Edward C M Lo

Edward C M Lo
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Faculty of Dentistry

About

595
Publications
172,762
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14,074
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1988 - present
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Chair
January 1988 - present
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (595)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The objectives of this study were to compare the amount of fluoride delivered via a topical application of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish as well as to determine the amount of 38% SDF solution delivered using various micro-applicators. Methods The weights of 38% SDF (Saforide) and 5% NaF (...
Article
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Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in changing health behaviors (snack and toothbrushing) and preventing dental caries among adolescents.Methods Five hundred and twelve adolescents with unfavorable caries-related behaviors (“snacking three times or more a day” and/or “toothbru...
Article
The aim of the current systematic review was to summarize and to evaluate the available information on the effectiveness of oral exercise in improving the masticatory function of people ≥18 y. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL) and gray literatures were searched (up to December 2020) for relevant randomized and nonrandomized controlled...
Article
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Objective The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for masticatory function in adults. Methods Five electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL Plus and APA PsycINFO) were searched up to March 2021. Studies reporting development or validation of PRO...
Article
Objectives: To summarize the evidence on prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) by professionally or self-applied topical fluorides using network meta-analysis. Data: Randomized-controlled trials with minimum 1-year follow-up assessing caries-preventive effect among children younger than six years. Sources: Eight electronic databases and grey...
Article
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This cross-sectional survey investigated untreated early childhood caries (ECC) and its associated factors among 5-year-old children in Hong Kong. Children were recruited using a multistage sampling method. One dentist examined the children in kindergarten to diagnose untreated ECC (dt) at the cavitation level. Each child’s demographic information,...
Article
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The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on caries prevalence in older adults aged 60 years or above around the globe. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of English publications from January 2016 to December 2020 using Pubmed, Scopus, Embase/Ovid and Web of Science. The MeSH terms used were “dental...
Article
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The older adult population is increasing both in number and in proportion worldwide. In Hong Kong, the number of people aged 65 or above is expected to reach 2.5 million in 2039, thus becoming one-third of the population. With this growing population, the need for dental care among older adults is expected to surge. Oral health care is one of the g...
Article
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The bactericidal effect on biofilm is the main challenge currently faced by antibacterial agents. Nanoscale drug-delivery materials can enhance biofilm penetrability and drug bioavailability, and have significant applications in the biomedical field. Dental caries is a typical biofilm-related disease, and the acidification of biofilm pH is closely...
Article
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Early childhood caries is common in Hong Kong, and parental practices on maintaining good oral health of their young children are far from satisfactory. This article reports on the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial on family-centered oral health promotion to new parents in establishing proper feeding habits and oral hygiene practices a...
Article
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This study investigated the effect of strontium-doped bioactive glass (SBAG) on the formation of dental demineralized lesions. Materials and methods: The study materials were 48 sound human tooth specimens with both dentine and enamel, divided equally into four groups: Group 1 (SBAG), Group 2 (SBAG+Fluoride), Group 3 (Fluoride), and Group 4 (Wate...
Article
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The aim of this study was to present a concise summary of the oral health policies and oral healthcare schemes for older adult populations in a number of selected countries around the world. In this paper, the current and planned national/regional oral health policies and oral healthcare schemes of nine countries (Australia, Brazil, China including...
Article
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The advancement of medicine has reduced the rate of mortality and older adult population is increasing. Among the 7,700,000,000 world population in 2019, 1 in 11 people were at the age of 65 or more. The population is expected to increase to 1 in 6 people by 2050. Older adults have degenerative changes that become more severe with age. This study u...
Article
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Background Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and sodium fluoride (NaF) are widely used for caries management. The objectives of this study are (i) to compare the caries-arresting and caries-preventive effects of SDF and NaF in young children, (ii) to determine children’s and parents’ acceptance of these fluoride therapies and (iii) to investigate the s...
