Edwin Bakker

Edwin Bakker
Politieacademie · Knowledge & Research

PhD

About

214
Publications
91,348
Reads
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1,360
Citations
Introduction
Edwin Bakker is head of the Knowledge & Research department at the Netherlands Police Academy and professor of (counter-)terrorism studies at Leiden University.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • The Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) focuses on multidisciplinary research and education within the international scientific field of security studies.
November 2010 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Professor
November 2010 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Director Centre of Terrorism and Counterterrorism (CTC)
Education
September 1986 - August 1992
University of Groningen
Field of study
  • Economic Geography

Publications

Publications (214)
Article
Full-text available
How do European Muslim men and women become involved in a violent jihadist struggle abroad? After the sharp increase in the number of European jihadist foreign fighters in Syria since 2012, this has become a pressing question for both academics and policymakers. Concrete empirical examples of radicalisation processes and preparations for engaging i...
Book
Terrorism has arguably been one of the defining factors of our age. In many parts of the world, it has been one of the most important threats to peace, security and stability. But what does this exactly mean? What is the nature of this threat? What can be done about it or how can we at least limit the impact of terrorism? These are just a handful...
Article
Full-text available
The number of European foreign fighters with a jihadist political agenda participating in the Syrian civil war has increased exponentially over the past months and has become an ever-growing concern for European policymakers. It is particularly the possibility that returned foreign fighters have radicalised that makes them a potential threat – if o...
Article
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Despite the Dutch Hofstadgroup's status in the literature as a prime example of a homegrown Salafi-Jihadist terrorist network, the authors, using newly available primary sources, argue that this classification is to a large extent unwarranted. The lack of a rudimentary organizational structure, the existence of divergent views on the legitimacy and...
Technical Report
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Op basis van relevante wetenschappelijke studies, overheidsrapportages en andere publicaties schetst dit rapport hoe de dreigingen die het stelsel bewaken en beveiligen hebben geconfronteerd zich sinds de eeuwwisseling hebben ontwikkeld. Dit feitelijke overzicht wordt aangevuld met de beschikbare cijfers over (ernstige) bedreigingen van onder ander...
Book
Dit rapport biedt een reflectie op de ontwikkelingen en het beleid rond het fenomeen jihadisme en buitenlandse strijders in Nederland, België, Denemarken, Duitsland, Frankrijk, het VK en de VS in de afgelopen tien jaar (2010-2019)
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest in the phenomenon of engagement without recognition within de facto state literature, the concept remains under-analysed. Through an analysis of Kurdistan’s engagement with the Iraqi government, this article aims to answer the following questions: What are the de facto state’s authorities’ policies of engagement with pa...
Article
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This research aims to analyse the drivers which informed the decision and timing of Kurdistan’s independence referendum on 25 September 2017. Here we argue that any proper examination of these drivers must begin by investigating the relationship between the fight to counter the Islamic State begun in 2014, the disputes arising as a result of Kurdis...
Article
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Terrorisme kan bezien worden als een extreme vorm van (gewelddadig) crimineel gedrag. Tegen deze achtergrond is het noodzakelijk om kennis uit de criminologie te ver-garen, om zo terrorismeonderzoek te versterken. In dit overzicht beschrijven de auteurs hoe criminologische theorieën een significante bijdrage kunnen leveren in het duiden van de onde...
Article
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Despite the growing interest in the study of de facto states, our understanding of the conditions under which these entities construct and change strategies to gain international recognition remains partial. The aim of this article is to answer the following questions: firstly, what strategies did the Kurdistan Region of Iraq adopt in its pursuit o...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing interest in the study of de facto states, our understanding of the conditions under which these entities construct and change strategies to gain international recognition remains partial. The aim of this article is to answer the following questions: firstly, what strategies did the Kurdistan Region of Iraq adopt in its pursuit o...
Book
Full-text available
De wapenbeheersingsverdragen uit de 20ste eeuw zijn ontoereikend voor de 21ste eeuw. Een nieuwe kernwapenwedloop dreigt. Daarom is het volgens de AIV dringend nodig om nieuw overleg tussen de kernwapenmogendheden te bevorderen. De AIV is van oordeel dat alles op alles moet worden gezet om te voorkomen dat ooit weer een kernwapen tot ontploffing kom...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In dit rapport wordt het beleid rondom terugkeerders uit jihadistische strijdgebieden vergeleken in Nederland, België, Denemarken, Duitsland, Frankrijk, het VK en de VS in de periode 2017-2018. Specifiek kijken we naar het beleid rondom de (mogelijke) terugkeer van vrouwen en kinderen.
