Ehud Galili

Ehud Galili
University of Haifa | haifa · Department of Archaeology

About

171
Publications
94,249
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4,458
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
2312 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
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Beachrock is composed of intertidal-associated sediments, rapidly cemented by calcium carbonate, and has important implications for understanding coastal morphological processes. This study focuses on the morphodynamic erosion patterns of Late Holocene beachrock outcrops along the Mediterranean coast of Israel that have formed since the sea reached...
Article
Full-text available
The authors discuss new sediment coring at the Early Neolithic submerged site of Atlit-Yam, Israel, that reveals stratified archaeological deposits 0.7–0.9m below the seabed. They demonstrate the potential of micro-geoarchaeological analysis to generate new chrono-stratigraphic data for the onset of Early Neolithic coastal occupation in the Eastern...
Article
Four lead ingots were found as part of a shipwreck cargo in the southern anchorage of Caesarea in Israel. Analysis of the lead and a study of the markings incised on three of them are presented here for the first time. Four Cypro-Minoan signs are identified and paralleled with signs found on Late Cypriot artefacts. Lead isotope analysis indicates t...
Article
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Pottery from Submerged Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic Settlements of the Carmel Coast, Israel: A Microarchaeological Study of Raw Material Procurement and Firing Technology
Article
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The first exploited and domesticated olive forms are still unknown. The exceptionally wellpreserved stones from the submerged Hishuley Carmel site (Israel), dating from the middle of the 7th millennium BP, offer us the opportunity to study the oldest table olives discovered so far. We apply a geometrical morphometric analysis in reference to a coll...
Article
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Beehive products have a rich global history. In the wider Levantine region, bees had a significant role in Egypt and Mesopotamia, and intensive beekeeping was noted in Israel during the Biblical period when apiaries were first identified. This study investigates the origins of this extensive beekeeping through organic residue analysis of pottery fr...
Article
Lead isotope analysis (LIA) can be applied to tin provenance studies when both the U–Th–Pb characteristics of cassiterite and potential Pb contamination are taken into account. As cassiterite (SnO2) contains higher concentrations of U than Pb and negligible Th, radioactive decay increases ²⁰⁶Pb/²⁰⁴Pb and ²⁰⁷Pb/²⁰⁴Pb ratios in cassiterite over time....
Article
In the past few decades the field of submerged prehistory has produced important data highlighting ancient coastal habitation across the globe. Most prehistoric underwater sites are discovered by chance (e.g., by industry, fishermen or recreational divers). New methods for detecting submerged prehistoric settlements have been developed using sophis...
Article
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Archaeological and geomorphological features, as well as traces left by tsunamis, earthquakes , and vertical earth-crust displacements, are used to identify sea-level and coastal changes. Such features may be displaced, submerged or eroded by natural processes and human activities. Thus, identifying ancient sea levels and coastal changes associated...
Poster
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In the dynamic intertidal sandy environment, rocky elements such as beachrock, can be used for evaluating sands transportation and erosion rates. Constantly exposed beachrock deposit is necessarily an indicator of erosive conditions that may result from various factors, especially construction of marine structures, sea levels fluctuations and sand...
Article
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Acoustic response from lithics knapped by humans has been demonstrated to facilitate effective detection of submerged Stone Age sites exposed on the seafloor or embedded within its sediments. This phenomenon has recently enabled the non-invasive detection of several hitherto unknown submerged Stone Age sites, as well as the registration of acoustic...
Article
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We present here the earliest evidence for large-scale table olive production from the mid-7th millennium BP inundated site of Hishuley Carmel on the northern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Olive pit size and fragmentation patterns, pollen as well as the architecture of installations associated with pits from this site, were compared to finds from t...
Article
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Since 2011, beach nourishment has become the preferred solution for mitigating coastal erosion along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, as it is considered “soft” and environmentally friendly. However, using fine sand for nourishment in Israel without supporting measures is problematic due to the high wave energy and strong longshore currents in th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Inundated archaeological sites dating from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Pottery Neolithic periods have been exposed off the Mediterranean coast of Israel, mainly the northern Carmel coast. The bulk of the sites represents in situ Neolithic settlements dating from the tenth to the seventh millennia BP, including the Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of A...
