Efe Sevin

Efe Sevin
Reinhardt College · Department of Communication

17.53
 · 
PhD
About
49
Research items
14,994
Reads
281
Citations
Introduction
Efe Sevin is an Assistant Professor of Strategic Communication at Reinhardt University (Georgia, US). His current research focuses on the role of place branding and public diplomacy campaigns on achieving development goals and foreign policy objectives. His most recent book, Public Diplomacy and the Implementation of Foreign Policy in the US, Sweden and Turkey, was published by Palgrave MacMillan in 2017.
Research Experience
Aug 2017
Reinhardt University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Sep 2016 - Mar 2017
Sep 2014 - Aug 2016
Kadir Has University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
Aug 2010 - Jun 2014
American University Washington D.C.
Field of study
  • International Relations
Aug 2008 - May 2010
Emerson College
Field of study
  • Communication Management
Sep 2004 - Jun 2008
Middle East Technical University
Field of study
  • International Relations
Network
Cited By
Followers
Following
Projects
Projects (2)
Project
We are editing a book on the internationalization of cities, tentatively entitled “From Branding to Diplomacy: Cities in the International Arena”. Building on the existing studies in the field, we position this book as a way to launch into a larger discussion on cities and their role in international relations. We invite contributions that focus on the role of cities as actors in the international arena. We are looking for three broad approaches to city diplomacy: (1) theoretical approaches to the study of city diplomacy, (2) new methods and methodologies in city diplomacy, and (3) case studies. Abstract submissions of no more than 500 words, along with author name(s) and bio sketches of no more than 200 words should be submitted to citydiplomacy@gmail.com by November 1st. Questions about the project can be directed to the editors (Efe Sevin: ehs@reinhardt.edu, Sohaela Amiri: sohaela_amiri@rand.org). More information about the project can be found at http://bit.ly/CfPCities (link case sensitive).
Archived project
This project attempts to provide conceptual explanations to diplomatic interactions on social media through an analysis of existing communication networks and practices. The research is motivated by two fundamental changes in communication technologies and processes influencing the traditional understandings of international relations. First, social media is seen as a platform on which diplomatic processes take place. With the ubiquitous adaptation of social media, traditional diplomats make use of these tools in their communication attempts with their constituents and other diplomats. Diplomatic signaling and recognition processes take place in a digital environment. Second, non-state actors – such as civil society groups and corporations – gain power and further legitimacy in the international arena. Through social media, individuals have the opportunity to digitally get organized and make their voices heard by the traditional players of diplomacy, i.e. states and international organizations. The novelty of this project stems from its ambition to support theoretical arguments with empirical data. Given the fact that the findings of purely theoretical studies might not necessarily be applied in practice, theory of social media and observations of diplomatic practices are used to support each other in this study. The new digital forms of diplomatic processes will be explained through three in-depth case studies: Switzerland, South Korea, and Turkey. The project will explore a variety of contemporary issues that lie in the intersection of communications and international relations. How does the social media change traditional diplomacy and public diplomacy? What state and non-state actors are included in digital public diplomacy? What are the characteristics of messages shared and relations built online? How do these communication processes influence the way individuals perceive other nations? This project is likely to yield both academic and practical outcomes. On the academic side, the interdisciplinary nature of the project design shows the role of communication in the international political arena. Moreover, the proposed conceptual explanations make it easier to analyze diplomatic processes on social media. On the practical side, the findings of the research can be adapted by diplomats to improve their international communication practices.
Research
Research items (49)
Article
This article investigates how diplomatic networks move into a new digital media platform, namely Twitter, through the analytical lenses of networked diplomacy studies and mediatization. We employ the studies in the former field to argue for the need to study the entire network to evaluate diplomatic relations, rather than relying on bilateral relat...
Article
Measurement has been and still is a challenging issue in the practice and study of public diplomacy. In this article, we propose a model to assess the impacts of public diplomacy projects by creating a link between social media communication campaigns and the perception of nations by audiences—or nation brands. We demonstrate how the model can be u...
Article
Full-text available
The failed coup attempt on the night of July 15th unsurprisingly affected Turkish diplomacy. In addition to being one of the deadliest clashes Turkey has ever witnessed inside its borders, the coup also constituted a threat to the country's international reputation. On the first anniversary of the coup, Turkish representations went on a digital off...