Article
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Background : Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in dentistry provide essential evidence for dentists to practice evidence-based dentistry. This study aimed to analyze the scientific impacts of the RCTs conducted among children and adolescents published in dental journals and summarize the main contents of these studies. Methods : An electronic li...
Article
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Objective This study aimed to investigate the global research interest regarding silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in dentistry using a bibliometric approach. Methods A literature search was conducted in the Web of Science Core Collection database to identify studies related to SDF. Bibliometric data from the selected publications were exported and an...
Article
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Fissure sealant is a recommended preventive measure on permanent molars, but its efficacy on primary molars in preschool children is still in doubt. Sodium fluoride varnish (NaFV) enhances remineralization and is effective in preventing caries in smooth surfaces, but limited information is available regarding its use on occlusal surfaces of primary...
Article
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Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was developed in Japan in the 1960s. It is a clear solution containing silver and fluoride ions. Because of its anti-bacterial and remineralizing effect, silver diamine fluoride has been used in managing dental caries for decades worldwide. This paper aims to summarize and discuss the global policies, guidelines, and r...
Article
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Aim: Early childhood caries (ECC) has significant public health implications but has received inadequate global attention. There is limited information regarding the success of oral health policies implemented to address the challenges of ECC. This review aimed to summarize such policies to tackle ECC from different countries/regions. Method: Indep...
Article
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The aim of this study was to describe the changes in oral health policies and guidelines in response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in different countries and regions around the world. Information on oral health policies and guidelines from 9 countries (Canada, China including Hong Kong, Egypt, India, Japan, New Zealand, Nigeri...
Article
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Background: This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal validity and reliability of the Oral Health Impact on Daily Living (OHIDL) transition scale and measure the perceived change in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) after dental treatments among older adults. Methods: OHIDL was administered to older adults who sought...
Article
Objective To investigate the remineralizing effect of a strontium-doped bioactive glass (HX-BGC) and fluoride on demineralized enamel and dentine. Materials Sixty demineralized human tooth specimens were allocated to four groups. Group 1 received 5% HX-BGC, Group 2 received 5% HX-BGC and 1,450 ppm fluoride, Group 3 received 1,450 ppm fluoride, and...
Article
Objective This meta-evaluation aimed to summarize all available evidence regarding different fissure sealants on occlusal caries prevention, arrest, retention rate, adverse effect and cost-effectiveness; when compared with no intervention, other preventive or minimally-invasive procedures. Materials and methods The systematic reviews and meta-anal...
Article
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The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literatures on the effect of treatment combining 9300 nm carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers and fluoride on prevention of enamel caries. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The keywords were ((9300 nm) OR (9.3 µm) OR (carbon dioxide laser) OR (carb...
Article
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Studies have shown that silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is an effective agent to arrest and prevent dental caries due to its mineralizing and antibacterial properties. While plenty of studies have investigated the mineralizing properties, there are few papers that have examined its antibacterial effect on oral biofilm. The objective of this study was...
Article
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Hong Kong has a large and growing population of older adults but their oral health conditions and utilization of dental services are far from optimal. To reduce the financial barriers and to improve the accessibility of dental care services to the older adults, a number of programmes adopting an innovative shared funding, administration, and provis...
Article
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Objectives To compare the periodontal health related–inflammatory and metabolic differences between patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and healthy controls (HC), and to identify potential biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum of ESRD patients for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM). Methods Patients...
Article
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A carbon dioxide laser at 9,300 nm has a high absorption affinity for water and a shallow depth of penetration. It can be used for soft tissue surgery and hemostasis. Besides, it matches well with the absorption characteristic of hydroxyapatite in enamel and dentine. Therefore, the laser possesses a great ability for energy transfer to dental hard...
Article
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Objective To investigate the effects of a 9.3-μm carbon dioxide (CO2) laser and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on the prevention of enamel demineralisation and inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. Methods Enamel blocks were applied with Laser (Group-1), SDF (Group-2), Laser + SDF (Group-3) and no treatment (Group-4), and then subjected to an 8-day pH...
