Eija Kärnä

Eija Kärnä
University of Eastern Finland | UEF · School of Educational Sciences and Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

69
Publications
23,676
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371
Citations

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Background Meeting daily guidelines for physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration is associated with a host of health indicators for youth. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigated the associations between adherence to the movement guidelines and health-related outcomes among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)....
Technical Report
Project report https://www.tuvet.fi/wp-content/uploads/sites/23/2022/01/TUVET-Raportti_arkisto.pdf
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated primary school special education teachers’ (SETs’) (N = 283) conceptions on their work descriptions and uses of pedagogical documents after a reform in the national support framework. The respondents of this survey reported working mostly in Tiers 1 and 2 when all their tasks (instruction, consultation, and managerial tasks)...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid development of digital technologies affects the lives of all people and often leads to people being in unequal positions regarding digital skills training opportunities. Older adults’ motivations for learning digital skills vary, but they are generally connected with expectations of upcoming benefits. This study investigates the self-perceive...
Article
Digitalization of public services affects daily life of older adults since adequate digital skills are required in using the digital devices and services. Many organizations have reacted to the growing need of older adults to receive support in using digital services by offering guidance in digital skills. The knowledge of how older adults learn he...
Technical Report
Available: http://www.thrivenordics.org/a-w-2020/research-focus-strengthening-teacher-training-for-significant-special-support-in-finland/ in Thrive Nordics Autum/Winter 2020
Article
Full-text available
Quality factors are the subject of increasing interest in the research and practice of early childhood education and care (ECEC). The purpose of the article is to emphasize the importance of the children’s voice in relation to the quality of ECEC. This article focuses on children’s negative experiences of ECEC as they can be used to improve service...
Article
This study describes how students initiate and manage transitions between activities during group-work. Audio and video recordings were collected in secondary school mathematics lessons (6 x 75 min) based on student-centred learning and the idea of minimal teacher instruction. In these lessons, the students were given the responsibility to initiate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The physical activity (PA) and health behaviours among pupils in special education classes and schools (SECS) is largely understudied. Results from surveys need to be comparable to data from children in general education. However, there is no systematic way to modify existing surveys to the SECS environment. Therefore, the purpose of th...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The universal right to education for people with disabilities has been highlighted by the Universal Declaration on Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In this paper, we mapped policies addressing the right to education and special education needs of autistic children in Denmark, Sweden, and Finl...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the policy and legislation that govern education in Finland. This policy and legislation are also the basis for the education of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For the last 10 years, the Finnish educational system has been considered one of the most successful in the world according to Programme o...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the key elements of the Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (2014) and describes how the education of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is individualized in accordance with the national curriculum. The Finnish National Core Curriculum regulates the education of all children in basic education in F...
Chapter
This paper analyzes and summarizes the educational status of children with ASD in China from several aspects such as relevant educational theories, relevant intervention methods, school education, family education, and training. Inclusion is the official educational policy in Finland, and schools at all levels of the educational system are obliged...
Chapter
This chapter introduces teaching methods and practices for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Finnish comprehensive school. The chapter begins with a short introduction to curricula that give the overall guidelines for teaching. After that, learning theories and teaching methods that are commonly used in Finland are discussed. The pred...
Chapter
Inclusion is the official educational policy in Finland, and since 2011, a new systematic way of organizing support, a so-called three-tiered support model, has been implemented. The chapter introduces how the new model changed the educational placement procedures and discusses how the educational placement of children with autism spectrum disorder...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Digipack Pro is a backpack that facilitates youngsters' social interactions and promotes playful activities during social encounters. It combines wearables technologies with universal design practices to transform an everyday item into a tool that supports social inclusion and well-being. Here we present our contextualisation of the Digipack Pro fr...
Article
In this study we investigated how students manage their lack of/insufficient understanding of the content of a mathematical task with the aim of reaching shared understanding and epistemic balance in peer interaction. The data consists of recordings collected during mathematics project (6 x 75 minutes) in a Finnish lower secondary school. The findi...
Article
The Finnish education system is based on equity, and the basic education act emphasises the inclusion and full participation of all pupils in education. Social participation of SEN students is a key issue favouring inclusive schools. Thus, SEN pupils’ experiences of social participation indicate how inclusion policies work in practice. This study f...
Article
Full-text available
a Itä-Suomen yliopisto, vastaava kirjoittaja, s-posti: kaisa.pihlainen@uef.fi b Helsingin yliopisto c Itä-Suomen yliopisto TIIVISTELMÄ: Suomessa varhaiskasvatusta toteutetaan pääsääntöisesti päiväkodeissa ja perhepäivähoidossa. Varhaiskasvatuksen tavoitteena on tukea lapsen kasvua, kehitystä ja oppimista laadukkailla palveluilla. Varhaiskasvatuksen...