Chapter
Contemporary Debates on Terrorism is an innovative textbook, addressing a number of key issues in terrorism studies from both traditional and 'critical' perspectives. This second edition has been revised and updated to cover contemporary issues such as the rise of ISIL and cyberterrorism. In recent years, the terrorism studies field has grown in q...
Chapter
Full-text available
The question ‘are returning foreign fighters future terrorists’ is highly topical, as an increasing number of foreign fighters are now returning to their home countries and more are likely to do so in the near future. Some have described these returnees as ‘ticking time bombs’ and the phenomenon of returning foreign fighters has contributed to high...
Chapter
Contemporary Debates on Terrorism is an innovative textbook, addressing a number of key issues in terrorism studies from both traditional and 'critical' perspectives. This second edition has been revised and updated to cover contemporary issues such as the rise of ISIL and cyberterrorism. In recent years, the terrorism studies field has grown in q...
Book
Full-text available
Terrorisme en terrorismebestrijding staat doorlopend hoog op de internationale agenda. Dit handboek beschrijft de laatste stand van zaken in terrorisme en terrorismebestrijding. Een veelomvattend en actueel overzicht van relevante wetenschappelijke studies, praktijkinzichten en ontwikkelingen op nationaal en internationaal vlak. Hoewel terrorisme v...
Article
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Het in 2014 uitgeroepen kalifaat van de zelfbenoemde Islamitische Staat staat op het punt van vallen. Het einde van de territoriale Islamitische Staat betekent helaas nog niet het einde van IS als idee, doel of strijdmethode en de aantrekkingskracht van het jihadisme in het algemeen. En dat geldt niet alleen daar in Syrië, maar ook in Nederland. De...
Article
Full-text available
The term "Lone Actor" has been applied to a variety of violent individuals who are thought to act out of ideological motivations using terrorist tactics. So far, much of the research is U.S.-based. There is an empirical vacuum of Lone Actor violence in Europe and a conceptual gap in how these acts may be understood as a variation of homicidal behav...
Technical Report
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In oktober 2016 ontving de Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken (AIV) het verzoek een nadere analyse te maken van de aanpassingen die de Noord-Atlantische Verdragsorganisatie (NAVO) op lange termijn zou moeten ondergaan in het licht van het diffuse en veranderlijke dreigingsbeeld en tevens in te gaan op de implicaties van deze ontwikkelingen voor...
Article
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This article provides an in-depth assessment of lone actor terrorists’ attack planning and preparation. A codebook of 198 variables related to different aspects of pre-attack behavior is applied to a sample of 55 lone actor terrorists. Data were drawn from open-source materials and complemented where possible with primary sources. Most lone actors...
Article
Full-text available
Security and Global Affairs, published in open access by the Institute of Security and Global Affairs at Leiden University, is a refereed publication and manuscripts go through a blind review process. The focus of SGA is on a wide array of security topics and issues, providing a platform for the analysis of key issues within security and global aff...
Article
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With ISIS losing territory in the Middle East, it is expected that many European nationals who travelled to the caliphate will consider to return to their homelands (Reed, De Roy van Zuijdewijn and Bakker 2015). When this scenario will become reality, it is important to gain more insights into their experiences in Syria and Iraq. What is life like...
Technical Report
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Sinds eind 2012 staat de uitreis naar en terugkeer uit Syrië en Irak hoog op de agenda in veel Westerse landen en zijn er maatregelen genomen om te proberen grip te krijgen op de problematiek. In dit rapport is er op basis van publiekelijk beschikbare informatie gekeken naar zogenoemde persoonsgerichte maatregelen waar onder strafrechtelijke vervol...
Book
Full-text available
Het aantal jihadisten dat Nederland verlaat om in Syrië en Irak te strijden is ongekend: van slechts een paar in 2012 tot mogelijk meer dan 300 in 2016. Na de aanslagen in Brussel en Parijs zijn er grote zorgen over deze jihadisten en het risico dat zij terugkomen om hier aanslagen te plegen. Wie zijn deze jonge moslims? Wat drijft hen richting de...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Dit rapport verschaft inzicht in de organisatie van terrorismebestrijding en de aanpak van radicalisering in Nederland, België, Denemarken, Duitsland, Frankrijk, het Verenigd Koninkrijk en de Verenigde Staten. De nadruk ligt op de ontwikkelingen in de periode na de aanslagen op 11 september 2001 en heeft betrekking op het fenomeen dat hier als jiha...
