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Edward C V Butler

Edward C V Butler
Ultramarine Concepts

PhD
Scientific Officer (P/T) at Environmental Defenders Office

About

99
Publications
15,176
Reads
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3,365
Citations
Citations since 2017
12 Research Items
1312 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Introduction
Independent Researcher – environmental chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, estuarine ecology
Additional affiliations
April 2012 - April 2019
Australian Institute of Marine Science
Position
  • Science Leader – Northern Territory
Description
  • estuarine scientist, nutrient biogeochemist, environmental chemist, research leader
June 1984 - March 2011
CSIRO Marine And Atmospheric Research
Position
  • Group Leader
Description
  • environmental chemist, chemical oceanographer, marine biogeochemist, estuarine scientist
February 1982 - April 1984
National Research Council Canada
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • environmental analytical chemistry
Education
February 1973 - December 1981
University of Melbourne
Field of study
  • Marine Chemistry (iodine and metals)

Publications

Publications (99)
Chapter
The cycling of iodine in Tasmania under the influence of climate change
Article
Full-text available
Darwin Harbour is a working port and the most populated city in the Northern Territory of Australia. This macrotidal estuary is located in the wet–dry tropics of Northern Australia and notwithstanding mounting development pressures in the region, is largely unmodified. The prevailing oligotrophic condition of estuarine waters suggest that biogeoche...
Article
Full-text available
Mercury distribution and bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems of tropical Australia is poorly characterised. Barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a widespread high-order predator in both fresh and coastal marine waters of the region, fulfils requirements for a bio-indicator of mercury contamination. In a study of the Mary River system of the Northern Te...
Article
Full-text available
Tropical coastal waters are highly dynamic and amongst the most biogeochemically active zones in the ocean. This review compares nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles in temperate and tropical coastal waters. We review the literature to identify major similarities and differences between these two regions, specifically with regards to the impact o...
Chapter
Update on iodine cycling
Article
Darwin Harbour is a macrotidal estuary located in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. This largely unmodified oligotrophic harbour is also a working port, where the largest proportion of the Northern Territory population reside and future industrial and urban development are planned. A contemporary examination of nitrogen sources and loading...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nutrient time series from the seven IMOS NRS show no discernible trends. The three long-term NRS (>50 years) show a decline in silica over multiple decades (most dramatic at MAI), a decline in phosphate more recently, and mixed responses for nitrate.
Article
Darwin Port plays a critical role in the Northern Territory’s export-oriented economy and in supporting the economy of northern Australia more generally. Darwin Port is the only true multi-modal port in northern Australia, with direct connectivity to southern Australia and beyond via the southern rail link. The port has developed rapidly over the p...
Article
Adélie Land Bottom Water (ALBW), a variety of Antarctic Bottom Water formed off the Adélie Land coast of East Antarctica, ventilates the abyssal layers of the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean as well as the eastern Indian and Pacific Oceans. We present the first dissolved neodymium (Nd) isotope and concentration measurements for ALBW. The su...
Article
Full-text available
The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the pre...
Article
The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the pre...
Article
In hydrodynamically complex environments, where conventional water-quality parameters may not adequately quantify sewage influence, stable isotopes in time-integrating biological tissues may provide an alternative monitoring tool. We measured nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios and concentrations in mangrove leaves and muscle tissues of two species...
Article
Productivity around the tropical coast of North Australia has been considered to be dominated by phytoplankton. The phytoplankton encompasses a large taxon which, dependent on the source definition, can vary significantly. Traditionally, they would only include pelagic photosynthetic organisms (autotrophic), yet more recently the definition is bein...
Article
Zinc (Zn) is essential for phytoplankton growth as it plays a central role within many enzymatic systems within phytoplankton. Here, we present dissolved Zn concentration and Zn chemical speciation results for samples collected at four stations in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. Dissolved Zn concentrations determined using isotope dilution induct...
