Edzard Ernst

Edzard Ernst
University of Exeter | UoE

md, phd

About

2,499
Publications
365,358
Reads
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Introduction
emeritus since 2012; about to publish memoire "A SCIENTIST IN WONDERLAND" (spring 2015); busy writing my blog (edzardernst.com); in favour of CRITICAL analysis.
Additional affiliations
October 1993 - July 2012
University of Exeter
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (2,499)
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to those forms of SCAM that are regularly being promoted as alternative cancer cures or treatments that prolong the life of cancer patients, i.e. SCAMs which are claimed to change the natural history of cancer. Changing the natural history means improving the prognosis either by eliminating the cancer completely or by slow...
Chapter
In the previous chapter, we have seen that virtually no SCAM promoted as cancer cures is supported by sound evidence. This lack of proven effectiveness renders them dangerous to any cancer patient who decides to try them. If cancer patients use a SCAM to cure cancer while forfeiting conventional treatments, this choice would almost certainly cause...
Chapter
In the previous chapters, I have repeatedly mentioned the harms associated with the use of SCAM. The risks are obviously of prime importance; therefore, I will summarize the information in the following chapter.
Chapter
Prevention is the act of stopping something from happening. In healthcare, it entails measures that stop disease from occurring. Many proponents of SCAM are convinced that SCAM has an important role to play in cancer prevention. This is easily demonstrated by even just glancing at the many books on the subject.
Chapter
As we have seen in Chap. 3 of this book, there is no alternative cancer cure, nor will there ever be one. Yet, some might claim that, even though there is no single SCAM that cures cancer, the use of a tailor-made combination of SCAMs could be beneficial, particularly if employed in addition to conventional cancer treatments.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel ist eine überarbeitete und erweiterte Fassung eines Kapitels aus meinem Buch „Homeopathy, the Undiluted Facts“, Springer 2016.
Chapter
Die Agrohomöopathie ist die Anwendung homöopathischer Mittel und homöopathischer Prinzipien bei der Behandlung von Krankheiten der Pflanzen. Die Agrohomöopathie scheint vor allem in Indien und Italien populär zu sein, wo es sogar ein „Laboratorium für Agrohomöopathie“ gibt. Dutzende von Büchern sind zu diesem Thema erhältlich.
Chapter
Autogenes Training wurde in den 1920er-Jahren von dem deutschen Psychiater Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884–1970) entwickelt. Es handelt sich um eine auto-hypnotische Entspannungstechnik, die in Deutschland, aber weniger in anderen Ländern, sehr beliebt ist.
Chapter
(verwandte Modalitäten: Antineoblaston, Krebsdiäten, Carctol, Kaffee-Einläufe, Essiac, Gerson-Therapie, Laetril, Mistel, Neue Deutsche Medizin, Haiknorpel, Ukrain)
Chapter
Die medizinische Ethik beinhaltet Regeln, die uns darüber informieren, welche Handlungen im Gesundheitswesen moralisch richtig sind und welche problematisch sein könnten. Sie gelten für alle Bereiche der Medizin, natürlich auch für die Alternativmedizin. In diesem Kapitel werde ich mich auf die ethischen Fragen konzentrieren, die im Zusammenhang mi...
Chapter
Es gibt viele andere Themen der alternativen Medizin, die erwähnenswert sind. Ich werde hier nur auf diejenigen eingehen, die im Zusammenhang mit diesem Buch am relevantesten sind. Für weitere Diskussionen verweise ich Sie auf ein anderes, kürzlich erschienenes Buch von mir.
Chapter
Die angewandte Kinesiologie ist eine Methode zur Diagnose von Krankheiten und zur Identifizierung möglicher alternativer Behandlungen. Ihre Befürworter behaupten, subtile Signale über manuelle Muskeltests aufzunehmen, die das energetische Gleichgewicht des Körpers widerspiegeln.