Book
Full-text available
Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by Jabhat al-Nusra and affiliated jihadist groups. The...
Research
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A recently published article in Small Wars & Insurgencies by researchers of Leiden University aims to shed light on this question by providing an overview of the phenomenon of jihadist foreign fighters in the Low Countries , by analysing their characteristics, motivations, and roles in the war in Syria and Iraq, and by comparing the cases of Belgiu...
Article
In recent years, Belgium and the Netherlands have been confronted with relatively many citizens or residents who have traveled to Syria and Iraq to join and fight with jihadist groups — 388 Belgian and 220 Dutch as estimated by the respective authorities. This article provides an overview of the phenomenon of jihadist foreign fighters in the Low Co...
Research
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Sydney hosted the tenth annual Pearls in Policing conference from 11 to 15 June 2016. Pearls is an international think-tank meeting where top police leaders from around the world share ideas, experiences and knowledge in a small-scale, collegial environment. This year’s conference theme was ‘Uniting Global Law Enforcement’. Hosted by the Australian...
Research
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On December 16, 2015, a conference was held on the SS Rotterdam, the legendary former flagship of the Holland America Line, to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Dutch ‘all source threat assessment’, also known as Dreigingsbeeld Terrorisme Nederland (DTN). Dutch and foreign experts were invited to reflect on this assessment that constitutes t...
Research
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In the past 18 months, Leiden University and the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism have been involved in an EU-funded project with RUSI, Chatham House and the Institute for Strategic Dialogue. The Consortium studied lone-actor terrorists within the European Union between 2000 and 2014. Who are these perpetrators, and how do they plan and e...
Research
Full-text available
In recent years, many European countries have been confronted with residents that have travelled to Syria, often to join jihadist groups such as Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and Jabhat al-Nusra (JaN). The limited knowledge on what they subsequently do out there hampers our ability to answer several important societal and legal questions....
Research
Full-text available
Sydney hosted the tenth annual Pearls in Policing conference from 11 to 15 June 2016. Pearls is an international think-tank meeting where top police leaders from around the world share ideas, experiences and knowledge in a small-scale, collegial environment. This year’s conference theme was ‘Uniting Global Law Enforcement’. Hosted by the Australian...
Data
This book addresses the greatest source of societal tensions and violent conflict in contemporary Europe, involving people from minority groups of Muslim culture. Six country case studies – on Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Russia and the United Kingdom – give a comprehensive account of Islam-related tensions and violence, from the jihadi...
Article
This article empirically assesses the applicability of structural-level hypotheses for involvement in terrorism within the context of European homegrown jihadism. It uses these hypotheses to study how structural factors influenced involvement in the Dutch “Hofstadgroup.” Structural factors enabled the group’s emergence and its participants’ adoptio...
Book
Full-text available
De aanslagen in Parijs en Brussel gingen als een schokgolf door Europa en grote delen van de wereld. Met deze en andere acties weten terroristen burgers wereldwijd bang te maken, en dwingen ze overheden tot het nemen van allerlei maatregelen, waaronder militaire acties zoals die tegen de zogeheten Islamitische Staat, waaraan ook Nederland deelneemt...
Research
Full-text available
Terrorism continues to inspire fear with lethal attacks occurring on a daily basis in certain parts of the world embroiled in struggle and conflict. Also, attacks in more peaceful places like Paris and Brussels manage to dominate the headlines for weeks. Time and again, people are left with many fundamental questions unanswered, such as: what do te...
Technical Report
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About this Paper This paper is the ninth publication in the Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project, which aims to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone actors through analysis of comprehensive data on cases from across Europe. The eighteen-month project is co-funded by the Prevention of and...
Article
Full-text available
This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis o...
Article
Full-text available
This Research Note presents the outcome of an investigation into the processes of lone-actor terrorism which was part of the Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) Project. The research is based on a database of both plots and attacks across the twenty-eight EU member states, plus Norway and Switzerland, in the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December...