Article
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We report the results of underwater archaeological investigations at the submerged Neolithic settlement of Tel Hreiz (7500 – 7000 BP), off the Carmel coast of Israel. The underwater archaeological site has yielded well-preserved architectural, artefactual, faunal and human remains. We examine and discuss the notable recent discovery of a linear, bo...
Article
en Shipwreck cargo of lead ingots, some marked, discovered off Tel Ashkelon, weighed about four tonnes. C14 analysis of charred wood from an ingot dated it to the 11th–13th centuries AD, Crusader times. Lead isotopic ratios provenanced the ingots to Mont‐Lozère, France. Various aspects of the lead trade are discussed, including: lead sources, extra...
Article
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Geo-archaeological studies along the Mediterranean coast of Israel and its seabed have revealed shipwrecks, anchorages, coastal installations and natural features that can act as markers to estimate the formation date and retreat rates of the coastal cliff of central Israel. The Sharon coastal ridge consists of alternating layers of kurkar (local t...
Article
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The origin of the tin used for the production of bronze in the Eurasian Bronze Age is still one of the mysteries in prehistoric archaeology. In the past, numerous studies were carried out on archaeological bronze and tin objects with the aim of determining the sources of tin, but all failed to find suitable fingerprints. In this paper we investigat...
Chapter
The Journal of Medieval Military History continues to consolidate its now assured position as the leading academic vehicle for scholarly publication in the field of medieval warfare. ‘Medieval Warfare’
Article
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Scientific underwater archaeology started in the early 20 th century with the development of scuba. Prehistoric artefacts were discovered incidentally by fisherman, divers or in the course of marine projects. The current challenge of underwater prehistoric archaeology is to establish a methodology that will enable exploration, excavation, survey an...
Article
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Seismic high-resolution Chirp profiles from the well-documented submerged Stone Age settlement Atlit-Yam, located off Israel’s Carmel coast, display systematic disturbances within the water column not related to sea-floor cavitation, vegetation, fish shoals, gas or salinity/temperature differences, where flint debitage from the Stone Age site had b...
Article
Underwater explorations along the Israeli coast recovered more than twenty lead braziers, used for cooking aboard, dated to the Roman-Early Byzantine period. Few lead braziers from additional underwater Mediterranean sites were reported. To thermodynamically study the operation of this unique innovation, a steel model of a typical lead brazier was...
Article
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A central problem for maritime archaeology has been to find survey methods that facilitate efficient and precise mapping of Stone Age sites on the seabed down to the lowest sea level (approximately - 140 m) during glacial periods, as well as sites embedded in sea-floor sediments. As predictive landscape modelling has proved to be inadequate for thi...
Article
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The engineering marvel of Sebastos, or Portus Augusti as it was called in Late Antiquity (284–638 CE), dominated Caesarea’s harbor center along modern Israel’s central coast but it was only one part of a larger maritime complex. The Southern Anchorage provides a case study as one portion of the Caesarea complex, as well as a node within the regiona...
Article
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This article reviews and discusses key data, literature, debates and discussions focussed on relative sea-level change since the Last Interglacial (approximately last ~132,000 years) in the Mediterranean Basin. Special reference is given to the geomorphological (physical and environmental) and archaeological (human and cultural) aspects of central...
Conference Paper
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3D documentation of shipwrecks embedded in sea- floor sediments, and not visible above it, is potentially an important aspect of maritime archaeological survey and management. Known shipwrecks embedded in the sea floor have been registered in 3D as part of 3D chirp-system research, which focussed on these specific features. But this method is e...
Conference Paper
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Sub-bottom systems able to distinguish poles less than 10 cm in diameter embedded in the sea-floor sediments have been used since 1994 to map submerged archaeological pole structures, such as harbours and defensive barrages intended to protect against naval attacks, located in relatively shallow water. This approach has proved its worth in pro...
Chapter
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This book analyses archaeological finds retrieved from the Akko marina and its surroundings. Analysis of structures and installations casts light on the harbour's building and destruction cycles; for example, a 15th century wooden mole has been discovered, indicating previously unknown activity in that period. Hellenistic to late Ottoman period cer...