Chapter
Im vorherigen Kapitel haben wir die Begründungen erörtert, mit denen man die Verbraucher für die Alternativmedizin gewinnt. Wie wir gesehen haben, kehrt sich ihre Attraktivität oft in das Gegenteil um, sobald wir erkennen, dass sie unbegründet ist. Attraktivität kann somit indirekt Ablehnung hervorrufen.
Chapter
Viele Menschen finden die alternative Medizin attraktiv; der Betrag, den wir derzeit dafür ausgeben, spricht für sich. Im Jahr 2025 werden wir voraussichtlich weltweit knapp 200 Mrd. US-Dollar für alternative Medizin bezahlen, und der größte Teil dieser Summe kommt direkt aus der Tasche des Verbrauchers. Aber was sind die Gründe für diese außergewö...
Chapter
Akupressur ist die Stimulation spezifischer Punkte, auf der Körperoberfläche durch Druck zu therapeutischen Zwecken. Der erforderliche Druck kann manuell oder mit einer Reihe von Instrumenten ausgeübt werden.
Book
Alternative Medizin ist populär: etwa 70% der deutschen Bevölkerung hat im vergangenen Jahr mindestens eine Art von alternativer Behandlung angewendet. Doch was bringen Antioxidantien, Aloe Vera, Kinesiologie und Reiki eigentlich? Kann man an der Zunge oder der Iris erkennen, ob es den inneren Organen gut geht? Welche Erfolge können Geistheilung, a...
Chapter
We believe that patients have a fundamental right to ethical, professional care and the protection of enforceable regulation in upholding good conduct and practice. (World Federation of Chiropractic).
Chapter
As chiropractors are lobbying to become accepted as primary care physicians (Chap. 7), it is hardly surprising that most also claim to be able to treat young children and babies and that 39% of US chiropractors engage in paediatric care.
Chapter
I was the first to adjust the cause of disease.
Chapter
Chiropractors often stress that they use not just spinal manipulation but also a multitude of other modalities. And it’s true, legally they are allowed to do more, much more. Obviously, the law differs from country to country but, generally speaking, the ‘mixers’ amongst the chiropractors
Chapter
The definition of ‘subluxation’ as used by chiropractors differs from that in conventional medicine where it describes a partial dislocation of the bony surfaces of a joint readily visible via an X-ray. Crucially, a subluxation, as understood in conventional medicine, is not the cause of disease. Spinal subluxations, according to medical terminolog...
Chapter
Compulsory vaccination is an outrage and a gross interference with the liberty of the people in a land of freedom. (DD Palmer).
Chapter
Evidence is clearly not in line with most of the therapeutic claims made by chiropractors (Chaps. 10– 12). Yet, few chiropractors seem worried about this fact; they tend to believe that their daily experience (and that of thousands of their colleagues as well as millions of patients) holds information about the effectiveness of their spinal manipul...
Chapter
Manual therapy … is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it mostly includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.
Chapter
Most chiropractors steadfastly deny that SMT can cause serious harm (Box 14.1). Here is just one of virtually thousands of examples.
Chapter
The main reason why the myth of subluxation refuses to die is undoubtedly the fact that it provides the rationale for chiropractors’ hallmark intervention: spinal manipulation and thus the financial basis for every chiropractor on the planet. The US ‘Practice Analysis of Chiropractic 2020’ showed that manual chiropractic adjustment of the occiput,...
Chapter
Most consumers assume that chiropractors treat sore backs and necks but little else. Yet, this notion is far from correct.
Chapter
Preventing disease is obviously better than curing it. Chiropractors therefore claim that they put a particular focus on disease prevention.
Chapter
Chiropractors correct abnormalities of the intellect as well as those of the body. (DD Palmer)
Chapter
Almost all of us will have low back pain at some point in our lives. The problem can affect anyone at any age, and it seems to be increasing: disability due to back pain has risen by more than 50% since 1990.
Chapter
We advocate for public statements and claims of effectiveness for chiropractic care that are honest, legal, decent and truthful.
Chapter
Chiropractic is hugely popular—at least this is what we are often told, usually by interested parties. But how popular is it really? The answer is, as we shall see, that its popularity is variable and usually modest.