Data
Ter gelegenheid van de conferentie “Barometer van de Dreiging. Tien jaar Dreigingsbeeld Terrorisme Nederland 2005-2015” is onderzoek gedaan naar de ontwikkeling van dit dreigingsbeeld. Hiervoor is gekeken naar de inhoud van de veertig publieke samenvattingen van het Dreigingsbeeld Terrorisme Nederland (DTN) uitgekomen tussen mei 2005 (DTN1 ) en nov...
Research
Full-text available
Executive Summary This policy paper looks into the characteristics of lone actor terrorists in the European Union (2000-2015). It is part of the Countering Lone Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project that looks into this phenomenon through analysis of data pertaining to plots and cases of lone actor terrorism within the EU. This paper will focus on the per...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the statistics and characteristics of foreign fighters of all sides of the conflict in Syria and Iraq, and the reasons for this phenomenon as well as some general policy responses in the countries from which these fighters originate. First, the authors provide a short historical background of foreign fighters and a definitio...
Article
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Key Findings: Process Variables: Attack Methodology and Logistics • Of the seventy-two successfully launched attacks recorded in the database, religiously inspired attacks were the most frequent at 38 per cent, but caused only 8 per cent of fatalities; right-wing terrorist attacks were more lethal, accounting for 24 per cent of launched attacks bu...
Technical Report
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Het beperkte beeld van het dagelijkse leven in Syrië vormt een belangrijk obstakel bij de beantwoording van relevante maatschappelijke en juridische vragen. Hoe ziet het leven van een gemiddelde uitreiziger er in Syrië uit? Staat bijvoorbeeld een uitreis naar Syrië in de praktijk gelijk aan een bestaan als strijder of zijn er ook andere opties? Der...
Chapter
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Terrorism and radicalization rank high on the political agenda of the European Union. The Dutch EU-Presidency hosted a high-level international conference on fighting ISIS in the beginning of January 2016, underlining the importance of a joint EU-approach towards foreign fighters and other terrorism-related topics. The question however remains what...
Chapter
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The handbook aims to codify, align and disseminate research results that focus on the phenomena of network formation and evolution, the decision support and decision-making, as well as the modelling and planning aimed at coordination of network actors - organizations or individuals – in crisis management. Whereby we refer to crises as disruptive ev...
Conference Paper
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In dit essay dat werd geschreven in opdracht van de NCTV ter gelegenheid van de conferentie “Barometer van de Dreiging. Tien jaar Dreigingsbeeld Terrorisme Nederland 2005-2015” gaan we in op deze en andere aspecten van het DTN en kijken we hoe dit instrument zich in de afgelopen tien jaar heeft ontwikkeld. Ook analyseren we het dreigingsbeeld zelf:...
Article
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Open Access: In 2012, the Dutch National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism and the Dutch Probation Service launched a reintegration project for offenders on probation or parole who were (suspected to be) involved in jihadist extremism or terrorism. The initiative's primary goal was to reduce the chance of recidivism among this target gr...
Chapter
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Beleidsgericht onderzoek en de Haagse missie Het onderzoek van de Faculteit Campus Den Haag richt zich op de grote maatschappelijke uitdagingen van vandaag en morgen, zoals veiligheid, globalisering en diversiteit, en hoe politiek, bestuur en andere partijen in de samenleving deze het hoofd kunnen bieden. Als onderzoekers bevinden we ons in de insp...
Article
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The phenomenon of foreign fighters in Syria and Iraq is making headlines. Their involvement in the atrocities committed by terrorist groups such as the so-called “Islamic State” and Jabhat al-Nusra have caused grave concern and public outcry in the foreign fighters’ European countries of origin. While much has been written about these foreign fight...
Article
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Large “Jihad court case” started in The Netherlands On September 7, 2015, the long-awaited court case against 10 individuals in the so-called ‘Context-case’ started in the high-security court in Osdorp, near Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This is one of the largest terrorism trials ever held in the country. The investigation was launched by the Dutc...
Article
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Despite the fact that the Netherlands has been confronted for more than three years with the phenomenon of foreign fighters in Syria, we still have little insight into the backgrounds and motivations of these persons. Most knowledge available on this subject comes from journalistic work. Scientific studies into the characteristics and biographies o...
Article
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Executive Summary On 28 December 2014, the ISAF (International Security and Assistance Force) in Afghanistan came to an official end. On that day the responsibility for security in the country was handed over to the Afghan government in Kabul. One of the biggest challenges facing Afghanistan is the continuing violent struggle with the Taliban. It...
