Edward T Bullmore

Edward T Bullmore
University of Cambridge | Cam · Department of Psychiatry

MB PhD FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci

About

1,031
Publications
262,424
Reads
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116,435
Citations
Introduction
I am a psychiatrist and neuroscientist based in Cambridge UK. I currently work half-time for the University of Cambridge, as a Professor of Psychiatry and Clinical Director of the Behavioural & Clinical Neuroscience Institute; and half-time for GlaxoSmithKline as Vice-President, Experimental Medicine and Head of the Clinical Unit in Cambridge. My main research interests are the network organization of the human brain with neuroimaging and the development of new drugs for mental health.
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
GlaxoSmithKline
Position
  • GSK1521498 - opioid antagonist
Description
  • Early clinical development and experimental medicine studies for new opioid antagonist indicated for obesity and addiction
October 1999 - present
University of Cambridge
Position
  • Human brain network analysis
Description
  • Graph theoretical analysis of complex topological properties of brain networks derived from MRI and other neuroscientific data
January 1993 - October 1999
King's College London
Position
  • Wellcome Trust (Advanced) Research Training Fellow
Description
  • Statistical analysis of functional and structural MRI data. Fractal and wavelet analysis of neurophysiological time series. Applications of fMRI to psychiatry and pharmacology
Education
March 1993 - March 1997
King's College London
Field of study
  • Statistical analysis of MRI data
September 1982 - July 1985
St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, University of London
Field of study
  • Medicine
October 1978 - July 1981
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Physiological Sciences

Publications

Publications (1,031)
Article
Adolescence is a time of profound changes in the physical wiring and function of the brain. Here, we analyzed structural and functional brain network development in an accelerated longitudinal cohort spanning 14 to 25 y ( n = 199). Core to our work was an advanced in vivo model of cortical wiring incorporating MRI features of corticocortical proxim...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) appears to be more common among women than men, though the underlying reasons for this remain unclear. In a community sample of young adults (N = 996, aged 18-33) assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated alternative explanation for the NSSI prevalence gap: are women more likely to experience t...
Article
Sexual differences in human brain development could be relevant to sex differences in the incidence of depression during adolescence. We tested for sex differences in parameters of normative brain network development using fMRI data on N = 298 healthy adolescents, aged 14 to 26 years, each scanned one to three times. Sexually divergent development...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preliminary evidence has highlighted a possible association between severe COVID-19 and persistent cognitive deficits. Further research is required to confirm this association, determine whether cognitive deficits relate to clinical features from the acute phase or to mental health status at the point of assessment, and quantify rate of...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is growing concern about how people with eating disorders are impacted by the widespread societal restructuring during the COVID-19 crisis. Aims We aimed to examine how factors relating to the impact of the pandemic associate with eating disorders and quantify this relationship while adjusting for concurrent and longitudinal param...
Preprint
Human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has multiple neurological consequences, but its long-term effect on brain health is still uncertain. The cerebrovascular consequences of COVID-19 may also affect brain health. Here we assess cerebrovascular health in 45 hospitalised patient...
Article
Over the past two decades, compelling evidence has emerged indicating that immune mechanisms can contribute to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) and that drugs with primary immune targets can improve depressive symptoms. Patients with MDD are heterogeneous with respect to symptoms, treatment responses and biological correlates. De...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 has been associated with many neurological complications including stroke, delirium and encephalitis. Furthermore, many individuals experience a protracted post-viral syndrome which is dominated by neuropsychiatric symptoms, and is seemingly unrelated to COVID-19 severity. The true frequency and underlying mechanisms of neurological injury...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents are prone to social influence from peers, with implications for development, both adaptive and maladaptive. Here, using a computer-based paradigm, we replicate a cross-sectional effect of more susceptibility to peer influence in a large dataset of adolescents 14 to 24 years old. Crucially, we extend this finding by adopting a longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
Recent discovery of approximately 270 common genetic variants associated with schizophrenia has enabled polygenic risk scores (PRS) to be measured in the population. We hypothesized that normal variation in PRS would be associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phenotypes of brain morphometry and tissue composition. We used the largest extan...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammation is associated with depressive symptoms and innate immune mechanisms are likely causal in some cases of major depression. Systemic inflammation also perturbs brain function and microstructure, though how these are related remains unclear. We recruited N = 46 healthy controls, and N = 83 depressed cases stratified by CRP (> 3 mg/L: N = 3...
