Edward Melhuish

Edward Melhuish
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Education

PhD

About

373
Publications
237,133
Reads
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10,658
Citations
Introduction
I research child development and environmental influences by longitudinal studies. Interests include early childhood education and care; parenting; long- term effects of early experience, and social policy. I have experience of multi-disciplinary research involving social biological and medical scientists. My research has influenced policy. I have been a scientific advisor in the UK, Finland, Portugal, South Korea, Chile, Australia, Canada and the European Commission, OECD and WHO..
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
University of Wollongong
Position
  • Professor
June 2012 - present
University College London
Position
  • Professor
January 2012 - present
University of Oxford
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (373)
Article
There is need and opportunity for assessments that support quick and playful – yet also accurate, rigorous and developmentally sensitive – appraisals of early numeracy. Ideally, these should be accessible to those who have opportunity to support children’s learning development and ultimately shift children’s trajectories. The iPad-based Early Years...
Article
Background Language is a critical development accomplishment of early childhood, enabling later literacy, education and employment. Previous studies have highlighted socioeconomic inequalities in the amount parents speak to their child, with researchers estimating by age four parents from professional backgrounds spoke 30 million more words to thei...
Conference Paper
Background It is well understood that the first five years of life are crucial to future health, wellbeing and success, and that large inequalities are evident early in life. While research into inequalities amongst families is not new, understanding how a child’s access to mobile technology may impact the transmission of inequality from parent to...
Article
Full-text available
Background The idea of the ‘30 million word gap’ suggests families from more socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds engage in more verbal interactions with their child than disadvantaged families. Initial findings from the Language in Little Ones (LiLO) study up to 12 months showed no word gap between maternal education groups. Methods Families...
Article
Many children start school developmentally vulnerable and struggle to keep up with their peers. Children experiencing socioeconomic-disadvantage are at higher risk of poor developmental outcomes. A high-quality education and wrap-around community-service model, such as the Doveton Model, at Doveton College, Australia, may improve outcomes for famil...
Article
Full-text available
There is a rich tradition in Europe of child-centred Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) with social development as the predominant curricular goal and free play as the main pedagogical principle for development. This tradition has been challenged by recent research showing that young children benefit from more structured learning, often call...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is evidence that parents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds engage in fewer verbal interactions with their child than more advantaged parents. This leads to the so-called, '30 million-word gap'. This study aims to investigate the number of words children hear and the number of vocalizations children produce in...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines associations between Australia’s regulatory ratings of quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) – the National Quality Standard (NQS) – and two research-based quality rating scales. The analytic sample consisted of 257 ECEC services across three Australian states. Results indicated (1) modest positive associations be...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is evidence that parents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds engage in fewer verbal interactions with their child than more advantaged parents. This leads to the so-called, ‘30 million-word gap’. Methods: We used improved technology to investigate the number of words children hear in their first year of life. Mot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is evidence that parents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds engage in fewer verbal interactions with their child than more advantaged parents. This leads to the so-called, ‘30 million-word gap’. We used improved technology to investigate the number of words children hear in their first year of life. Methods: Mot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: There is evidence that parents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds engage in fewer verbal interactions with their child than more advantaged parents. This leads to the so-called, ‘30 million-word gap’. We used improved technology to investigate the number of words children hear in their first year of life. Methods: Mot...
Chapter
The educational performance of children in Out of Home Care (OHC) in the UK is lower than that of other children. This is largely attributable to the high levels of need of these children rather than to the effect of the OHC environment. A study of the educational progress of OHC children in England was carried out using data on 47,500 children. Ed...
Article
Full-text available
Preschool programs were already viewed in the 1960s as important for preventing or correcting the cognitive deficits found in disadvantaged children (Weikart, 1966 reprinted 2016). This paper explores the possible influence of group-based early childhood education and care (ECEC), offered to the general population, on the risk for special education...
Preprint
Background: There is evidence that parents from more socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds engage in fewer verbal interactions with their child than more advantaged parents. This leads to the so-called, ‘30 million-word gap’. We used improved technology to investigate the number of words children hear in their first year of life. Methods: Mot...
Chapter
The educational performance of children in Out of Home Care (OHC) in the UK is lower than that of other children. This is largely attributable to the high levels of need of these children rather than to the effect of the OHC environment. A study of the educational progress of OHC children in England was carried out using data on 47,500 children. Ed...
Book
Headteachers, teachers, parents, politicians and school governors have long been united in wondering how to produce effective teaching in primary schools - but they could find few reliable answers. This book changes that. Here, some of the UK's leading researchers into effective primary school provision combine qualitative and quantitative research...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Prenatal opioid exposure (POE) is one of the fastest-growing global health problems, but its association with long-term neurologic and physical development remains unknown. Objective To assess the association between POE and cognitive and motor development in children from age 6 months to 18 years. Data Sources Key search terms include...