Chapter
This chapter presents a conceptual two-level approach, focusing on interactions at state and civil society levels. Using the Turkish humanitarian aid to Somalia as a case study to develop further their conceptual framework, the authors examine how state and non-state actors engage with local players in Somalia and how they communicate their presenc...
Article
This article presents a multilayered framework, called pathways of connection, as an approach to public diplomacy evaluation. It is well established both in the study and practice of public diplomacy that evaluation is a daunting task, mostly due to the complex and convoluted nature of the concept. To overcome such obstacles, the proposed framework...
Article
Purpose This paper brings a communication management perspective to how nations might use their involvement in humanitarian responses to refugee crisis in attempts to improve their global standing through a case study of Turkish efforts during the Syrian Civil War. Design/methodology/approach In order to assess the context of Turkey’s attempts t...
Answer
Bilwa - what you are describing is the basic dilemma between external/ecological and internal/construct validity. If you use the actually TV ad, your ecological validity will be higher as you are actually using the real ad. But your construct validity will be lower as you cannot really control the actual message/design. If you design a new one, your construct validity will be higher as you will make sure humor is there for sure, but your ecological validity will be lower as it is not a real ad. 
Basically, decide which one is more important for you: the relationship between humor and appeal or the applicability of your findings for other cases. If you want the former, go with the designed ad and make sure the design is as realistic as it gets (maybe even print it in a newspaper, put it on a website screenshot from a newspaper etc). If you want the latter, go with the real ad and do a couple of pilot tests to make sure people really get "humor" in that ad.
Answer
It does, you can quote me on that Guy.
Well, in more serious terms, I am going to echo Ben's points, and take one further step. How can you argue that it was soft power that led to the cooperation and not the engagement done through PD? Soft power itself does not yield an observable behavioral change mechanism. I don't believe it ever was meant to.
Even though I will have ontological issues about it, I guess you can quote the following policy makers:
1) Ibrahim Kalin - former Turkish PD Coordinator, Current spokesperson for the president
2) Putin - the link is not the best here. He had a NY Times op-ed where he was very skeptical and dismissive about soft power.
3) Sen. Graham - in case you missed it. 
Looking forward to reading the work! 
Article
The U.S. presidential elections always attract the attention of foreign audiences—who, despite not being able to vote, choose to follow the campaigns closely. For a post that is colloquially dubbed as the “Leader of the Free World,” it is not unexpected to see such an interest coming from nonvoters. Mimicking almost hosting a megaevent, the electio...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the comparative study of the cases discussed in Chaps. 4–6. The three public diplomacy projects help the study to detail the pathways of connection and to create a practical roadmap from six apparently independent pathways. The chapter starts with highlighting the lessons drawn from the individual cases about public diplomac...
Chapter
This chapter unfolds the link between public diplomacy and foreign policy as it is observed in the Swedish practice. The chapter opens with the historical, bureaucratic and political context of Swedish public diplomacy. The historical account portrays the role of the Swedish model, especially the country’s reputation in working towards solutions fo...
Chapter
This chapter concludes the study by sharing three highlights revealed by the pathways of connection. First, there is a need to contextualize the understanding of soft power. The contextualization refers to two different phenomena: the practice environment and the political environment. The former argues that a country’s public diplomacy strategy or...
Chapter
This chapter provides the background for the research puzzle—why do states communicate with foreign audiences?—and shares the significance of the research with the readers—why do we need to explore the role of communication in foreign policy? The chapter first asks why public diplomacy carries out the label diplomacy. The question is answered by ou...
Chapter
This chapter introduces how public diplomacy is defined and studied in this book. The first section presents a summary of a variety of disciplinary approaches, all of which accentuate the importance of certain aspects of the concept and study parts of the practice. The second section discusses the characteristics of “new” public diplomacy and intro...
Chapter
This chapter attempts to unfold the link between public diplomacy and foreign policy as it is observed in the Turkish logic of practice. The chapter opens with the history of Turkish practice. Then, the contemporary institutions that are working in the political framework of Central Asia—the political work in which the representative project operat...
Chapter
This chapter explores the link between public diplomacy and foreign policy as practiced by the United States—one of the most, if not the most, important practitioner of public diplomacy. The chapter opens with a brief overview of the history of American public diplomacy and current practitioner institutions. This historical approach is important in...