Article
Objectives This systematic review aims to investigate the efficacy of denture adhesives (DAs) for complete dentures (CDs), and to provide clinical recommendations for prosthodontists and general practitioners. Data/Sources Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CENTRAL) and gray literatures were searched (up to March 2020) for relevant randomized...
Article
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Background Dental caries is an acid-related disease. Current anti-caries agents mainly focus on the bacteriostatic effect in a neutral environment and do not target acid-resistant microorganisms related to caries in acidic milieus. Objectives To assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of bedaquiline against oral pathogens in acidic milieus....
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives Few studies reported the periodontal disease-related metabolic profile of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The present study aimed to compare the inflammatory and metabolic differences between patients with ESRD and healthy controls, and to identify potential useful biomarkers for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate the associations between dental conditions, sliver diamine fluoride (SDF) application, parental satisfaction, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children. Materials and methods: In a clinical trial conducted in Hong Kong, preschool children who had carious lesions into dentine were randomly a...
Article
Objectives This study investigated the effects of a new strontium-doped bioactive glass and fluoride on hydroxyapatite crystallization. Methods We designed an in vitro experiment with calcium phosphate (CaCl2·2H2O + K2HPO4 in buffer solution) with different concentrations of strontium-doped bioactive glass (1 mg/ml or 5 mg/ml), and different conce...
Article
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Qualitative research collects non-numerical data that explores human behaviour, attitudes, beliefs and personality characteristics unamendable to quantitative research. The qualitative research questions are open-ended, evolving and non-directional. The study design is flexible and iterative. Purposive sampling is commonly used. The sample size is...
Article
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Purpose: To systematically evaluate the horizontal transmission of Streptococcus mutans in children and analyze its relationship with dental caries. Methods: Seven databases were searched for observational studies that have determined the transmission of S. mutans among children younger than seven years. Selection of included studies, data extracti...
Article
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The objectives of the in vitro study were: (1) to investigate the effect of combining L-arginine (Arg) and NaF on the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LRG); and (2) to identify an optimum synergistic concentration for the synbiotic (Arg + LRG)-fluoride (SF) therapy. 1% Arg + 2000-ppm NaF (A-SF) and 2% Arg + 2000-ppm NaF (B-SF) demonstrated ant...
Article
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This 24-mo randomized controlled trial was based on a double-blind parallel design, and it compared the effectiveness of 2 fluoride application protocols in arresting dentine caries in primary teeth. Three-year-old children with active dentine caries were recruited and randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups. Children in group A received a semiann...
Article
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Objectives Aim of this systematic review was to summarize the factors that affect the success rate of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations in children. Data/Sources Two independent reviewers conducted a literature search in the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science until October 2019 with no initial time limit. Articles repor...
Article
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The in vitro study objectives were to investigate the effect of arginine (Arg) incorporation in a 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on its physical and chemical properties including F/Arg release. Six experimental formulations were prepared with L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-arginine monohydrochloride at 2%, 4%, and 8% w/v in a 5% NaF varnish, which serv...
Article
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Comprehensive research on ethnic disparities in dental caries in China is limited. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to compare the levels of dental caries in adolescents between the Han ethnic group and ethnic minority groups in China and to explore the risk indicators for dental caries within ethnic subgroups. Data from the Fourth Natio...
Article
Objectives To investigate the remineralising and staining effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on artificial dentine caries. Methods Human dentine blocks with artificial caries were divided into four groups. Group 1 received 5 % NaF (22,600 ppm fluoride) with 4000 ppm AgNPs; group 2 received 4000 ppm AgNPs; group 3 re...
Article
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Early childhood caries (ECC) remains the single most common chronic childhood disease. Untreated caries can cause tooth loss and compromised dentition. Severe ECC can also influence nutrition intake, cognitive development, general health and quality of life. In Hong Kong, approximately half of 5-year-old children suffer from ECC, and more than 90%...