Article
Zinc has been proposed as a limiting, or co-limiting, micronutrient for phytoplankton. In the Tasman Sea, extremely low zinc concentrations have been reported, raising the possibility there of limitation of phytoplankton growth by zinc. The pennate diatom Nitzschia closterium (CS-1) and the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (CS-812) were cultured...
Article
Full-text available
The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) as well as classical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Darwin Harbour is a tropical estuarine system under pressure from urban and industrial development. Increased nutrient concentrations are a factor to be considered in effective management of the water body. We have presented an overview of the current condition and an updated concept of nutrient assimilative capacity as a ma...
Article
Trophic models based on nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N) have been shown to predict changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish; however, they are usually applied at the ecosystem scale and are rarely directed at known trophic pathways. We discuss a novel approach in which we combined gut contents analysis and stable isotope analyses (δ15N...
Article
Full-text available
The Tasman Sea and the adjacent subantarctic zone (SAZ) are economically important regions, where the parameters controlling the phytoplankton community composition and carbon fixation are not yet fully resolved. Contrasting nutrient distributions, as well as phytoplankton biomass, biodiversity and productivity were observed between the North Tasma...
Article
Environmental mercury (Hg) loads do not always correspond to Hg concentrations in resident fish and the selenium (Se) presence has been reported to play a pivotal role in mitigating Hg bioaccumulation. Total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and Se concentrations were measured in sediments and a benthic fish species (Platycephalus bassensis) from...
Article
Full-text available
Bathurst Harbour in World Heritage southwest Tasmania, Australia, is one of the world’s most pristine estuarine systems. At present there is a lack of data on pollution impacts or long-term natural variability in the harbor. A ca. 350-year-old 210Pb-dated sediment core was analysed for trace metals to track pollution impacts from local and long-ran...
Article
An automated procedure including both in-line preconcentration and multi-element determination by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) has been developed for the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in open-ocean samples. The method relies on flow injection of the sample through a minicolumn of chelating (iminodiacetate) s...
Article
Selenium's (Se) protective effects against mercury (Hg) toxicity have been demonstrated; however, this is seldom considered in health assessments, where dietary exposure is still evaluated by Hg concentration alone. Se:Hg ratios and selenium health benefit values (Se HBVs) offer a more comprehensive seafood safety model. Here we describe total merc...
Article
Methylmercury has been determined in 93 sea water samples from the first thousand meters on 10 stations between Tasmania and Terre-Adelie in the Southern Ocean (SR3 Geotraces transect). Concentrations varied wildly from
Article
Abstract Iron is mostly bound to poorly characterised organic ligands; thus, organic ligands are paramount in defining Fe biogeochemical cycling and its control on oceanic primary productivity. Since 1994, Fe chemical speciation has been determined by Competitive Ligand Exchange–Adsorptive Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE–AdCSV) at room temperat...
Article
Trace metal micronutrients regulate primary production in oceanic surface waters, particularly those characterised as 'high nutrient, low chlorophyll', such as the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ). Our goal was to evaluate the distribution and biogeochemistry of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Zn in the upper 1000 m of this zone to the south of Australia during the SAZ-...
Article
Popular shipboard techniques to determine dissolved aluminium in open ocean seawater have two major disadvantages: relative to HPLC techniques, they require large sample volumes; and, in practice they are are only semi-automated. To address these two issues, the application of a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) metho...
Article
Full-text available
Bottle assays and large-scale fertilization experiments have demonstrated that, in the Southern Ocean, iron often controls the biomass and the biodiversity of primary producers. To grow, phytoplankton need numerous other trace metals (micronutrients) required for the activity of key enzymes and other intracellular functions. However, little is know...
Article
A series of laboratory culture experiments was used to investigate the effect of selenium (Se, 0–10 nM) on the growth, cellular volume, photophysiology, and pigments of two temperate and four polar oceanic phytoplankton species [coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., prymnesiophyte P...
Article
Full-text available
Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta C-13) and nitrogen (delta N-15) were used to evaluate trophic structure and mercury biomagnification in an assemblage of 16 deepwater chondrichthyans (primarily, 2 squaliformes: Centroselachus crepidater and Etmopterus baxteri) collected from continental waters off southeastern Australia from 2004 to 2006. In...