Chapter
This chapter introduces six pathways of connection as an analytical framework which constitutes the backbone of this book. Each pathway is built on a theoretical foundation and an explicit assumption about how public diplomacy can manifest its impact on foreign policy and contribute to the achievement of foreign policy goals. First, by reconstructi...
Chapter
This chapter presents and discusses a new communicative space in which contemporary cities exists. The outset of such a space is the result of two interrelated developments. First, international tourism has become a viable source of income for cities causing them to compete with each other for potential visitors. As a result, cities have widely emb...
Book
Full-text available
This book presents a comprehensive framework, six pathways of connection, which explains the impact of public diplomacy on achieving foreign policy goals. The comparative study of three important public diplomacy practitioners with distinctive challenges and approaches shows the necessity to move beyond soft power to appreciate the role of public d...
Answer
Dear Ankur,
As you asked us to assume you are a layman, I'll do so (and maybe exaggerate some parts to make my points clearer).
In its essence, a QDA software (CAQDAS such as QDA Miner, MaxQDA, R's QDA package, Dedoose, nVivo, Atlas.ti etc.) is the digital equivalent of a highlighter and a blank paper. They help you carry out content analysis. Let it be quantitative or qualitative content analysis (and it is mostly quantitative), you basically 'count' how often a certain word or a concept is repeated. In the good old non-computer days, the process was literally done with printed spreadsheets. Coders would just count. Softwares help you keep your codebook, documents, and other variables together. They also help you count. That is pretty much it. CAQDAS do not necessarily move beyond this.
However, there are "smarter" software out there that do text-mining. R's tm package, or QDA Miner's sibling WordStat actually help you find the most repeated terms / concepts. They also help you find out concepts associated with each other. I am aware that there are even smarter software used by natural language processing people but those are way too smart for me. I have never used any.
Going back to your questions:
1- I have two answers for this one:
1a) You can use a CAQDAS to create your codebook, dump all your company reports, and start coding. Once you are done with coding, you can use case/document variables to create a model. For instance (I am just making things up), you might see that "mortgage" was referred as a reliable source of income only four times in 2011, six times in 2012, sixteen times in 2013. You can argue that there is a trend towards seeing mortgage as a reliable source of income (year would be your case variable here). Or maybe you will find that different parts of the company have different ideas about performance ( parts of the company would be your case variable here).
1b) If you can get your hands on one of those smarter software, you might do keyword and phrase frequency counts. So, without manual coding, you will know how many times a word / phrase was used in a given document.
2- Yes you can. It is even possible to do an automated sentiment analysis.
Here is my personal recommendation to you. As far as I can see, you have only five annual reports. I assume we are looking at 500-800 pages of text or so. I would recommend you to do an inductive manual coding, using any software you want or just an excel spreadsheet. Go through the texts, and mark everything you think signifies growth or degrowth sentiment. Once you are done, try to see whether they are recurring themes across years. Classify your marked text under categories based on these recurring themes. Use case variables (such as year, company division, function, whatever is interesting for you) to measure whether there are any significant difference.
If you are willing to invest in a software package, I'd recommend Provalis Research Suite (QDA Miner and Wordstat). If you have a lower budget, Dedoose might be a cheaper alternative. If you are familiar with the R environment, you can use rQDA (not really great but it works) and tm packages.
I hope this answer is helpful. Let me know if you have any other questions.
Efe
Answer
Recently, Indiana University came up with a tool called OSoMe. 
I still could not figure out how to run it. If you manage to use it, I'd appreciate any tips you might have.
Answer
Reilly, GNIP cost is going to be $1000 per search (up to 40 days of search period, and 1 million tweets) if they haven't changed their policies recently. 
Even when you code, the public (free) API is limited to 14 days. So, if you need anything that is older than 14 days, you will need to pay.
Depending on your needs, one of the website on this link might be helpful: http://white.net/blog/30-twitter-search-alternatives-tools/
Another alternative is to go through users. Instead of a hashtag search, if you are okay with getting all the tweets sent by individual users, you can use allmytweets.net.
Chapter
This chapter is a comparative study of how three local governments— Cape Town (South Africa), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, USA), and Myrtle Beach (South Carolina, USA)—use social media platforms in their city branding attempts. Theoretical arguments in the fields of corporate and city branding point out the potential of these new communication platf...