Book
This book addresses the difficult challenges that children with autism present educators. By comprehensively examining the scientific knowledge underlying educational practices, programs and strategies in China and Finland, it provides valuable information for parents, administrators, researchers, and policy makers. This book examines the followin...
Article
Full-text available
In a society of long life, digital media is a major issue for supporting older adults’ well-being and societal participation. However, there are many hindrances in regard to learnability and appropriability of technological devices for older adults.The project ACCESS provides a conceptual framework for examining, installing and evaluating innovativ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology-enhanced environments are increasingly used to enhance the interaction skills of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet little is known about how technology use influences interactions between educators and children. This article examined how educators engage with children with ASD in a technology-enhanced learning environment...
Article
Full-text available
The use of mobile technologies is playing an increasingly important role in early childhood education (ECE) settings. However, although technologies are often integrated in ECE provided in day care centres, technology use in other ECE settings, such as in family day care, is rare. In this paper, we describe the Digi-bag, a tablet-based mobile learn...
Article
Research on people diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (henceforth autism) is often based upon biomedical understanding. Such understanding tends to view the characteristics related to autism diagnosis, such as the lack of or atypical use of speech, as a sign of incompetence that can be reduced as an underlying pathology of an individual. Howev...
Article
This article reports the results of a study that investigated junior high school students’ experiences with learning in mathematics lessons that were based on self-guidance, use of technology, and minimalist instruction. The study was part of a ClassPad project and data were obtained from reports written by the 23 students after the ClassPad projec...
Article
Recent studies on gaze behaviours in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have utilised “live eye tracking.” Such research has focused on generating quantitative eye tracking measurements, which provide limited (if any) qualitative contextual details of the actual interactions in which gaze occurs. This article presents a novel methodolo...
Article
Parental participation during children’s free-time activities, schooling, and therapy is of core importance. However, parents’ participation in long-term technology development is very rare, even though its importance has been widely noted. This paper looks at technology co-development with parents within informal learning club contexts for childre...
Article
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reportedly have difficulties in responding to bids for joint attention, notably in following pointing gestures. Previous studies have predominantly built on structured observation measures and predefined coding categories to measure children’s responsiveness to gestures. However, how these gestures are d...
Article
Full-text available
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are vulnerable to interactional trouble: difficulties in speaking, hearing and understanding. Prior conversation analytic (CA) work has examined how interactional trouble gets repaired mostly in verbal interactions among neurotypical speakers. Non-CA examinations have mainly been concerned with how child...
Article
Full-text available
High support need and minimally verbal individuals with autism have received less attention in research in comparison to so-called higher functioning individuals with autism. As computers motivate individuals with autism, a game with a positive user experience was altered into a level 1 perspective-taking task in which advancement was contingent on...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The Sally-Anne test has been extensively used to examine children’s theory of mind understanding. Many task-related factors have been suggested to impact children’s performance on this test. Yet little is known about the interactional aspects of such dyadic assessment situations that might contribute to the ways in which children respon...
Article
This case is a part of the first author’s current PhD research on interactions involving children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Children with ASD are proposed to have difficulties in coordinating and sharing attention with a partner to an external (“third”) object or a feature in the environment – also referred to as joint attention or triad...
Conference Paper
Due to an increasing use of technologies, practical nurses working with elderly people in home care need to master various technologies. In this paper we investigate the practical nurses ́ perceptions of their know-how of information and communication technologies and the role of technologies in home care. According to online survey, the practical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterised as having challenges in the social use of eye-gaze (e.g., Chawarska, Macari, & Shic, 2013). The research on eye-gaze behaviours is often conducted in carefully controlled settings; less is known about the use of eye-gaze during naturally occurring interactions (but see Nori...
Chapter
This paper introduces four principles for the establishment of a technology-enhanced learning environment with and for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and presents results on how the principles were actualized in relation to children’s actions in the environment. The study was conducted as action research premised on the children’s a...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of a review of research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the use of technology. The review included 255 peer-reviewed research articles published between 2000 and 2010, archived in the ACM, IEEE, EBSCO, and ERIC databases. Content analysis was a method for analyzing articles. The results of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been reported to exhibit difficulties in tests measuring mental state understanding, such as the Sally-Anne task. There are also vast performance differences among these children, usually explained by individual or task-related factors. Little is known about the interactional factors of face-to-fac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with ASD have challenged educational professionals in Finland and abroad in the creation of suitable learning environments, especially for the group of lower functioning and minimally verbal children with ASD. To explore what constitutes a good learning environment and to support learning of children with ASD, we have created a technology-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Triadisen vuorovaikutuksen tutkimus on osoittanut, että autismin kirjon lapsilla on vaikeuksia tarkkaavaisuuden suuntaamisessa kuten esimerkiksi osoittamiseleiden seuraamisessa. Tyypillisesti tällainen havainnoiva tutkimus käyttää menetelmänään teoriaan pohjautuvia koodauskategorioita. Koodauskategoriat ovat hyödyllisiä triadisten taitojen määrälli...