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent studies have shown that choroid plexuses (CP) may be involved in the neuro-immune axes, playing a role in the interaction between the central and peripheral inflammation. Here we aimed to investigate CP volume alterations in depression and their associations with inflammation. Methods 51 depressed participants (HDRS score >13) an...
Article
Full-text available
Characterizing patterns of mental phenomena in epidemiological studies of adolescents can provide insight into the latent organization of psychiatric disorders. This avoids the biases of chronicity and selection inherent in clinical samples, guides models of shared aetiology within psychiatric disorders and informs the development and implementatio...
Article
Full-text available
Compulsive behavior is enacted under a belief that a specific act controls the likelihood of an undesired future event. Compulsive behaviors are widespread in the general population despite having no causal relationship with events they aspire to influence. In the current study, we tested whether there is an increased tendency to assign value to as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain could be a key diagnostic and research tool for understanding the neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19. For maximum impact, multi-modal MRI protocols will be needed to measure the effects of SARS-CoV2 infection on the brain by diverse potentially pathogenic mechanisms, and with high rel...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Recent studies have shown that choroid plexuses (CP) may be involved in the neuro-immune axes, playing a role in the interaction between the central and peripheral inflammation. Here we aimed to investigate CP volume alterations in depression and their associations with inflammation. Methods 51 depressed participants (HDRS score >13) an...
Article
Background Impaired response inhibition in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) is hypothesised to depend on deficient noradrenergic signalling in cortico-striatal networks. Remediation of noradrenergic neurotransmission with selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as atomoxetine may therefore have clinical utility to improve respo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract Adolescence is a time of profound changes in the structural wiring of the brain and maturation of large-scale functional interactions. Here, we analyzed structural and functional brain network development in an accelerated longitudinal cohort spanning 14–25 years (n = 199). Core to our work was an advanced model of cortical wiring that in...
Article
There is increasing interest in how immune cells, including those within the meninges at the blood-brain interface, influence brain function and mood disorders, but little data on humoral immunity in this context. Here, we show that in mice exposed to psychosocial stress, there is increased splenic B cell activation and secretion of the immunoregul...
Article
Full-text available
Objective There is increasing evidence for a subgroup of major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with heightened peripheral blood inflammatory markers. In this study, we aimed to understand the mechanistic brain-immune axis in inflammation-linked depression by investigating associations between functional connectivity (FC) of brain networks and...
Article
Full-text available
The increasingly compelling data supporting the involvement of immunobiological mechanisms in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) might provide some explanation forthe variance in this heterogeneous condition. Peripheral blood measures of cytokines and chemokines constitute the bulk of evidence, with consistent meta-analytic data implicating raised pro...
Article
Full-text available
The formation of large-scale brain networks, and their continual refinement, represent crucial developmental processes that can drive individual differences in cognition and which are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions. But how does this organization arise, and what mechanisms drive diversity in organization? We use generative n...
Article
Anatomical organization of the primate cortex varies as a function of total brain size, where possession of a larger brain is accompanied by disproportionate expansion of associative cortices alongside a relative contraction of sensorimotor systems. However, equivalent scaling maps are not yet available for regional white matter anatomy. Here, we u...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Drug-induced alterations to the dopamine system in stimulant use disorder (SUD) are hypothesised to impair reinforcement learning. Computational modelling enables the investigation of the latent processes of reinforcement learning in SUD patients, which could elucidate the nature of their impairments. Methods: We investigated reinfor...
Article
p>Background: Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Translocator protein (TSPO)–targeted positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to assess neuroinflammation in major depressive disorder. We aimed to 1) test the hypothesis of significant case-control differences in TSPO binding in the anterior cingulate c...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents are prone to social influence from peers, with implications for development, both adaptive and maladaptive. Here, using a computer-based paradigm, we replicate a cross-sectional effect of more susceptibility to peer influence in a large dataset of adolescents 14 to 24 years old. Crucially, we extend this finding by adopting a longitudin...
