Edward L Deci

Edward L Deci
University of Rochester | UR · Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in Psychology

About

327
Publications
1,212,712
Reads
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231,429
Citations
Citations since 2017
41 Research Items
118449 Citations
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Introduction
Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Helen F. & Fred H. Gowen Professor Emeritus in the Social Sciences at the University of Rochester. He is also a Professor (part-time) in Management and Motivation at the University of Southeast Norway in Honefoss. Deci has long been well known in psychology for his theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as co-developer of Self-Determination Theory
Additional affiliations
May 2019 - present
University of Rochester
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • #SelfDeterminationTheory
Education
September 1967 - May 1970
Carnegie Mellon University
Field of study
  • Social Psychology
August 1965 - May 1967
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • Organizational Behavior

Publications

Publications (327)
Article
Full-text available
Self-determination theory (SDT) is a broad framework for understanding factors that facilitate or undermine intrinsic motivation, autonomous extrinsic motivation, and psychological wellness, all issues of direct relevance to educational settings. We review research from SDT showing that both intrinsic motivation and well-internalized (and thus auto...
Article
Full-text available
The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially so in organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there has been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems in the work domain. The purpose of this study was to address t...
Article
Full-text available
Self-determination theory (SDT) is a macro theory of human motivation that evolved from research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and expanded to include research on work organizations and other domains of life. We discuss SDT research relevant to the workplace, focusing on (a) the distinction between autonomous motivation (i.e., intrinsic mo...
Chapter
This collection of first-person accounts from legendary social psychologists tells the stories behind the science and offers unique insight into the development of the field from the 1950s to the present. One pillar, the grandson of a slave, was inspired by Kenneth Clark. Yet when he entered his PhD program in the 1960s, he was told that race was n...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Self-Determination Theory posits that managers' autonomy-supportive behavior and employees' autonomy causality orientation, are motivation constructs to explain internalization of values, functioning, and wellness at work. Hypothesis 1 tested whether profiles comprising perceived dental clinic managers' autonomy-supportive, as opposed...
Article
According to the job demands–resources model, job demands (or hindrances) can drain energy and yield physiological and psychological costs by requiring sustained physical and/or mental effort at work. Using self‐determination theory, the current study examined the associations among role conflict (as a proxy for job demands), frustration of the bas...
Chapter
Considerable research in aging has dealt with elderly people’s health, the main purposes of which are to prevent chronic diseases and increase functional ability. However, psychological well-being is also important for the elderly, so it is crucial to identify psychological factors that would not only help manage health problems in these individual...
Article
Full-text available
Anchored in self‐determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), we used a sample of 310 Japanese father‐child dyads (fathers M age = 47.95; children M age = 14.98, 50% female), to investigate: 1) the structure of aspirations in a Japanese sample, 2) the association between fathers’ own intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations and the aspirations reporte...
Article
Anchored in self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), we used a sample of 310 Japanese father-child dyads (fathers Mage = 47.95; children Mage = 14.98, 50% female), to investigate: 1) the structure of aspirations in a Japanese sample, 2) the association between fathers’ own intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations and the aspirations reported...
Article
Based on previous theoretical models, the present research investigated three different psychological constructs (religious belief, trust in government, and the experience of personal control) as moderators of the link between country’s economic growth (i.e., Gross Domestic Product) and income inequality (i.e., Gini) on health, happiness, and life...
Article
Full-text available
A substantial proportion of adults suffer from high dental anxiety, which is related to poor oral health and functioning. Using authenticity theory and self-determination theory, we applied a model testing two moderated mediation hypotheses: (i) the negative indirect association between authenticity and avoiding dental appointments through dental a...
Article
Full-text available
There are no literature reviews that have examined the impact of health-domain interventions, informed by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017), on SDT constructs and health indices. Our aim was to meta-analyze such interventions in the health promotion and disease management literatures. Studies were eligible if they used an experimen...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to test a self‐determination theory model with the following hypotheses: (1) Patients’ autonomous causality personality orientation and oral health care professionals’ autonomy‐supportive treatment styles, as perceived by patients, would both be positively indirectly associated with dental attendance through pat...
Preprint
We review literature and experimental data to distinguish solitude from other situations where people are alone but preoccupied by external activities or presence of other people. We further explore meaningful factors shaping solitary experiences, including the reasons for which we find ourselves alone, the activities that we engage in, and the cha...