Chapter
In the introduction, I stated that I wanted you to make up your own mind about the value of chiropractic. To do this, you need reliable information. And to obtain reliable information, you need someone who is well-informed and independent.
Article
Full-text available
Chapter
Complementary and alternative medicine can be defined as diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine by contributing to a common whole, by satisfying a demand not met by orthodoxy, or by diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine. It is popular; hence doctors should know about it. The term covers a vast arr...
Book
Of all forms of alternative medicine, chiropractic is the one that is most generally accepted. In the UK, for instance, chiropractors are regulated by statute and even have their own ‘Royal College of Chiropractic’. In the US, chiropractic’s country of origin, most chiropractors carry the title ‘doctor’ and many consumers believe they are medically...
Article
b>Objective: This article is aimed at critically evaluating the evidence for or against the effectiveness of massage therapy on pain. Design: Review of systematic reviews. Methods: Six databases were searched from their inceptions to June 2013. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of manual massage (MM) with a...
Chapter
There is a growing reliance on the systematic reviews (SRs) in the current evidence‐based medicine and public health. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive guideline for conducting a high‐quality SR. The authors draw on their own experience and expertise in the field to offer a set of concise recommendations for students, residents,...
Article
Objective: This article is aimed at critically evaluating the evidence for or against the effectiveness of massage therapy on pain. Design: Review of systematic reviews. Methods: Six databases were searched from their inceptions to June 2013. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any type of manual massage (MM) with any...
Chapter
The previous chapter, we discussed the reasons that attract consumers to alternative medicine. As we have seen, these attractions often turn into the opposite, once we realise that they are unfounded. Attractions can thus turn out to be indirect distractions. In this chapter I will outline several direct reasons for people to be disenchanted with a...
Chapter
(related modalities: hypnotherapy, meditation, mind-body therapies, mindfulness, progressive muscle relaxation, transcendental meditation).
Chapter
Agrohomeopathy is the use of homeopathic remedies and homeopathic principles in the treatment of diseases of plants.
Chapter
There are many other issues in alternative medicine which are worth mentioning. Here I will only elaborate on those that are most relevant in the context of this book. For further discussions, I refer you to another recent book of mine.
Chapter
Medical ethics are rules that inform us what actions in healthcare are morally right and which might be problematic. They apply to all areas of medicine, including of course alternative medicine. In this chapter, I will focus on those ethical issues which arguably are the most important ones in the context of this book; a full debate of medical eth...
Chapter
In Chap. 1, I have been banging on about ‘evidence’. But what is evidence? And why is it important? These are some of the questions I will address in this chapter.
Chapter
Alternative medicine is attractive to many customers; the amount we currently spend on it provides ample proof. By 2025, we are predicted to spend just short of US$ 200 billion worldwide on alternative medicine, and most of this sum comes directly out of the consumer’s pocket.[https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/alternative–complementary-medic...
Chapter
Applied kinesiology is a method employed for diagnosing diseases and for identifying possible alternative treatments. Its proponents claim to pick up subtle signals via manual muscle testing reflecting the body’s energetic balance.
Chapter
(related modalities: Antineoblastons, cancer diets, Carctol, coffee enemas, Essiac, Gerson therapy, Laetrile, mistletoe, New German Medicine, shark cartilage, Ukrain)
Chapter
Acupressure is the stimulation of specific points, called acupoints, on the body surface by pressure for therapeutic purposes. The required pressure can be applied manually of by a range of devices. Acupressure is based on the same tradition and assumptions as acupuncture. Like acupuncture, it is often promoted as a panacea, a ‘cure all’.
Book
Alternative medicine (AM) is hugely popular; about 40% of the US general population have used at least one type of alternative treatment in the past year, and in Germany this figure is around 70%. The money spent on AM is considerable: the global market is expected to reach nearly US $ 200 billion by 2025, with most of these funds coming directly o...