Article
This study explores how various measures of home learning environment (HLE) collected at different ages are related to each other and explores associations when the effects of significant child and family characteristics are controlled for. Different age-appropriate measures of the HLE were constructed at ages 3, 7, 11, and 14. The measures were de...
Article
The widely and internationally replicated socioeconomic status (SES) gradient of executive function (EF) implies that intervention approaches may do well to extrapolate conditions and practices from contexts that generate better child outcomes (in this case, higher SES circumstances) and translate these to contexts with comparatively poorer outcome...
Article
Full-text available
In many developed countries it is now the norm for preschool children to spend time outside the home in early childhood education and care (ECEC). Research indicates that attending ECEC can promote longer-term positive life outcomes, which is more likely when the ECEC is of higher quality. In a UK study of 600 ECEC group settings for 3–4 year olds,...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines associations between Australia’s regulatory ratings of quality in early childhood education and care (ECEC)—the National Quality Standard (NQS)—and two research-based quality rating scales. The analytic sample consisted of 257 ECEC services across three Australian states. Results indicated (1) modest positive associations betwee...
Article
Individuals with the short variant of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene are more susceptible than individuals homozygous for the long allele to the effects of stressful life events on risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. We tested whether individual differences in coping style explained this increased risk for p...
Article
Full-text available
SCIENTIFIC Different aspects of social–emotional development in early childhood—including self-regulation, hyperactivity, emotional problems, and peer problems—have each been shown to individually influence academic achievement into primary and secondary school. Environmental and demographic factors have also been shown to influence a child’s acade...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There are marked disparities between pre-school children in key skills affecting school readiness, disparities that commonly persist and influence children's later academic achievements, employment, and adjustment. Much of this disparity is linked to socio-economic disadvantage and its impact on the home learning environment. Children'...
Article
Full-text available
Research increasingly acknowledges the importance of high quality interactions that support and extend children’s thinking. Few measurement tools currently exist, however, to capture this specific aspect of process quality. The Sustained Shared Thinking and Emotional Wellbeing (SSTEW) scale was developed to assess interactional quality in early chi...
Article
Full-text available
In countries with universal access to early childhood education and care (ECEC), child participation is high across a range of socioeconomic groups. However, ECEC quality is often varying, and many children spend much time in ECEC settings that are not necessarily high quality. In this observational study, we therefore examined the relationship bet...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The new Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years recommend that, for preschoolers, a healthy 24-h includes: i) ≥180 min of physical activity, including ≥60 min of energetic play, ii) ≤1 h of sedentary screen time, and iii) 10-13 h of good quality sleep. Using an Australian sample, this study reports the proportion of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem. Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) is a new intervention for young, expectant mothers implemented successfully in pilot studies. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of gFNP in reducing risk factors for maltreatment with a potentially v...
Article
Full-text available
Some aspects of child non-cognitive development in pre-school have independently been shown to predict academic outcomes in later primary and early high school. However, the extent to which each aspect uniquely predicts these outcomes remains unclear. It is also unclear as to what mechanisms may predict these aspects of non-cognitive development. T...
Article
Full-text available
Background Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) is a home-based nurse home-visiting programme to support vulnerable parents. Group Family Nurse Partnership (gFNP) has similar aims and materials and was demonstrated to be feasible in implementation evaluations. Objectives To determine whether or not gFNP, compared with usual care, could reduce risk facto...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development remains the most authoritative and accessible account of all aspects of child development. Written by an international team of experts, its comprehensive coverage includes everything from prenatal development to adolescence, pediatrics, theories and research methods, physical developmen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Looked-after children in local authority care are among the most disadvantaged, and measures of their well-being, including educational outcomes, are poorer than other children's. Methods: The study sample consisted of all children in England born in academic years 1993 to 1994 through 1997 to 1998 who were in local authority care at...
Book
Full-text available
Introduction: From September 2013, two-year-old children living in the 20% most disadvantaged households became eligible for 15 hours of funded early childhood education and care (ECEC) per week. This was extended in September 2014 to two-year-old children living in the 40% most disadvantaged households. This report aims to explore the impact of th...
Book
Full-text available
Several studies have shown that good quality early years education can have a positive effect on the educational, cognitive, behavioural and social outcomes of children, in both the short and long term (Sylva et al., 2010; Melhuish et al., 2015). From September 2010 all three- and four-year-olds in England have been entitled to funded early educati...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prevalence estimates internationally suggest that many preschool-aged children (3–5 years) are insufficiently physically active and engage in high levels of screen-based entertainment. Early childhood is the developmental period for which we know the least about the effects of physical activity on development and health. Likewise, rapid...