Preprint
In this research we showed that solitude generally has a deactivation effect on people’s affective experiences, decreasing both positive and negative high-arousal affects. In Study 1, we found that the deactivation effect occurred when people were alone, but not when they were with another person. Study 2 showed that this deactivation effect did no...
Preprint
There are times when sitting alone without distraction from devices or daily activities could be valuable, as it offers us the opportunities to relax and clear our mind. Yet, the extant literature suggests individuals do not enjoy those moments, and often seek out distraction to reduce the salience of aloneness. In the present research, we examined...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We tested the hypotheses that a dental intervention designed to promote oral care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict patients’ perceived autonomy support from oral health-care professionals, increases in eudaimonic well-being (i.e. both personal growth and purposeful behaviour go...
Chapter
Motivation is a topic of relevance in all areas of human endeavour. Defined by what “moves” people into action, motivation concerns both the energy and direction underlying behavior. Yet how motivation has been understood has varied greatly over the short history of scientific psychology. In fact, more than in many other areas of psychology, the fi...
Article
Full-text available
Parental conditional regard (PCR) involves parents providing or withdrawing affection to motivate children to do what the parents want. Numerous studies have demonstrated that PCR has harmful consequences for children. The present research examines associations between PCR and children’s later relationships with young-adult peers. We conducted two...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test a structural equation model (SEM) with the following hypotheses: (1) patients’ perceptions of oral health care professionals’ (i.e., dentists and dental hygienists) controlling interpersonal styles would positively predict patients’ dental anxiety through their basic psychological need frustration in treatment; (2)...
Preprint
Parental conditional regard (PCR) involves parents providing or withdrawing affection to motivate children to do what the parents want. Numerous studies have demonstrated that PCR has harmful consequences for children. The present research examines associations between PCR and children’s later relationships with young-adult peers. We conducted two...
Article
From the lens of Self-Determination Theory, this study investigated the effects of a mobile application tool for identifying species on biology students’ achievement and well-being. It was hypothesized that the mobile application, compared to a textbook, would enhance feelings of competence and autonomy and, in turn, intrinsic motivation, positive...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers’ support of student autonomy in physical education (PE) is believed to be important for students’ motivation and outcomes in PE. We tested the hypothesis that an intervention designed to help teachers to be more autonomy supportive in teaching their students to use learning strategies (relative to standard teaching) would increase students...
Article
Objectives: Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), the present study examined whether collegiate physical education (PE) teachers’ autonomy support versus control would relate to college students’ wellness, knowledge, performance, and intentions to persist at physical activity beyond the PE classes. The mediating roles of students’ basic psyc...
Article
This study uses Self-Determination Theory as a theoretical framework to test the hypotheses that students self-reports of their motivational regulations would predict teachers’perception of students’ motivational regulations, even after controlling for performance. An additional aim was to test a process model in which students’ perceived autonomy...
Article
Full-text available
Most work-related studies of self-determination theory (SDT) have focused either on satisfaction of basic psychological needs or on types of work motivation when studying motivational processes at work. The few studies that have considered both mechanisms have usually assumed that satisfaction or frustration of basic psychological needs is a prereq...
Article
In this research we showed that solitude generally has a deactivation effect on people’s affective experiences, decreasing both positive and negative high-arousal affects. In Study 1, we found that the deactivation effect occurred when people were alone, but not when they were with another person. Study 2 showed that this deactivation effect did no...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to test a self-determination theory (SDT) process model of the "bright" and the "dark" motivational pathways through dental attendance or avoidance to oral health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 students from all study disciplines at the University of Oslo. Participants responded to...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although different determinants, including genetics, temperament, and a variety of social-contextual influences, play roles in young people’s development, the role of parents is paramount to healthy psychosocial adjustment. When children’s psychological needs are satisfied, children report more well-being, engage in activities with more interest an...
Poster
In this poster, we presented three experiments that observed the effect of solitude on mood. Extending on previous findings showing that solitude decreases positive mood, the present results suggested that solitude decreased both positive and negative moods that are high on arousal, while not affecting those that are low on arousal.
Chapter
Self-determination in human behavior is based in autonomous motivation, which encompasses both intrinsic motivation and integrated extrinsic motivation . Intrinsic motivation involves doing an activity without the necessity of external prompts or rewards because it is interesting and satisfies the basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy,...