Article
In 2013, a Swedish professor published an article that has ever since become the basis of a fierce debate about the value or otherwise of homeopathy. At its centre is an article that was originally published in PERFUSION. Here I tell this strange story and analyse its background. It is concluded that the ongoing debate is due to profound and probab...
Article
Objectives Prescribing of homeopathy still occurs in a small minority of English general practices. We hypothesised that practices that prescribe any homeopathic preparations might differ in their prescribing of other drugs. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting English primary care. Participants English general practices. Main outcome measu...
Article
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the effectiveness of Vitex agnus castus for the treatment of PMS symptoms. We wish to examine the following:(1) The effect of Vitex agnus castus on combined symptoms or global scores associated with PMS versus placebo. (2) The effect of Vitex agnus...
Chapter
Research is the gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement or completion of knowledge. By adding to the store of human knowledge, scientific research has great intrinsic value. Research also has substantial practical value, in the guise of beneficial technologies flowing from such knowledge.
Chapter
Exploitation can be defined as the use of another person or group for selfish purposes. Exploitative behavior in healthcare can lead to patients and others being harmed which clearly is unethical.
Chapter
High quality education is essential for the development of competent practitioners in all medical and medically related fields. Healthcare education entails the provision of knowledge in the sciences relevant to medicine and clinical practice, coupled with appropriate practical instruction. The basic education of healthcare professionals must be de...
Chapter
A statement is true when it corresponds with the way the world really is. This is the common meaning of truth that we all know.
Chapter
In this chapter, we shall explore the various ways in which CAM research frequently falls short of the ideals of good research practice, using several examples of seriously flawed CAM research studies. We will start with the least severe forms of research misconduct, in terms of the moral culpability of the perpetrators, and progress to the most bl...
Chapter
To what extent can practitioners and promoters of CAM be relied upon to practice or recommend safe and effective treatments? This is the question that we shall consider in this chapter.
Book
This book reveals the numerous ways in which moral, ethical and legal principles are being violated by those who provide, recommend or sell ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ (CAM). The book analyses both academic literature and internet sources that promote CAM. Additionally the book presents a number of brief scenarios, both hypothetical an...
Chapter
Die derzeitige Popularität der Homöopathie erstaunt viele Mediziner und verärgert Fachleute, die der alternativen Medizin voller Skepsis gegenüberstehen. Warum, so fragen sie sich, verlassen sich Menschen auf Behandlungsmethoden, deren Wirkung weder plausibel noch bewiesen ist? Warum entscheiden sie sich in einer Zeit, in der die Gesundheitsversorg...
Chapter
Zur Geschichte der Homöopathie gehört selbstverständlich auch eine Betrachtung des Lebens ihres Begründers, Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (1755–1843). Da bereits etliche ausgezeichnete Biographien Hahnemanns vorliegen, halte ich es nicht für notwendig, sein faszinierendes Leben hier im Detail nachzuzeichnen. Ich werde mich stattdessen auf di...
Chapter
Viele Homöopathen meinen, die tägliche Erfahrung von Tausenden von Homöopathen (und Millionen von Patienten) beweise die Wirksamkeit der homöopathischen Medizin zuverlässiger als jede wissenschaftliche Untersuchung. Wenn es ihren Patienten besser geht, führen sie das auf ihre Behandlung zurück, und zu guter Letzt sind sie dann davon überzeugt, dass...
Chapter
Seit den Anfängen der Homöopathie liegen deren Befürworter und Gegner miteinander im Streit. In der Vergangenheit haben diese Auseinandersetzungen eher die Gemüter erhitzt als für Klarheit gesorgt, und auch heute noch scheint die Kluft zwischen beiden Lagern so tief zu sein wie eh und je. In gewissem Maß ist dieser mangelnde Fortschritt darauf zurü...
Chapter
Die zu Hahnemanns Zeiten üblichen drakonischen und mit einigen Gefahren verbundenen medizinischen Praktiken bezeichnete man rückblickend als heroische Medizin, da sie vom Patienten geradezu heldenhaften Mut erforderten. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es verständlich, dass die Homöopathie rasch die Welt eroberte. Zum Teil ist es Hahnemanns Kritik zu ver...