Chapter
This chapter presents a theoretical look on the available international communication tools that can be used by multinational corporations (MNCs) to engage in diplomatic relations. Specifically, the chapter will provide details about three concepts: lobbying, nation brands, and commercial diplomacy. The research objective is to propose a conceptual...
Answer
As far as I know, the answer is no. And unfortunately the users need to opt in for the location option, which means you end up with really few tweets that actually have the location data.
However, in one research, I found an almost-acceptable way to get the location data through get users (see the link). Basically, you get the location data users declare on their Twitter accounts. Assuming that the users in your dataset are not avid travelers, you can argue that their declared location can be used as the location of the tweet. After getting that location info, I found the coordinates for the cities listed and manually inserted all the values. 
It is not a perfect solution, though I believe it works. I would love to hear if somebody has a better/easier/more efficient way. 
Hope this helps,
Efe
Article
During the last two decades, China has started to leave its closed-door policies in the international arena behind, and has shown signs of participating in the global economy. Politically and economically, China has been developing further relations with the rest of the world. The country points to its mega-cities in its official 5-year plans to fa...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we provide a conceptual framework for the practice and study of commercial diplomacy in the light of two developments in the field of diplomacy. The first development in the field is related to the relative popularity of two new terms in diplomatic practice: public diplomacy and nation branding. The second development is the role o...
Question
We are putting together a funding proposal for a workshop to take place in May or June 2015 at Kadir Has University, istanbul, Turkey. The workshop aims to develop the research method expertise of faculty members at the School of Communication. We are looking for experts who can help us learn more about data scrapping, text mining, network analysis, and similar methods that are useful in studying new media.
We are looking for 'name' suggestions. Do you know anybody (including you) who is qualified and will be interested in conducting such workshops?
Thanks,
Efe
Answer
Let me add one quick point especially about the definition issue raised earlier by my colleagues.
Propaganda is, as a mass communication method, not necessarily evil. Especially before World War I, propaganda simply was a method to 'convert the unconverted'. For instance, the missionary activities of Vatican used to be know as Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ( Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith ). Phil Taylor's Munition of the Mind is a good source on the history of propaganda.
World War I was practically the point when 'we' decided that 'we' don't do propaganda, the 'enemy' does propaganda. (You can also claim even the spin on the definition of propaganda was a propaganda project itself to discredit competitive messages). Currently, the countries argue that their enemies do propaganda while they and their allies do public information (WWI - US), war information (WWII - US), public diplomacy etc. Edward Bernays even explains the birth of the concept of 'public relations' through propaganda: propaganda was a bad word so they found a new phrase to describe activities of propaganda nature (attempts to convert the unconverted).
@Mukul P Gupta - coming back to your original question, I would say if we take the dictionary definition (or the 'evil' definition), social media actually makes it impossible to do propaganda. You can no longer mislead people as there is a plethora of messages targeting the same audiences. (I agree with Afizan's comment here)
If we take a more liberal (or the 'conversion') definition of propaganda, political communication in social media is indeed very similar to propaganda. Labelled as nation branding, digital diplomacy etc., countries even try to change the views of foreign publics through social media. (I, personally, had various conversations with embassies in the DC area through Twitter for instance).
Politicians also use social media for domestic political marketing reasons to reach out to their electorate. Most of the time, they refrain from interacting with people for one reason or the other. But they maintain an active profile. Obama made really interesting use of digital communications - for instance people on his e-mail groups and social media accounts learned his VP candidate before mass media back in 2008.
The 'viral' aspect of social media comes back to 'inbound marketing' understanding where politicians aim to bring voters (and votes) closer to them by using messages that catch the attention of people.
Article
Full-text available
Social media provides a unique opportunity for brand analysis. The mere fact that users create content and messages through social media platforms makes the detailed monitoring of temporal variation in brand images possible. This research analyzes data collected from a specific social media platform, Twitter, about the city of Stockholm over a 3-mo...
Answer
One quick clarification - please, do not forget that 'social networks' (and the studies of these networks) predate the social media platforms by a couple of decades. If you are to include offline social networks in your thesis, the answers you get might be completely different.
(Edit: I saw this blog post after I posted the answer, it might be interesting for your research: http://www.brandautopsy.com/2014/03/the-best-social-network.html)
Overall, I would argue the best advantage of any social network is to expand your access to resources (let it be information, job leads, etc.). The biggest disadvantage is (especially in terms of social networks in the Web 3.0 era) that you start seeing more of the content you are interested in and are not exposed to the events and resources outside your networks. For instance, Facebook started to include more posts from your friends with whom you interact on your news feed. This practically made some of your friends disappear. Google search results are based on your network and location - you are limited to the information around you nowadays.
