Edward Purssell

Edward Purssell
City, University of London · School of Heath Sciences

RGN, RSCN, PhD Univeristy of London

About

97
Publications
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Introduction
My main interests are in general paediatric medicine and infectious diseases. I have research interests in the care of children by their parents during periods of relatively minor illness; the treatment of fever; and vaccination policy. If you want to get in touch do it through my work email rather than here.

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Full-text available
Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection prevention but is poorly undertaken and under-appreciated by medical, nursing, and other health care students. This systematic review aimed to identify and describe strategies used to teach the theory and practice of hand hygiene, determine impact on knowledge and practice, and identify need for future e...
Article
Objectives To develop a simplified but rigorous method for qualitative reviews using thematic analysis, suitable for students and clinicians. Design Methodological review. Data sources Cochrane and Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methods, key references from these, and important original methodologies. Review methods Examining similarities and dif...
Article
Aim/objective To consider the future of nurse education and the merits of a university-based course versus vocational training. Background In the 1990s nurse training in the United Kingdom moved from an apprenticeship model to a university-based education. At about the same time, the two-tier structure of registered and enrolled nurses was abandon...
Chapter
There is great variation in the type and quality of research evidence. Having completed your search and assembled your studies, the next step is to critically appraise the studies to ascertain their quality. Ultimately you will be making a judgement about the overall evidence, but that comes later. You will see throughout this chapter that we make...
Chapter
History is important, because it takes a longer-term view of any human enterprise. The way that we do things today might seem quaint or perhaps ethically dubious in years to come. Knowledge of the past is not merely a retrospect, but shows a direction of travel: How can we see where we are going if we don’t know where we are coming from? So let us...
Chapter
The last major section of the review report is the discussion. This should make sense of the review findings in the broader context, considering clinical significance and presenting implications and recommendations. Crucially, the reviewer should take account of the limitations of the review and suggest further research. The discussion should not b...
Chapter
Meta-analysis is a method of combining the results of a number of quantitative studies to produce a single weighted average result. In order to undertake and to correctly interpret a meta-analysis, it is important to understand the meaning of quantitative research results, in particular the p-value and confidence interval, both of which are widely...
Chapter
Developing a search strategy can be a time-consuming process, and there is often a temptation to just jump straight into a database instead. Although many of us will begin with a very quick search to establish the amount and type of literature available, your main search needs to be carefully planned and most importantly replicable. Readers may not...
Chapter
Qualitative and quantitative research are fundamentally different, in philosophy, principles and practice. This has major implications for literature reviewing. A review of qualitative studies may be performed with no less systematic rigour than that of experimental trials, but the product will be interpretative rather than numerical. This chapter...
Chapter
If the topic of interest has been studied quantitatively and qualitatively, it may seem right to include both types of evidence. But more is not necessarily better. The challenge for a mixed-method reviewer is that quantitative and qualitative researchers ask very different questions: the former are concerned with measurable outcomes, while the lat...
Chapter
Each of us makes some impact on the world, for better or worse, but scientific researchers are among those who measure this formally (sometimes obsessively). The impact of your systematic review may be judged by the contribution that it makes to the wellbeing of relevant people. This is not easily assessed, but there are important indicators of the...
Chapter
In this chapter, we aim to make the screening process as straightforward as possible, by showing some tools and practices that can improve accuracy and efficiency. The previous chapter is vital, because often a screening exercise needs to be repeated due to necessary amendments to the search specifications. But let’s assume that you have completed...
Chapter
A systematic literature review is a logical, linear process. By ‘linear’, we mean a purposeful activity that is performed in a sequential order, in other words, a ‘step-by-step’ process. Perhaps you have found to your cost what happens when the instructions for a self-assembly item of furniture are followed in the wrong order! The term ‘logical’ ba...
Article
Background and aims: Tobacco and cannabis are commonly co-used, and evidence for the influence of co-use on quit outcomes for either substance is mixed. We sought to determine the efficacy of tobacco and/or cannabis use interventions, delivered to co-users, on cannabis and tobacco use outcomes. Method: Systematic review with meta-analysis and na...