Article
Full-text available
Network analytic methods that are ubiquitous in other areas, such as systems neuroscience, have recently been used to test network theories in psychology, including intelligence research. The network or mutualism theory of intelligence proposes that the statistical associations among cognitive abilities (e.g., specific abilities such as vocabulary...
Article
Impulsive and compulsive problem behaviours are associated with a variety of mental disorders. Latent phenotyping indicates the expression of impulsive and compulsive problem behaviours is predominantly governed by a transdiagnostic 'disinhibition' phenotype. In a cohort of 117 individuals, recruited as part of the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Networ...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-making is a cognitive process of central importance for the quality of our lives. Here, we ask whether a common factor underpins our diverse decision-making abilities. We obtained 32 decision-making measures from 830 young people and identified a common factor that we call “decision acuity,” which was distinct from IQ and reflected a gener...
Article
Full-text available
The symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) are suggestive of cognitive rigidity, and previous work identified impaired flexible responding on set-shifting tasks in such patients. The basal ganglia are central to habit learning and are thought to be abnormal in OCD, contributing to inflexible, rigid habitual patterns of behaviour. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: There is increasing evidence for a subgroup of major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with heightened peripheral blood inflammatory markers. In this study, the authors sought to understand the mechanistic brain-immune axis in inflammation-linked depression by investigating associations between functional connectivity (FC) of brain ne...
Article
Brain structural covariance norms capture the coordination of neurodevelopmental programs between different brain regions. We develop and apply anatomical imbalance mapping (AIM), a method to measure and model individual deviations from these norms, to provide a lifespan map of morphological integration in the human cortex. In cross-sectional and l...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a critical time for the continued maturation of brain networks. Here, we assessed structural connectome development in a large longitudinal sample ranging from childhood to young adulthood. By projecting high-dimensional connectomes into compact manifold spaces, we identified a marked expansion of structural connectomes with the stro...
Article
Impulsive and compulsive problem behaviours are associated with a variety of mental disorders. Latent phenotyping indicates the expression of impulsive and compulsive problem behaviours is predominantly governed by a transdiagnostic ‘disinhibition’ phenotype. In a cohort of 117 subjects, recruited as part of the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network (...
Article
Full-text available
Background Depression and overweight are each associated with abnormal immune system activation. We sought to disentangle the extent to which depressive symptoms and overweight status contributed to increased inflammation and abnormal cortisol levels. Methods Participants were recruited through the Wellcome Trust NIMA Consortium. The sample of 216...
Article
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with atypical brain development. However, the phenotype of regionally specific increased cortical thickness observed in ASD may be driven by several independent biological processes that influence the gray/white matter boundary, such as synaptic pruning, myelination, or atypical migration. Here, we propo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Recent discovery of hundreds of common gene variants associated with schizophrenia has enabled polygenic risk scores (PRS) to be measured in the population. It is hypothesized that normal variation in genetic risk of schizophrenia should be associated with MRI changes in brain morphometry and tissue composition. Methods We used the large...
Article
Full-text available
Background Immune mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. Translocator-protein (TSPO) targeted positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to assess neuroinflammation in major depressive disorder. We aimed to: (i) test the hypothesis of significant case-control differences in TSPO binding in anterior cingulate (ACC),...
Preprint
Childhood adversity (CA) is one of the strongest predictors of poor mental health in adolescents. CA is thought to contribute to mental health vulnerability by increased sensitivity to social rejection in later life. Here, we examined whether in a CA vulnerable group friendship quality at age 14 contributes to resilient functioning by age 24 throug...
Article
Full-text available
Repeated maternal separation is the most widely used pre-clinical approach to investigate the relationship between early-life chronic stress and its neuropsychiatric and physical consequences. In this systematic review, we identified 46 studies that conducted repeated maternal separation or single-episode maternal separation and reported measuremen...