Answer
I think you are right about the constructivist concepts. Also, I would argue van Ham's Social Power is a good piece over there. If you want more mainstream IR works, I would recommend Keck and Sikkink's work on norm diffusion. They talk about how transnational advocacy networks gain power. Similarly Mai'a Cross has a book on epistemic communities and European politics. These two works do not necessarily talk about countries without relevant military strength, but they talk about how non-state actors can carve a position for themselves in international debates and influence foreign policy. So, there might be some useful concepts in those works. Mai'a Cross' work also mentions public/cultural diplomacy. (Keck and Sikkink do not)
Answer
The go-to resource in that aspect would be Joseph Nye's works on Soft Power. His latest book, the Future of Power, tries to situate public/cultural diplomacy in international relations.
Peter van Ham's Social Power also talks about similar issues from a different perspective.
Then again, Katzenstein takes an interesting look based on globalization, localization, and internationalization discourses. It might be easier to follow his resources to understand where he is coming from. The field of cultural/public diplomacy on the other hand is very practice-driven. The attempts to 'theorize' the field started only a couple of years ago and are predominantly using public relations, communications, and marketing/branding theories. As far as I am concerned, there is only a handful scholars that look at these concepts from an IR perspective. John Robert Kelley uses a Gramcian approach that might be interesting for you.
Can you be more specific about the present state of the debate question? What do you mean by 'the debate'?
Disclaimer: I intentionally combined public diplomacy and cultural diplomacy together in this answer as I argue they are parts of 'non-traditional' or 'new' diplomacy.
Answer
The Library of Congress (USA) got the entire Twitter archive in 2010 and has been working to make it publicly available. So far, they have not been successful. Though it is worth following, you never know, they might succeed! - http://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2013/01/update-on-the-twitter-archive-at-the-library-of-congress/
Answer
This very much depends on the privacy / data sharing rules and the volume of the particular social network you want to use (also on your ability / willingness to write codes).
scraperwiki.com is a great website to get basic data from Twitter.
NodeXL is a nice software to both extract data from Twitter (as well as from Facebook) and analyze social networks.
R's TwitteR package is also pretty decent - http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/twitteR/index.html
If the social network does not have an API that you can use to retrieve data from, you can always go 'old school'. I have a colleague who practically went through the forums and copied/pasted comments to a Word file.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse how Twitter is utilized by five prominent American destination marketing projects (Illinois, San Francisco, Idaho, Texas, and Milwaukee) to understand the overall trends and usage patterns of microblogging, and the relation of social media ecology and place branding. Design/methodology/approach – T...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents analysis of a period of public argumentation over the city logo of Ankara, the capital of Turkey. These arguments comprise a 17-year episode of controversy that reveals insights into the politics of meaning behind city's brand. Ankara's logo functions as a contested ‘collective representation’ of the city's brand identity, and...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid advancements in communication and transportation technologies in recent history have created new and emerging tools that make it possible for every individual to share information with a global audience. Social networking technologies, especially, have revolutionized the possibilities of person-to-person communication, particularly by making...
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces a critical theory-induced approach to the concept of place branding to expose the ethical drawbacks within the field. The author argues that the dominant approaches and definitions of place branding limit the thinking of scholars to market-driven subjects, such as measurement, effectiveness and strategies. It is difficult ev...
Article
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This article brings three divergent fields of expertise together to take a closer look at President Barack H. Obama’s first 2 years in office. From a theoretical perspective, the changes in the understanding of communication and their impacts on international affairs are discussed. From a domestic politics perspective, Obama’s policy making and pra...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the conceptualization of nation/place branding campaigns based on storytelling and the role of Web 2.0 as facilitator in these endeavors. Design/methodology/approach – The authors share their experiences with Turkayfe.org – a social networking web site that aims to promote Turkey – and re-evaluate t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces the possibility of transforming visitors to cultural ambassadors through a specific public diplomacy method: scholar exchanges. The findings are discussed on an analysis of foreign Fulbright Program of the United States. To further interpret the perceptions of the program, a survey is conducted among 59 current Fulbrighters. S...