Article
As the nature of work has changed in recent decades, employees are increasingly exposed to psychological demands in the workplace, which have associated consequences for employees, organizations, and society. Using self-determination theory, this study examined the dark side of work, in which frustration of basic psychological needs is associated w...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the current study was to examine whether patient perceptions of autonomy support from the treatment team in a vocational rehabilitation program will be associated with change (increase) in need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, perceived competence, well-being, physical activity, and return to work (RTW), and whether the sel...
Article
A pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial examined whether extending the duration of a cost-effective, intensive tobacco-dependence intervention designed to support autonomy will facilitate long-term tobacco abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three tobacco-dependence interventions based on self-determination theory, namely,...
Article
Objective: To test the hypothesis that a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) intervention designed to promote oral health care competence in an autonomy-supportive way would predict change in caries competence relative to standard care. Further, to test the SDT process path-model hypotheses with: (1) the intervention and individual differences in Relat...
Article
This study tested a physical activity intervention and the self-determination theory (SDT) process model of health-behavior change and health among 108 adult patients with both diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients were randomly assigned to an organized physical activity intervention group (led by instructors) o...
Chapter
Scientists Making a Difference is a fascinating collection of first-person narratives from the top psychological scientists of the modern era. These readable essays highlight the most important contributions to theory and research in psychological science, show how the greatest psychological scientists formulate and think about their work, and illu...
Research
A 2-Day Intimate Conference with Richard Ryan, Ed Deci and More... Deepen your knowledge of SDT and personally engage and strategize with Richard Ryan and Ed Deci, creators of SDT, joined by C. Scott Rigby and Susan Fowler www.motivationworks.com
Research
A 2-Day Intimate Conference with Richard Ryan, Ed Deci and More... Deepen your knowledge of SDT and personally engage and strategize with Richard Ryan and Ed Deci, creators of SDT, joined by C. Scott Rigby and Susan Fowler www.motivationworks.com
Research
Full-text available
When: June 2 - 5, 2016 (pre-conference events begin on June 1st) Where: Victoria, BC, Canada Website: http://web.uvic.ca/sdt2016/ Contact: sdt2016@uvic.ca
Article
Full-text available
Field studies investigating self-determined motivation in relation to learning strategy use and its educational outcomes in physical education are lacking. The purpose of the present study was therefore to test a Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of learning strategy use as it related to participation and performance...
Chapter
Many countries that are concerned about their standing on international achievement tests have been pressuring schools to improve, often leading teachers and students to be more controlled in their motivation. Using self-determination theory, we argue that supporting teacher and student autonomy has substantial advantages in terms of educational ou...
Article
Self-determination Theory (SDT) is a motivational theory of personality, development, and social processes that examines how social contexts and individual differences facilitate different types of motivation, especially autonomous motivation and controlled motivation, and in turn predict learning, performance, experience, and psychological health....
Article
This study explored a motivational approach to examining individuals’' perfectionistic strivings, using Self-Determination Theory as the theoretical foundation. Data were collected from 384 undergraduate students. Hierarchical multilevel models were performed to examine whether the association between the tendency to set high personal standards and...
Article
In this chapter, in keeping with the spirit of the field of developmental psychopathology, our interest is in examining both the developmental underpinnings of healthy autonomy and the processes involved in its disruption and manifestation as pathology. It is in critically examining this interface between normal and impaired development that the na...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have documented that self-determined choice does indeed enhance performance. However, the precise neural mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. We examined the neural correlates of the facilitative effects of self-determined choice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants played a game-like...
Article
The link between money and motivation has been a debated topic for decades, especially in work organizations. However, field studies investigating the amount of pay in relation to employee motivation is lacking and there have been calls for empirical studies addressing compensation systems and motivation in the work domain. The purpose of this stud...
Chapter
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that the adequate support and satisfaction of individuals' psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness promotes the gradual unfolding of individuals' integrative tendencies, as manifested through intrinsic motivation, internalization, identity development, and integrative emotion regulatio...
Article
Recent studies have examined whether electronic games foster aggression. At present, the extent to which games contribute to aggression and the mechanisms through which such links may exist are hotly debated points. In current research we tested a motivational hypothesis derived from self-determination theory-that gaming would be associated with in...
Article
Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (2006). Choice and ego-depletion: The moderating role of autonomy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(8), 1024-1036. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0146167206288008)
Article
The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized...
