
Article
Full-text available
The 2019 Rugby World Cup, the Tokyo 2020 Olympics and Paralympics, and the World Masters Games 2021 Kansai have all combined to make sport tourism a popular subject in Japan. Yet, sport tourism is more than mega events. It exists at different scales and in other forms making it a potential agent for sustainable regional development outside of the m...
Article
Full-text available
The World Masters Games, which is the one of the biggest participant sport events, will be hosted in Kansai in 2021. The purpose of this report was to explore constraints and constraint negotiation among Japanese masters games participants in the international masters games. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Japanese masters athl...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of re-participation intention, word-of-mouth, and affect among cycle sport event participants based on the affect valuation theory. An online survey was conducted for the participants in a cycle sport event, and 110 participants completed the survey. Results of multiple regression analyses...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this mixed-methods research project is to theorize the linkage between leisure experience and life worthiness, or what the Japanese call ikigai. A grounded theory analysis of photo-elicitation interview data from 27 Japanese university students led to the inductive development of a substantive theory. This theory was then tested base...
Article
Objective: To examine the interplay between high fat and low muscle mass on cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline and in response to exercise in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using baseline percent body fat and skeletal muscle mass index, 248 participants were divided into high fat versus low fat and low muscle versus high muscle. Linear mixed mo...
Article
Full-text available
Japan is scheduled to host three major international sporting events during the next four years: the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Tokyo Olympics and Paralympics, and the 2021 Kansai World Masters Games. The prospect of these events provides a strong incentive for sport tourism research in Japan; however, it is more important to ensure that this s...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits of sport participation for people with dementia. The following three methods of collecting data were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, and (c) informal interviews. Data were collected at sport (i.e., running) events, 2014, 2015, and 2016 RUN TOMO-RROW, in Wakayama, whi...
Article
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On June 11th, 2017, the Japan Sport Agency announced the outdoor sports promotion declaration. To promote outdoor sports in Japan, the Japan Sport Agency and local governments have been working on the sustainable development of nature-based sport tourism. However, the population of outdoor sports including skiing and snowboarding has decreased. In...
Article
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The purpose of this research note was to examine the establishment process of sport commission in Japanese municipalities. Our results of semi-structured interviews conducted with the personnel of sport commission of Saitama, Niigata, and Fukuoka cities indicated that the establishment process including decision making process, essential conditions...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent Chinese Canadian immigrants' (a) leisure satisfaction, happiness, and life satisfaction changed over a two-year period and (b) if leisure satisfaction affected their subjective well-being (SWB) over this same period. Participants completed an initial, trilingual telephone questionnaire (N = 22...
Article
Accumulated cross-cultural research indicates that North Americans typically emphasize primary control (e.g., changing the environment) and high-arousal positive affect (e.g., enthusiasm), whereas East Asians typically emphasize secondary control (e.g., adjusting oneself, accepting the environment) and low-arousal positive affect (e.g., calmness)....
Article
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Participation in outdoor recreation has declined in Japan, especially among adolescents. For example, in 2013 no outdoor recreation activities were ranked in the top 20 most frequently participated sports by Japanese adolescents. Conversely, in Canada where sport promotion policies are well established, participation in outdoor recreation increased...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese university students' leisure satisfaction affected their subjective well-being (SWB) and, if so, how this process was similar and different cross-culturally/nationally. A series of stepwise multiple regressions indicated that, in general, satisfying leisure significant...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in outdoor recreation constraints between Japanese adolescent proactive and reactive response groups (Jackson et al., 1993). To do so, this study conducted a questionnaire survey of undergraduate students at Kobe University. Based on their frequency of participation in outdoor re...
Article
This study reviewed non-Western and cross-cultural/national research published in five major leisure studies journals between 1990 and 2009. Of 1,891 total articles, 4.1% were non-Western and cross-cultural/national in nature. Overall: (a) Greater China was the most frequently studied culture/nation (24.4%); (b) survey research was the most often e...
Article
This study examined relationships among ideal affect (i.e., how one prefers to feel) and actual affect during leisure and paid work. Data were collected from individuals who worked at least 20 hours per week. Findings revealed that: (a) low-arousal positive affect was preferred over high-arousal positive affect by female participants; (b) during le...
Article
This study investigated similarities and differences in leisure conceptualizations between Japan and Canada and between two Japanese leisure-like terms: yoka and rejā. To address these purposes, we developed the Leisure Ten Statements Test (LTST). The LTST asks people to provide 10 open-ended responses to a prompt (e.g., “Leisure _____”). Responses...
Article
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Given the Basic Act of Sport and the Sport Basic Plan, it is reasonable to state that it is time to reconsider lifelong sport in Japan. Therefore, this report examined the three following examples by focusing on the relationship between lifelong sport/leisure and community: (a) the world recognized tourist destination-Jasper, Alberta; (b) the Commu...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine how a leisure activity (i.e., judo) affected the assimilation of Brazilian immigrants in Japan. Researchers hypothesized that judo participation would affect the processes of assimilation, particularly acculturation and structural assimilation. Based on the results of observations, informal interviews, and q...
Article
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Bobby Valentine, former manager of the Chiba Lotte Marines (CLM), is sometimes considered to have introduced the Japanese to a more "Americanized" style of baseball fandom. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Americanization on CLM fans by investigating their satisfaction with this form of entertainment. By determining who was...
Article
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Recent research studies suggest that it would be financially beneficial for professional baseball teams to consider new ways of increasing spectator turnout so as to boost profits from both gate receipts and concession sales. This study attempts to clarify certain aspects of the complicated relationship between seating zone and both the satisfactio...

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