Chapter
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Eight inundated archaeological sites dating to the Pottery Neolithic period (Wadi Rabah culture), 8000–6500 cal. BP, have been exposed under water off the Carmel coast of Israel. The sites represent in situ settlements with architectural remains comprising domestic stone-built structures and water wells built of wood and stone. Rich assemblages of...
Chapter
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The site of Atlit-Yam is one of the best preserved and most thoroughly investigated submerged prehistoric settlements in the world, with a wealth of finds of material culture and organic remains characteristic of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic village based on a mixed economy of farming and fishing 9000 years ago. Stone-lined water wells were also found,...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the main environmental factors which have controlled the evolution of the submerged prehistoric landscape and therefore influenced prehistoric human migration and activity, and discusses the potential for the survival of prehistoric cultural and natural remains on the sea floor of the continental shelf in the Aegean region. Und...
Article
Beach deposits of the last interglacial maximum, MIS 5e, are common on the Mediterranean coasts, however only a few of them contain archaeological remains. Four beach deposits containing Paleolithic remains were previously identified on the Carmel coast of northern Israel which relate to the MIS 5e sea-level high stand of the last interglacial maxi...
Article
Various artillery and rigging artefacts were retrieved from the Megadim wreck-site, Israel. The present research is aimed at determining the composition, microstructure and manufacturing processes of the objects, as well as their dating. Therefore, a multidisciplinary testing approach was applied, based on typology, metallurgical criteria, archaeob...
Article
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The coast of the Mediterranean provide several remnants of ancient coastal quarries, which are now useful to study sea level change occurring during the last millennia. Millstones quarries were exploited with same quarrying techniques from rocks like beachrocks, sandstones or similar lithologies, were shaped to be suitable to grind olives, seeds an...
Chapter
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The economy of the traditional Mediterranean fishing village (MFV) is defined as one based on both agro-pastoral and marine exploitation. This subsistence base first developed on the Levantine coast in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic C period (the end of the 9th and first half of the 8th millennium BP uncalibrated), as documented at the site of Atlit-Yam...
Article
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Late Pleistocene beach deposits in 22 selected sites around Cyprus demonstrate the vertical changes in the Earth's crust in that island over the last 125 ka. The beach/shallow-marine deposits were observed on the abraded coastal cliffs at 3–22 m above the present sea-level. They overlie Pliocene marls, and some of them contain the Senegalese marine...
Article
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Several objects bearing unusual motifs have recently been recovered during salvage excavations and surveys of sites in Israel dated to the 6th–5th millennia BC. In the southern Levantine examples (Hagoshrim, Neve Yam and Ein Zippori), these motifs appear on bone objects and stone palettes in strata identified with the Early Chalcolithic of the Wadi...
Article
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Four symbolic artefacts were recovered from the Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic (Wadi Rabah culture) site of Neveh Yam, dated to the sixth-fifth millennia BCE. These comprise two anthropomorphic figurines made of stone, one anthropomorphic image incised on bone and a sherd with zoomorphic incisions. These artefacts are described and discussed wit...
Article
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The paper discusses the detection of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments using a Chirp sub-bottom profiler. From a methodological-historical perspective it presents four examples of recent chirp recordings of verified shipwrecks embedded in different types of sediment environments, from different geographical and geological areas and from di...
Article
An archeometallurgical and technical characterization of a Late Byzantine–Early Islamic fishing-spear (harpoon) and a fire basket, both made of iron, was performed. These fishing instruments, probably belonging to a fishing vessel dated to the seventh century AD, were retrieved from the Dor (Tantura) lagoon, Israel. The present research aimed at de...
Article
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Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the G...
Article
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A characteristic group of obligatory weeds was found in the well of the submerged Pre-Pottery Neolithic C site of Atlit-Yam, Israel. Identifying these finds to species level was crucial for defining them as obligatory weeds. We deal here with the earliest and largest assemblage of obligatory and facultative weeds in the southwest Asian Neolithic. A...
Article
Underwater archaeological discoveries along the Israeli coast expose numerous symbolic artifacts and testify to religious-sacral, cultic and spiritual practices by mariners. The discoveries consist of nautical objects and signs concerning these supernatural practices. Most of the artifacts were for predetermined nautical use. Other artifacts broadc...