Article
The interest in trace element biogeochemistry has arisen from the well demonstrated iron hypothesis that revealed the central role that iron exerts on oceanic primary and associated biogeochemical cycles. The essentiality of zinc for key biological enzymes, coupled with a nutrient-like vertical distribution with low dissolved concentrations in many...
Article
A fast and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for determination of aluminium in aqueous samples has been developed. The fluorescent aluminium-lumogallion complex (λex 505 nm, λem 574 nm), was formed with a pre-column reagent and then separated on a Chromolith® RP-18e Guard column using a two-tiered, stepped grad...
Article
This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January-February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed betw...
Article
Full-text available
Iron limits primary productivity in vast regions of the ocean. Given that marine phytoplankton contribute up to 40% of global biological carbon fixation, it is important to understand what parameters control the availability of iron (iron bioavailability) to these organisms. Most studies on iron bioavailability have focused on the role of sideropho...
Article
We present here the first mercury speciation study in the water column of the Southern Ocean, using a high-resolution south-to-north section (27 stations from 65.50°S to 44.00°S) with up to 15 depths (0–4440 m) between Antarctica and Tasmania (Australia) along the 140°E meridian. In addition, in order to explore the role of sea ice in Hg cycling, a...
Data
We present here the first mercury speciation study in the water column of the Southern Ocean, using a high-resolution south-to-north section (27 stations from 65.50°S to 44.00°S) with up to 15 depths (0-4440 m) between Antarctica and Tasmania (Australia) along the 140°E meridian. In addition, in order to explore the role of sea ice in Hg cycling, a...
Article
Full-text available
An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) equipped with rare-earth (Sm-Co) magnets was used to sample suspended particles during its transects of the Derwent estuary in Tasmania. Mineral characterization was then performed in the laboratory using 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MB) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results indicate the sources of the suspe...
Article
Full-text available
Total mercury (Hg) concentrations and lipid composition data, including fatty acid profiles, for 61 midtrophic species (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans) collected from continental slope waters off south-east Australia were examined. Overall, Hg concentrations were greatest in fish (0.01-0.30 mu g g(-1) ww) (with highest content found in barracouta (...
Article
Total mercury (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations were determined in the tissues of demersal shark (Order Squaliformes and the Families: Scyliorhinidae, Hexanchidae) and chimaera species (Families: Chimaeridae and Rhinochimaeridae) from continental shelf and slope waters off southeast Australia, including embryos, juveniles and adults...
Article
https://www.antarctica.gov.au/magazine/issue-14-2008/science/tracing-elements-in-the-ocean/
Article
The atmospheric deposition of terrestrial dust into the ocean is an important factor in controlling Earth's climate. Aluminium can be used as a tracer for the magnitude and location of dust transported from the land to surface ocean. The element is ideal for this purpose since its primary input is via aeolian dust deposition and it has a short surf...
Article
Vertical migration behaviour by the chainforming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham was investigated using vertically-stratified laboratory columns. Under surface nutrient-deplete conditions, with nutrients added only at depth, 100% of cells underwent vertical migration (VM), starting downwards migration 3 h before the end of the light per...
Chapter
The Derwent and Huon Rivers are two relatively small river systems in the southeast of Tasmania (Australia). They terminate in estuaries that are very similar in structure and function. Historically, runoff from their adjoining catchments has been very dilute, but coloured by dissolved organic matter. Their location in cool, temperate latitudes res...
Article
A method using flow-injection, gas-diffusion, derivatisation and then fluorescent detection has been established for ammonium ion determination in seawater. The fluorescent derivative formed by reacting ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and sulfite with ammonia gives high sensitivity while removing potential interferences. This is required to measure th...
Article
Full-text available
The light and dark inundated fluxes of O2and total CO2 (TCO2), as well as the concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigments, were measured (ex situ) on the upper and lower portions of 2 intertidal mudflats—1 in the upper Huon Estuary (salinity 4 to 32) and 1 in a marine side-arm of the estuary (salinity 17 to 34)—over 4 seasons. Dark-exposed fl...