Chapter
Establishing and maintaining close relationships are among the most important and autonomously pursued aspects of people’s lives. This chapter reviews the motivational dynamics of close relationships using Relationships Motivation Theory (RMT), a mini-theory within Self-Determination Theory. RMT posits a basic psychological need for relatedness tha...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated whether satisfaction and frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, as identified within Basic Psychological Need Theory (BPNT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inquiry 11:227-268, 2000; Ryan and Deci, Psychol Inquiry 11:319-338, 2000), contributes to participants' well-being and ill-being...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter provides a synthesis of empirical literature on the psychology of getting paid using self-determination theory as a framework for organization and interpretation. Using this theoretical framework, we posit that the affective, motivational, and behavioral consequences of getting paid are mediated by the often oppositional experiences of...
Article
Few studies have examined how changes in materialism relate to changes in well-being; fewer have experimentally manipulated materialism to change well-being. Studies 1, 2, and 3 examined how changes in materialistic aspirations related to changes in well-being, using varying time frames (12 years, 2 years, and 6 months), samples (US young adults an...
Article
Full-text available
Mastery goals are generally considered the most adaptive achievement goals. In 2 studies, we tested whether, in line with self-determination theory, participants’ experiences of autonomy support and autonomy would affect the relations between mastery goals and psychological outcomes. In Study 1 (an experiment), 117 college students, randomly assign...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates engagement (E), alignment (A), and rigor (R) as vital signs of high-quality teacher instruction as measured by the EAR Classroom Visit Protocol, designed by the Institute for Research and Reform in Education (IRRE). Findings indicated that both school leaders and outside raters could learn to score the protocol with adequate...
Article
Recent studies have documented that self-determined choice does indeed enhance performance. However, the precise neural mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. We examined the neural correlates of the facilitative effects of self-determined choice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants played a game-like...
Article
Increasingly, high-level executives are rewarded not for effective behaviors but for certain outcomes such as stock prices. The primary problem with this prevalent approach, which often gives large sums to CEOs, is that it strengthens any behavior that appear to lead to the outcomes, including fraudulent ones. In addition, board members often have...
Article
This article distinguishes between hedonic and eudaimonic approaches to wellness, with the former focusing on the outcome of happiness or pleasure and the latter focusing not so much on outcomes as on the process of living well. We present a model of eudaimonia that is based in self-determination theory, arguing that eudaimonic living can be charac...
Article
In this chapter, the authors discuss the results from their meta-analytical review of the rewards literature (E. L. Deci et al, 1999) in terms of support for the predictions made by cognitive evaluation theory and their broader self-determination theory. They suggest that individuals have innate needs for competence and control, and that rather tha...
Article
Full-text available
Reviews literature concerning healthcare outcomes associated with relationship-centered patient care, and presents a biopsychosocial model of medicine. Studies show that when primary care physicians are more relationship-centered compared with physician-centered, patients are likely to display higher satisfaction, better adherence to prescriptions,...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior change is more effective and lasting when patients are autonomously motivated. To examine this idea, we identified 184 independent data sets from studies that utilized self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) in health care and health promotion contexts. A meta-analysis evaluated relations between the SDT-based constructs of prac...
Article
Full-text available
The papers of this special issue have the dual focus of reviewing research, especially clinical trials, testing self-determination theory (SDT) and of discussing the relations between SDT and motivational interviewing (MI). Notably, trials are reviewed that examined interventions either for behaviors such as physical activity and smoking cessation,...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study tested the hypotheses that: (a) a dental intervention designed to promote dental care competence in an autonomy-supportive way, relative to standard care, would positively predict perceived clinician autonomy support and patient autonomous motivation for the project, increases in autonomous motivation for dental home c...
Article
The present research: (1) developed a Self-Regulation for Dental Home Care Questionnaire (SRDHCQ) based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000), and (2) used it in a SDT process model of dental health behaviors and self-rated oral health. In this model, patients’ perceptions of autonomy supportive (relative to controlling) dental prof...
Article
Self-determination theory maintains and has provided empirical support for the proposition that all human beings have fundamental psychological needs to be competent, autonomous, and related to others. Satisfaction of these basic needs facilitates people's autonomous motivation (i.e., acting with a sense of full endorsement and volition), whereas t...
Chapter
In this chapter the authors discuss modern conceptions of happiness, including hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. They distinguish happiness as a symptom rather than sine qua non of well-being, and they relate the later to the human capability for autonomous self-regulation. Using a self-determination framework they define autonomy and detail its...