Book
The systematic review is a rigorous method of collating and synthesizing evidence from multiple studies, producing a whole greater than the sum of parts. This textbook is an authoritative and accessible guide to an activity that is often found overwhelming. The authors steer readers on a logical, sequential path through the process, taking account...
Article
Full-text available
Recommendations to guide parents' symptomatic management of febrile illnesses in children have been published in many countries. The lack of systematic appraisal of parents' knowledge and behaviors and their evolution over time precludes an analysis of their impact and identification of targets for future educational messages. We systematically sea...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns are increasingly raised in academic and lay literature about the impact of the internet on young people’s well-being. This systematic review examined empirical research on the relationship between social media use and depressive symptoms in the child and adolescent population. A systematic search of Medline, PsycInfo and Embase databases y...
Article
Background: A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. Aim: To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Methods: Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish langu...
Article
Diabetes distress has implications for diabetes end-points, hence targeted interventions are indicated; yet, preliminary work quantifying and characterising the problem is required. We sought to identify the potential magnitude and determinants of elevated diabetes distress across study populations. Databases such as Medline, PsycINFO and Embase we...
Article
Background: Grounded theory is a distinct method of qualitative research, where core features are theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis. However, inconsistent application of these activities has been observed in published studies. Aim: This review assessed the use of theoretical sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing jou...
Article
Background: Fever phobia is a term that has been used to describe the exaggerated and unrealistic fear of fever expressed by parents and carers. Since the term was first used in the early 1980s, there have been numerous publications and guidelines' stating that fever is not, in itself dangerous, however these fears persist. Objectives: Investiga...
Article
Vaccination is an effective public health measure to prevent and control a number of infectious diseases. However, since vaccines are biological products and are sensitive to both heat and cold, they need to be maintained within a narrow range of temperatures, often referred to as the 'cold-chain'. This range, which is between +2°C and +8°C with a...
Article
Rationale and aimClear and logical eligibility criteria are fundamental to the design and conduct of a systematic review. This methodological review examined the quality of reporting and application of eligibility criteria in systematic reviews published in three leading medical journals.Methods All systematic reviews in the BMJ, JAMA and The Lance...
Article
The nurses on the children's ward used to have a very fixed approach to fever in young children. If the child had a temperature of 38°C, they would strip the child down and ask the junior doctor on duty to write up some paracetamol. If the child had a temperature of 39°C, they would ask the doctor to write up ibuprofen as well as paracetamol. The d...
Book
Full-text available
This guide is aimed to help novice researchers use R to conduct meta-analyses
Article
Systematic reviews of literature are increasingly important in healthcare. While reviewers are expected to follow reporting guidelines, inconsistencies may be observed in presentation of reviews, potentially detracting from the credibility of findings. Predetermined eligibility criteria are fundamental to the systematic process of reviewing, and sh...
Article
Full-text available
Shingles (or zoster) is a reactivation of an existing varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. During the initial infection, VZV causes a systemic disease known as varicella or chickenpox, and this initial infection normally occurs early in childhood in the absence of routine vaccination. Although varicella is normally a mild disease, shingles is as...
Article
Aims: To assess the association between doctors' smoking status and the use of the '5As' of smoking cessation. Methods: A systematic search of 11 databases covering English and Spanish language publications since 1996 was undertaken. Studies were included if they reported doctors' smoking status (current, former or never smoker) and rates of pra...
Article
Fever is a common symptom of illness in children, and although not harmful in itself, fever and its associated symptoms are often treated with antipyretic drugs. A number of national and other guidelines now recommend against their routine use; a conclusion that was initially supported by a study showing that the prophylactic use of paracetamol mig...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria contributes significantly to the global disease burden. The World Health Organization recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria a decade ago in response to problems of drug resistance. This review compared two of the ACTs—Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (DP) and Ar...