Article
Modern methods of preconcentration are investigated with regard to the determination of selenium species in natural (especially ocean) waters. The low concentration of selenium in surface waters means that it is often present at levels below the limits of detection (LODs) of traditional analytical methods. This article investigates preconcentration...
Article
Benthic fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), N2 (denitrification), O2 and TCO2 were measured in the tidal reaches of the Bremer River, south east Queensland, Australia. Measurements were made at three sites during summer and winter. Fluxes of NO3- were generally directed into the sediments at rat...
Article
A detailed study of arsenic cycling in the Huon estuary, south-east Tasmania, was undertaken October 1996–September 1998. Arsenic species data were obtained during eight 3-monthly spatial surveys, and a time-series study at a single site in the estuary over a 7-mo period. The data have been correlated with other chemical measurements, including nut...
Article
A method based on hydride generation with cryogenic trapping and atomic fluorescence detection was developed that is capable of determining both inorganic Se species (Se-IV and Se-VI) while at sea. Evaluation of the system for optimal performance was made for each stage of the analysis and detection sequence, as well as for the SeVI reduction step....
Article
Full-text available
Benthic fluxes of dissolved nitrogen, rates of denitrification, N2 fixation and NH4+ upward flux within the sediment (calculated from porewater profiles) were measured on the upper and lower mudflats at 2 study sites, 1 in the upper, river-dominated part of the estuary, and 1 in the lower, more marine part of the Huon Estuary, Tasmania, Australia....
Article
The characteristics and habitat of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) are typical of fish that accumulate high concentrations of mercury. In this study, mercury determinations were made on samples of muscle tissue from Macquarie Island toothfish and the Southern Ocean deepwater warty squid (Moroteuthis ingens). The analysis of merc...
Article
The design, construction and validation of a compact, portable flow injection analysis (FIA) instrument for underway analysis of phosphate in marine waters is described. This portable system employs gas pressure for reagent propulsion and computer controlled miniature solenoid valves for precise injection of multiple reagents into a flowing stream...
Article
Distribution of the arsenic species total inorganic arsenic [As(V+III)], arsenite [As(III)], monomethyl arsenic (MMA), and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) was studied in the Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) of the Southern Ocean, south of Australia, during the austral autumn (March 1998). As(V) was the dominant arsenic species in both vertical profiles and surface w...
Article
The Huon estuary, in southeastern Tasmania, is an important location for finfish, and to a lesser extent shellfish, farming. The Huon catchment is a lightly populated rural and forested region in a cold temperate climate which supports agriculture (horticulture and livestock), forestry, and tourism. The estuary (40 km in length) is microtidal, with...
Article
Full-text available
Three atomic spectrometry techniques, namely sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (ICP-SMS, GF-AAS and HG-AFS, respectively), housed at separate independent laboratories, were used to analyse water and sediment samples colle...
Article
Full-text available
2001. A survey strategy and environmental monitoring network for an estuary supporting finfish cage culture. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 58: 460–468. The Huon estuary, in southeastern Tasmania, is an important location for finfish, and to a lesser extent shellfish, farming. The Huon catchment is a lightly populated rural and forested region i...
Article
This paper reports the findings of a study into iodine speciation in the humic-rich waters of the Huon Estuary, Tasmania, Australia. Water samples were taken from the estuary at various locations during both summer and winter. The samples were analysed for a range of parameters including iodate, iodide, total iodine, nutrients, chlorophyll a, disso...
Article
The development of a semi-automated batch HG-AFS method for the shipboard determination of As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA is described. Procedures in the analytical sequence including addition of NaBH4 to samples, cooling and heating the U-trap used for pre-concentration and separation of the arsines, and logging the AFS output are automated. Overall...