Article
Background COVID-19 has affected social interaction and healthcare worldwide. Methods We examined changes in presentations and referrals to the primary provider of mental health and community health services in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, UK (population ~0·86 million), plus service activity and deaths. We conducted interrupted time series ana...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of large-scale brain networks, and their continual refinement, represent crucial developmental processes that can drive individual differences in cognition and which are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions. But how does this organization arise, and what mechanisms govern the diversity of these developmental processe...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
Full-text available
Network analytic methods that are ubiquitous in other areas, such as systems neuroscience, have recently been used to test network theories in psychology, including intelligence research. The network or mutualism theory of intelligence proposes that the statistical associations among cognitive abilities (e.g. specific abilities such as vocabulary o...
Article
The relationship between peripheral and central immunity and how these ultimately may cause depressed behaviour has been the focus of a number of imaging studies conducted with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). These studies aimed at testing the immune-mediated model of depression that proposes a direct effect of peripheral cytokines and immune c...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly complex neurodevelopmental condition that is accompanied by neuroanatomical differences on the macroscopic and microscopic level. Findings from histological, genetic, and more recently in vivo neuroimaging studies converge in suggesting that neuroanatomical abnormalities, specifically around the gray‐white...
Article
Full-text available
We have corrected this Article post-publication, because Dr. Cattaneo’s affiliation details were originally incorrect (she was affiliated with three institutions but is in fact only linked to one: Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia). These changes reflect in both the PDF and HTML versions...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that is accompanied by neurodevelopmental differences in regional cortical volume (CV), and a potential layer-specific pathology. Conventional measures of CV, however, do not indicate how volume is distributed across cortical layers. In a sample of 92 typi- cally developing (TD...
Article
Full-text available
A characteristic of adaptive behavior is its goal-directed nature. An ability to act in a goal-directed manner is progressively refined during development, but this refinement can be impacted by the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Disorders of compulsivity have been framed computationally as a deficit in model-based control, and have been linke...
Preprint
Full-text available
Peripheral inflammation can cause depressive symptoms – but how? Here, we measured brain MRI functional connectivity and micro-structural parameters, including proton density (PD, a measure of tissue water), at 360 cortical and 16 subcortical brain regions in 46 healthy controls and 83 depressed cases. Blood C-reactive protein (CRP) was positively...
Article
Full-text available
Impulsive and compulsive symptoms are common, tend to co-occur, and collectively account for a substantive global disease burden. Latent phenotyping offers a promising approach to elucidate common neural mechanisms conferring vulnerability to such symptoms in the general population. We utilised the Neuroscience in Psychiatry Network (NSPN), a cohor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The increasingly compelling data supporting the involvement of immunobiological mechanisms in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) might provide some explanation of the variance in this heterogeneous condition. Peripheral blood measures of cytokines and chemokines constitute the bulk of evidence with consistent meta-analytic data implicating...
Article
Full-text available
Early-onset neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g., autism) affect males more frequently than females. Androgens may play a role in this male-bias by sex-differentially impacting early prenatal brain development, particularly neural circuits that later develop specialized roles in social cognition. Here, we find that increasing prenatal testosterone i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of large-scale brain networks, and their continual refinement, represent crucial developmental processes that can drive individual differences in cognition and which are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental conditions. But how does this organization arise, and what mechanisms govern the diversity of these developmental processe...
Article
Full-text available
Excitation-inhibition (E:I) imbalance is theorized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in autism. Autism affects males more frequently than females and sex-related mechanisms (e.g., X-linked genes, androgen hormones) can influence E:I balance. This suggests that E:I imbalance may affect autism differently in males versus females. With a co...
Article
Full-text available
Excitation-inhibition (E:I) imbalance is theorized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in autism. Autism affects males more frequently than females and sex-related mechanisms (e.g., X-linked genes, androgen hormones) can influence E:I balance. This suggests that E:I imbalance may affect autism differently in males versus females. With a co...
Article
Full-text available
Excitation-inhibition (E:I) imbalance is theorized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in autism. Autism affects males more frequently than females and sex-related mechanisms (e.g., X-linked genes, androgen hormones) can influence E:I balance. This suggests that E:I imbalance may affect autism differently in males versus females. With a co...