Book
Full-text available
Purssell, Senior Lecturer, King's College London I hope that you find this useful. If you have any suggestions or corrections please contact me at: edward.purssell@kcl.ac.uk Please feel free to use this within the broad terms contained within the GNU Free Documentation License
Article
Cel pracy Przegląd piśmiennictwa w celu zweryfikowania następującej hipotezy: zastosowanie leków przeciwgorączkowych u dzieci z ostrymi zakażeniami opóźnia wyzdrowienie. Schemat badania Przeprowadzono przegląd systematyczny i metaanalizę piśmiennictwa w celu oceny wpływu leków przeciwgorączkowych na ustąpienie objawów klinicznych chorób infekcyjny...
Article
To undertake a concept analysis to clarify the meaning of the term 'fever' in children and to identify models of fever-related belief that may help in understanding the response of parents and professionals to fever in children. This concept analysis was undertaken because the approach to the treatment of fever varies widely and in particular that...
Article
Objective: To review the literature and test the hypothesis that the use of antipyretic drugs in children with acute infections slows recovery. Study design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to investigate the effect of antipyretic drugs upon recovery from infectious diseases in children. A search of Medline...
Article
Full-text available
To ascertain the views of young people in the UK with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) about their health care, and to compare these views with the perceptions of nurses involved in this sector and the current social policy response. Young people, aged 16 to 24 years, who have HIV and attend a specialist voluntary organisation and pre- and post-r...
Article
To field test a parental self-efficacy scale regarding its acceptability and feasibility and to describe parental self-efficacy in a convenience sample of parents with children aged 6 years old or less. Self-care within families is increasingly emphasised in health policy as a means of maximising healthcare resources. This study reports the field t...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of combinations of paracetamol and ibuprofen in the treatment of fever. Systematic narrative review of randomised controlled trials using the UK Economic and Social Research Council guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis. Inpatient, outpatient and home care. Children with fever. The effect of com...
Article
To develop a scale to measure parental self-efficacy in the care of pre-school children during periods of health and minor illness. Children account for many health service consultations at all levels, but particularly in primary care. There are logistical, financial and social reasons for encouraging self-care by parents and other family members d...
Article
Tests of statistical significance are ubiquitous in the nursing and medical literature, and yet they are widely misunderstood and misinterpreted. This paper discusses this, with particular reference to null hypothesis significance testing and the associated p-value. It concludes that the assumptions behind these tests are too stringent for most und...
Article
Edward Purssell considers the use of ibuprofen in the prevention and treatment of fever in infants, comparing its use with paracetamol where appropriate
Article
Commentary on: JeffersonTDi PietrantonjCAl-AnsaryLA. Vaccines for preventing influenza in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2010;2:CD004876.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the knowledge of university students regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate students, including those on nursing, medical, other health and non-health related courses. Method: The sample was recruited using the university email system, and the...
Article
Vaccination is one of the most significant public health interventions responsible for saving millions of lives and preventing significant morbidity. Despite this, there remain concerns about a number of vaccines. Although vaccines are extensively tested, there are genuine questions that many parents have about a number of vaccine-related issues. I...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical measurements such as temperature are commonly used for screening and diagnosis. However, little is known about the reliability of specific thermometers or measurement techniques. This study sought to define normal tympanic temperature and to assess the reliability of tympanic thermometry. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 244 children...
Article
Aim Clinical measurements such as temperature are commonly used for screening and diagnosis. However, little is known about the reliability of specific thermometers or measurement techniques. Methods This study sought to define normal tympanic temperature and to assess the reliability of tympanic thermometry. Using a cross-sectional survey design,...
Article
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are very common throughout infancy and childhood, with many children getting multiple infections throughout their lives. Most of these are caused by viruses, and so there is no specific treatment beyond that required to control the symptoms, and few infants and children will benefit from the administration...