Article
A method for the determination of arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate was developed using hydride generation and cold trapping of the hydrides, coupled with atomic fluorescence detection at 193.7 nm. Optimisation of the signal was carried out for a number of experimental parameters, including the carrier gas flow rates, samp...
Article
A reliable procedure for mercury sample collection, storage and analysis has been established for estuarine waters using relatively inexpensive reagents and apparatus. SnCl2-reactive (easily reducible), acid-labile (30-day storage of unfiltered samples with 1% HNO3), and particulate mercury were determined in water samples from the Derwent Estuary...
Article
Bathurst Harbour and Macquarie Harbour are estuarine systems on the west coast of Tasmania, Australia. While Macquarie Harbour is grossly polluted from mine operations via contamination of the King River, Bathurst Harbour is surrounded by World Heritage wilderness and is essentially free of anthropogenic influences. The vegetation of the catchments...
Article
Rapid measurement of trace chemical species on location is increasingly an expectation of both environmental analytical chemists and their clients. As an example of the trend, this article looks at the evolution of analytical techniques to determine iodine and arsenic on ships at sea.
Article
An ion chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of traces of iodide in saline waters. A Dionex IonPac AS11 anion-exchange column was used with a mobile phase containing sodium chloride in order to remove interferences of the sample matrix in both the chromatographic separation and detection. This matrix-elimination procedure...
Article
Iodide and iodate concentrations were measured in the subtropical waters along the continental shelf and slope waters of eastern Australia. A thermocline between 50–100 m separated Coral Sea waters from Subtropical Lower Water on all transects. There was a sharp change in the iodide and iodate concentrations at the thermocline. The concentration of...
Article
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of the sulfur oxyanions, thiosulfate and polythionates, in natural saline waters. This method utilises preconcentration techniques to effectively enrich the analytes whilst discriminating against the high chloride concentrations present, and is based on the novel c...
Article
An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatography procedure is described for the separation and determination of chlorophenolic compounds, including several priority pollutant chlorophenols. The separation was experimentally optimised, and selective and sensitive detection was obtained by dual electrode amperometry. The most suitable combination w...
Article
Full-text available
Seawaters of the Subtropical Convergence Zone around the south of New Zealand were surveyed concurrently by two research ships in May 1989. The general surface features of the region are depicted in remotely sensed images of sea‐surface temperatures obtained at the time of the survey, and also from preceding years. Shipboard data, obtained underway...
Article
An ion chromatographic method for the separation and determination of As(III) empolying both constant and pulsed potential amperometric detection at platinum electrodes has been compared using cylindrical wire, thin layer, and wall-jet flow cell detectors. Operational parameters such as limit of detection, linear dynamic range, stability, reproduci...
Article
A shipboard system comprising a peristaltic pump, digital pH meter, and flow-cell with pH electrode and temperature probe has been used for underway measurement of surface water pH. The high-precision pH data is logged on board with continuous records of surface temperature and salinity. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pCO2, in surface wate...
Chapter
In coastal waters, vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, in situ fluorescence (chlorophyll) and depth were recorded at 2 sec intervals by coupling a Variosens II fluorometer to a submersible data logger. For measurements down to 800 m, a Variosens III was interfaced with a Neil Brown CTD. In addition to in situ fluorescence, the Variosens III...
Article
The distribution of phytoplankton and the diversity of environmental conditions for their growth around the South Island, New Zealand, were examined in May 1989 by way of chlorophyll a fluorescence profiling in combination with discrete sample analysis of nutrients and particulates, CTD‐profiles, and concurrent satellite images of sea surface tempe...
Article
Full-text available
A broad range of physical and chemical parameters was measured in waters of the Gordon and King Rivers and Macquarie Harbour, Tasmania, along with sedimentary organics at three sites. Most concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in the Gordon and upper King Rivers were similar to those found in normal coastal sea waters, but such concentrations we...
Article
A critical evaluation of a highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography amperometric detection method (wall jet cell) for the determination of arsenic has been undertaken with platinum disk electrodes of variable size. The method for detection of arsenic involves a surface-based oxidation process in which As(III) is converted to As(V). This...