Chapter
Dieses Prinzip gilt als die eigentlich Basisannahme der Homöopathie und benennt, was Hahnemann bei seinen Selbstversuchen mit Chinarinde glaubte herausgefunden zu haben: Ähnliches soll mit Ähnlichen geheilt werden (similia similibus curentur). Es handelt sich dabei nicht um ein wissenschaftliches Gesetz. Mehr dazu im ersten Teil dieses Buches.
Chapter
Hahnemann riet bei allen Beschwerden und Krankheiten der Menschen zur Homöopathie, und genau das tun auch heute noch viele Homöopathen. Sie empfehlen diese Heilmethode für jede Krankheit oder jedes Symptom, unter denen Menschen (aber auch Tiere und sogar Pflanzen) leiden. Das bedeutet allerdings nicht, dass Patienten, die auf homöopathische Mittel...
Chapter
Obwohl sich die Homöopathie heute großer Beliebtheit erfreut, wissen viele Menschen gar nicht, worum es dabei wirklich geht. Eine Umfrage in Großbritannien ergab beispielsweise, dass 40 % der Bevölkerung meinen, die Homöopathie sei eine „natürliche oder Kräutermedizin“. Das ist nicht nur irreführend, es ist, wie wir sehen werden, schlichtweg falsch...
Chapter
In der Homöopathie und über sie existieren anscheinend sehr viel mehr Mythen und Missverständnisse als gesicherte Fakten. Die daraus resultierende Verwirrung führt nicht nur die Anwender, sondern auch viele im Gesundheitswesen Tätige in die Irre. Wollen wir diese Situation verbessern, müssen wir die Mythen ausräumen, die Missverständnisse klären un...
Chapter
Im vorigen Kapitel haben wir gesehen, dass Hahnemann von seinen Anhängern wiederholt verlangte, sich strikt an seine Lehre zu halten. Jegliche Abweichung von seiner Doktrin war für ihn inakzeptabel, doch diese Forderung nach absoluter Loyalität und unbedingtem Gehorsam führte unweigerlich zu Problemen.
Book
Homöopathie und Wissenschaft Dieses Buch zeichnet die Entstehung der Homöopathie nach, erläutert ihre grundlegenden Prinzipien, klärt über die heutige Praxis auf und diskutiert die Gründe für die anhaltende Beliebtheit dieser Heilmethode. Vor zweihundert Jahren hatte die Medizin Kranken wenig zu bieten: Man ließ sie zur Ader oder verabreichte ihnen...
Article
Background: A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. Search methods: We searche...
Article
Full-text available
1.1 Worum es geht Falsche Behandlungen von Patienten sind ein vielschichtiges Problem, dem nicht zuletzt die Gesundheitspolitik durch Maßnahmen der Qualitätssicherung begegnen muss. Zwei spezifische, aber nicht trennbare Teilaspekte dieses Problems sind Fehlbehandlungen durch (i) Heilpraktiker, die ihre Patienten überwiegend mit Interventionen aus...
Article
Full-text available
Falsche Behandlungen von Patienten sind ein vielschichtiges Problem, dem nicht zuletzt die Gesundheitspolitik durch Maßnahmen der Qualitätssicherung begegnen muss. Zwei spezifische, aber nicht trennbare Teilaspekte dieses Problems sind Fehlbehandlungen durch (i) Heilpraktiker, die ihre Patienten überwiegend mit Interventionen aus dem Bereich der (i...
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Full-text available
Article
Beales argues,1 in response to our paper,2 that trialists should bear responsibility for trials with inappropriate comparators. We agree that trialists should share this responsibility. But about half a million randomised trials have been conducted in medicine to date, involving millions of investigators. These researchers will undoubtedly have het...
Article
Hemoconcentration was induced by administration of oral Furosemide in a group of healthy athletes. Before and after this treatment a variety of hemorheological variables was measured. Simultaneously the time needed to reach the anaerobic threshold during a standardized ergometer test was recorded. The results show that the changes in blood rheology...

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