Article
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have impaired joint attention (JA), which is considered key for learning social communication. This study reviewed the JA literature from the past decade to explore the generality of the deficit and looked at the JA assessment methods to see whether children's interests and preferen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Perspective-taking skills and eye-gaze processing are reported to be impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This paper presents the structure and the theory behind a learning game for perspective-taking skills and eye-gaze following. The game is for lower functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, and it was developed in th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have challenges in triadic interaction, or joint attention. These skills affect multiple areas of the lives of these children, including their learning and education. Previously, technological solutions have been found to be beneficial for this population. Thus, we were interested in investigating triadi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder have a wide variety of skills and preferences. This paper introduces a Kinect®-based game for a technology club for children with autism spectrum disorder, which allows each child’s preferences to be acknowledged. Commercial games were first used to discover how children would interact with a Kinect- based...
Article
Full-text available
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often linked with difficulties in triadic interaction or joint attention. This paper investigated the communicative competencies that children with ASD might have in these skills. We report findings from a pilot case study that focused on a school-aged child with ASD who interacted with his adult co-participants in...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined special education teachers’ and assistants’ views on the process and outcomes of an action research project. The context of the study was the CASCATE (Children with Autism Spectrum disorders as Creative Actors in a strength-based Technology-enhanced learning Environment) research project, which investigates the actions of childr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper introduces four principles for the establishment of a technology-enhanced learning environment with and for children with autism spectrum disorders and presents results on how the principles were actualized in relation to children's actions in the environment. The study was conducted as action research premised on the children's active r...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of a study on the communication of four children with autism in a learning environment with multiple technologies. The main focus of the study was on the amount and forms of the children’s expressions produced by voice while working at three technology-based workstations: building with bricks, symbol matching, and st...
Chapter
The completion of the most high-ranking academic thesis, a doctoral thesis, is a manifold process. During that process, the wonder of a research theme should become ennobled as the systematic analysis of the phenomenon resulting to a thesis that meets academic criteria. The scientific validity of a thesis and research results are tested in a pre-ex...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the results of children's and teacher's experiences and feedback on DIY push-button workshops. The implementation of the workshops was based on the ideas of participatory design. An objective of the workshop was to make a working biased membrane switch from cheap and easily modifiable common materials. Part...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Children in the Centre (CiC) framework, introduced in this paper, facilitates successful multidisciplinary research and design collaboration in computer science and special education with partners in non-academic contexts. The CiC framework emphasizes the active role of children and their families in the research and design processes. Practical...
Article
Nurse teacherhood is composed of many factors. It includes nurse teachers™ tasks and different multidimensional roles and also nurse teachers™ individual experiences of being a nurse teacher. Nurse teachers™ experiences of nurse teacherhood depend on the meanings they give to the different factors. In other words, there are not only one but also se...
Article
Nurse teacherhood is usually examined from the perspectives of nurse teachers' tasks, roles, skills and managing. The purpose of this study was to discuss how nurse teachers themselves describe their teacherhood. The purpose was also to generate a substantive theory of nurse teacherhood, its development, changes and manifestation. Nurse teachers fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Educational robotics has the potential for improving special needs education and for eliminating barriers to learning if it can be focused squarely on the special needs of children. This case study examines a variety of special needs that have the potential to enrich educational robotic design. Educational robotics should be used to meet the indivi...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing number of children who need special education in Finland also requires an increasing amount of resources from teachers and a restructuring of the education system. Tech- nology can be a part of the solution to this resource problem; however, for the technological solution to work, technologies need to be designed and implemented in n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Educational robotics is used worldwide in education as a learning tool, but surprisingly rarely in special education. In our study educational robotics and the kids' club working model were brought into special education which usually lacks educational technology tools. Through qualitative action research, we have identified various advantages that...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
PEICAS is an interdisciplinary and international research project. PEICAS aims at developing understanding and strategies to support the social participation of children with autism in peer interactions in inclusive classrooms. https://www.peicas.fi
Project
The multidisciplinary project will focus on finding ways to support the learning of ICT skills among older people with weak technological skills.The project will analyse different contexts of learning (e.g. formal and informal) and different ways of learning (e.g. courses and peer learning), and it will also look into novel opportunities of learning ICT skills. Furthermore, the project will design a counselling concept and make available information of fixed and mobile technological solutions that are suitable for older people. The international consortium project is coordinated by the University of Siegen in Germany, and the partners include the University of Eastern Finland, TU Dortmund University, the University of Vienna, the National Institutes on Health and Science of Ageing, Italy, and the German Institute for Japanese Studies in Japan. The three-year project will be ongoing in 2018–2020. The project secured funding from the H2020 More Years Better Life – Ageing and Place in a Digitising World call.
Archived project