Article
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Book Review Why review a novel on the Leiden Safety & Security Blog? Because Michel Houellebecq's latest book, " Submission " , is more than a novel. It offers a sharp analysis of current politics and society in France. Moreover, it presents an interesting future forecast of that nation. A France led by a president representing the Muslim Brotherho...
Article
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The phenomenon of foreign fighters is high on international agendas as one of the most pressing transnational security issues of our time. European governments have tried to respond to this development by designing various policies, focusing not only on stopping potential foreign fighters but also on limiting the possible threat posed by returning...
Article
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The number of Western young women joining IS has increased in the last months. Most recently, three teenage girls from east London successfully travelled to Syria. They are now believed to reside in Raqqa. Who are these women, the so-called Jihadi brides, who want to join IS? And what drives them? What do we know of their role within IS? These are...
Article
The challenge of violent radicalization is an important part of (the Prevent pillar) of the 2005 EU Counter-terrorism Strategy and is specifically dealt with in the 2005 EU Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism. This article assesses the EU counter-radicalization approach by comparing the above mentioned strategies and...
Article
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Het afgelopen jaar stond al in het teken van (de strijd tegen) het jihadistisch terrorisme, en 2015 is met de aanslagen in Parijs en het extreem geweld van Boko Haram in het noordoosten van Nigeria wel heel slecht begonnen. De grootste dreiging die dit jaar in Europa, en specifiek ook in Nederland, uitgaat van het jihadistisch terrorisme is echter...
Article
The challenge of violent radicalization is an important part of (the Prevent pillar) of the 2005 EU Counter-terrorism Strategy and is specifically dealt with in the 2005 EU Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism. This article assesses the EU counter-radicalization approach by comparing the above mentioned strategies a...
Article
Full-text available
Authorities are increasingly worried about the large number of Western foreign fighters present in Syria. However, the conflict in Syria is not the first to attract foreign fighters. In this Background Note, Jeanine de Roy van Zuijdewijn and Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker investigate three historical cases of foreign fighting: Afghanistan (1980s), Bosnia (...
Article
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Terrorism ranks high on the security agenda. It will be one of the key topics at the third Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague on the 24th and 25th March 2014. The summit, attended by 58 world leaders, aims to reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism, a threat what Tom Clancy once called the sum of all fears. But where do we stand in counterterroris...
Article
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Since 9/11, the state of the art in counter-terrorism (CT) research, CT measures and CT impacts has taken off. Nevertheless, countering terrorism as a branch of fear management is still a discipline to be developed. In this ICCT Research Paper, authors Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf attempt to lessen this gap. The Paper iden...
Article
Targeted killings in the fight against terrorism are controversially discussed from a political and legal angle. In this article we assess the moral dimension of the targeted killing of Islamist cleric Anwar al-Awlaki in 2011. An analysis of the case concludes that the episode was based on a Dirty Hands judgement by President Obama. The ‘Problem of...
Article
Since the first reports detailing the presence of foreigner participating in the Syrian civil war in September 2011, the number of foreign fighters has increased exponentially. Especially European policymakers are worried about the potential threat posed by the presence of hundreds of European foreign fighters in Syria and the possibility that some...
Article
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This Research Note provides a chronological overview of the most important events that occurred during the 2002-2005 existence of the Dutch Hofstadgroup. This group is frequently cited as a leading example of the 'homegrown' jihadist threat that arose in Europe from 2004 onwards. Despite this status in the literature, a detailed and above all prima...
Article
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De leefwereld en denkbeelden van Nederlandse & Belgische Syriëgangers: een analyse van elf Facebook-accounts Social media, zoals Facebook, spelen een zeer prominente rol in nationale en internationale jiha-distische bewegingen; zij worden ook gebruikt door veel Syriëgangers. In dit artikel wordt ver-slag gedaan van een onderzoek naar de Facebook-ac...
Article
Full-text available
Since 9/11, the state of the art in counter-terrorism research, counter-terorism measures and counter-terrorism impacts has taken off. Nevertheless, countering terrorism as a branch of fear management is still a discipline to be developed. In this Research Paper, authors Prof. Dr. Edwin Bakker and Prof. Dr. Beatrice de Graaf attempt to lessen this...