Article
Full-text available
While research has investigated risk-taking in play for children from the age of four years upwards, less is known of risky play with children under four years. A small-scale observational study with children from five childcare settings with differing characteristics was undertaken to explore the occurrence and characteristics of risky play for ch...
Article
Full-text available
Given evidence that early executive functioning sets the stage for a broad range of subsequent outcomes, researchers have sought to identify ways to foster these cognitive capacities. The current series of studies sought to design, develop, and provide evidence for the efficacy of embedding cognitive activities in a commonplace activity—shared read...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In February 2017 Blanden, Hansen and McNally published a document that sought to investigate the effects of quality within early education and care settings in England (Quality in Early Years Settings and Children's School Achievement, CEP Discussion Paper 1468, The London School of Economics). Within this document was an argument that contradicts...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Little is known of the long-term, including school, outcomes of children diagnosed with Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) (International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Problems [10th Edition], Australian Modification, P96.1). Methods: Linked analysis of health and curriculum-based test data for all...
Chapter
The book reviews the history of policies pertaining to child health and well-being which preceded and set the stage for Sure Start. It provides insight into how Sure Start Local Programmes (SSLPs) were expected to function and how they actually operated, in terms of their strengths and weaknesses and costs. It also demonstrates their impact on chil...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in early years issues such as early childhood education and care (ECEC) and early intervention has increased in recent decades internationally. Partly this reflects interest in facilitating the social and educational development of children, both for deprived children and the general population, and partly interest in increasing parental,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the development of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in China. The historical context from 1900 is summarised, and then developments from the 1980s up to the present kindergarten expansion movement, starting in 2010, are covered in detail. The review shows that ECEC development in China has undergone great changes both in...
Article
There are great differences in health and development linked to social origins. Poor children are more likely to fail at school, have poorer health, and engage in crime and other problem behaviour later in life (e.g. Holzer et al. 2007). Despite decades of social, educational and public health reform, there has been little progress in equalising op...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether the amount and timing of group-based childcare between birth and 51 months were predictive of cognitive development at 51 months, taking into account: other non-parental childcare; demographic characteristics; cognitive development at 18 months, sensitive parenting and a stimulating home environment. Children’s (N=97...
Article
Full-text available
Childcare systems involve labour market, parental leave and childcare policies. It is clear that some countries, including the Czech Republic, fall far behind recommended targets for childcare provision. Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) has two major functions: to help parents’ participation in the labour market, and to foster children’s d...
Article
Full-text available
Several methods of assessing executive function (EF), self-regulation, language development, and social development in young children have been developed over previous decades. Yet new technologies make available methods of assessment not previously considered. In resolving conceptual and pragmatic limitations of existing tools, the Early Years Too...
Book
Full-text available
Childcare systems involve labour market, parental leave and childcare policies. It is clear that some countries, including the Czech Republic, fall far behind recommended targets for childcare provision. Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) has two major functions: to help parents’ participation in the labour market, and to foster children’s d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Le présent examen par les pairs a été organisé à Prague (République tchèque) les 10 et 11 novembre 2015 par le ministère tchèque du Travail et des affaires sociales. Il a rassemblé autour du pays hôte les représentants de six pays pairs (Croatie, Finlande, Irlande, Lettonie, Roumanie et Slovaquie) et de deux parties prenantes (Eurochild et COFACE)....
Technical Report
Full-text available
Die Peer Review fand am 10.-11. November 2015 im tschechischen Ministerium für Arbeit und Soziale Angelegenheiten in Prag statt. Neben dem Gastgeberland nahmen sechs Peer-Länder teil: Finnland, Irland, Kroatien, Lettland, Rumänien und die Slowakei. Außerdem waren die Interessengruppen Eurochild und COFACE sowie die Europäische Kommission (GD Beschä...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Vzájemné hodnocení, které se konalo v Praze (Česká republika) ve dnech 10.–11. listopadu 2015, proběhlo na půdě Ministerstva práce a sociálních věcí ČR. Kromě hostitelské země se na vzájemném hodnocení podílelo dalších šest zemí: Chorvatsko, Finsko, Irsko, Lotyšsko, Rumunsko a Slovensko. Zástupci zainteresovaných stran byly organizace Eurochild a C...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Increasingly, childcare provision and use involves multiple factors. Childcare systems in EU countries combine elements of labour market and parental leave policies, as well as a broad range of childcare possibilities. Parental leave is relevant, as are employment regulations in terms of whether they allow for flexibility in the labour market, with...
Research
Full-text available
Study into differences between poor, average and excellent teachers and how their teaching practices could be linked to effectiveness of schools.
Research
Full-text available
Study into differences between poor, average and excellent teachers and how their teaching practices could be linked to effectiveness of schools