Article
This article considers infections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This is a complex organ, which exists in a range of environments. Despite containing defence mechanisms against microorganisms, GI infections are common throughout infancy; however, the risk of infection can be reduced through careful hygiene and the encouragement of breast-feedi...
Article
This study aimed to identify parental views of fever in their children aged 1-6 years and to consider these and associated behaviours from an evolutionary perspective. Fever is a common symptom of illness in children; however, many parents express high levels of anxiety. This has previously been reported in several countries, most notably the USA....
Article
Full-text available
Fever is common in childhood and associated with conditions such as infection. Although some infections have considerable morbidity and mortality, fever itself is rarely dangerous. Fever is unpleasant, but how much of the child’s distress is caused by fever, other symptoms such as pain, or parental anxiety is unclear. Hay et …
Article
Full-text available
Health policy is aimed at increasing homecare and deregulating the supply of drugs. This study used parental reports of the treatment of fever as an indicator of possible problems that may result from this policy, finding that the use of ineffective treatments and the overuse of drugs were common.
Article
The aim is to devise a decision-making model to help nurses and allied professionals treat the symptoms of infectious diseases in a logical way that maximizes the benefits of symptoms and minimizes any harm that they might do. This paper considers the symptoms of infectious diseases from an evolutionary perspective, applying theories from ecology a...
Article
The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of evolution on infectious diseases nursing, and propose a model that may help to increase understanding of how hosts and microorganisms co-exist and how humans can alter the delicate balance between them. Infectious diseases occur as the result of interactions between hosts and microorganisms. There i...
Article
Autism is a poorly understood condition that would appear to be on the increase. There is currently much concern about a possible link between the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination and autism which has resulted in a substantial reduction in the uptake of MMR, putting children at risk of three significant childhood diseases. This article...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Influenza is a common winter infection of the respiratory tract. In most people it is unpleasant but rarely dangerous. In some groups of people, however,it can cause excess morbidity or mortality. This article looks at current policies on the prevention and treatment of influenza, and the need for Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination to run alongsi...
Article
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an organism that is commonly associated with hospitals, and is an increasing problem worldwide. However, there have been increasing reports of its emergence in the community and a number of reports suggest the development of distinct community strains of MRSA (caMRSA). It is important that healthcare w...
Article
Full-text available
Community health practitioners frequently prescribe or advise parents on antipyretic medications for children with fevers. This mini-review sets out to examine the evidence for the relative effectiveness of two of the most widely available and commonly used over-the-counter medicines - paracetamol and ibuprofen. A systematic literature search was u...
Article
• Febrile convulsions are a relatively common outcome in paediatric febrile illness, although it is not known why some children suffer these. • Antipyretic medications may form the basis for some treatment regimens, although they are not recommended in published guidelines. • There is little evidence that the prophylactic use of antipyretics has an...
Article
Full-text available
Fever is a common symptom of childhood illness, and much time and effort is spent in the pursuit of reducing high temperature. Although antipyretic drugs are the main form of treatment, this report considers the part that physical treatments might play in reducing the temperature of febrile children. Such treatments include tepid sponging, removing...
Article
• Vertical transmission of HIV from mother-to-child is a significant problem around the world. This paper examines the main issues that confront those caring for pregnant women who may transmit HIV-1 to their babies with reference to the impact upon clinical practice. • Nursing practice should accommodate research from a number of disciplines inclu...
Article
Nosocomial infection is potentially a major problem in paediatric wards. However, there are methodological difficulties which hinder researchers in identifying the true extent of nosocomial infection. Respiratory infections pose the greatest challenge, with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being particularly problematic. However, RSV can be co...
Article
Although some parents and health care staff believe that knowledge of impending death should be withheld from children to protect them, seriously ill children usually have an awareness of death. Denial of this by parents and staff may increase the child's stress. Nurses must address the question: asked by Rimmer (1993): 'To whom does the informatio...
Data
This is the method we use at King's to teach systematic reviewing to MSc students. It is a pragmatic interpretation of the UK NICE Method.

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