Article
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Objective The aim of this randomised non-inferiority clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of semi-annual (every six months) applications of 25 % silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution followed by 5 % sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish to semi-annual applications of 38 % silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution in arresting early childhood caries (ECC)...
Article
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The study aimed to compare three methods for determining total (TF) and total soluble fluorides (TSF) in 5 child formula dentifrices (CFD) using Inter-method reliability (IMR) statistical approach. The methods were direct acid-hydrolysis (DM), the least-time-consuming method; Modified direct acid-hydrolysis with standard-addition method (MDM), ISO...
Article
Objective(s): To: 1) examine the fluoride concentrations in commercial child formula dentifrices (CFD)s; and 2) investigate the effect of arginine incorporation in CFDs on fluoride bioavailability. Study Design: Five commercial CFDs were examined for fluoride concentrations. Total, total soluble, and insoluble fluorides in CFDs were determined by t...
Article
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Objective To investigate the microbiome profile and relative abundance changes of the plaque on silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated caries in children with early childhood caries. Methods A single trained examiner assessed the caries as being arrested or active and then collected plaque samples from the caries lesions from fourteen 5-year-old ch...
Article
Objective: To investigate the microbiome profile and relative abundance changes of the plaque on silver diamine fluoride (SDF)-treated caries in children with early childhood caries. Methods: A single trained examiner assessed the caries as being arrested or active and then collected plaque samples from the caries lesions from fourteen 5-year-ol...
Article
Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire for assessing chewing function of Chinese older adults. Methods The chewing function questionnaire was validated on older adults recruited from a dental hospital, an elderly home and three community centers in Hong Kong. The participants were asked to indicate their ability to chew on each of the...
Article
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Background Poor oral hygiene and high hormone levels during pregnancy can lead to a deterioration in periodontal health. This study assessed the effectiveness of a family-centered behavioral and educational counselling program on improving the periodontal health of women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods A randomized controlled trial was co...
Article
Objectives To define an expert Delphi consensus on when to intervene in the caries process and existing carious lesions. Methods Non-systematic literature synthesis, expert Delphi consensus process and expert panel conference. Results Lesion activity, cavitation and cleansability determine intervention thresholds. Inactive lesions do not require tr...
Poster
Background: The study examined the effect of arginine incorporation in child formula dentifrices (CFD) on fluoride bioavailability. Methods: L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-arginine monohydrochloride (L-Arg.HCl) at 2% w/w of dentifrices were incorporated in five tested commercial CFDs. Total, total soluble, and insoluble fluorides in CFDs were determined...
Article
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Clinical Relevance This study provides valuable information about the influence of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment on the microtensile bond strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) to dentin. SUMMARY Objectives: To investigate the influence of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment on the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of glass ionomer c...
Article
Objectives To investigate the antibacterial effect of a new bioactive glasses on cariogenic bacteria. Methods and materials A newly developed bioactive glass named Huaxi bioactive glass-ceramic (HX-BGC) and its antibacterial effects were investigated. 3 MTM Specialty Glass 19933 (SG) was used as the positive control while deionized water was used...
Article
Objective: To compare the success rates of restoring untreated and SDF-treated dentine caries lesions in primary teeth with atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. Method: Cavitated dentine caries lesions in preschool children were randomly allocated to two groups to be applied with either 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution or to...
Article
Full-text available
The scoping review aimed to examine the evidence on the role of synbiotics in caries prevention. PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases search were performed. Any in vitro study, clinical trial, systematic review with/without meta-analysis, umbrella review/meta-evaluation, narrative review addressing the role of synbiotics in caries preventio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and sodium fluoride (NaF) are widely used for caries management. The objectives of this study are i) to compare the caries-arresting and caries-preventive effects of SDF and NaF in young children, ii) to determine children’s and parents’ acceptance of these fluoride therapies, and iii) to investigate the sh...