Eduardo Fernandez

Eduardo Fernandez
Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche | UMH · Institute of Bioengineering

MD and PhD

About

417
Publications
61,154
Reads
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Introduction
Eduardo Fernandez currently works at the Institute of Bioengineering, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche. Eduardo does research in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering and Neuroscience. He is a qualified MD who combines biomedicine (molecular and cellular biology, biochemistry, anatomy, physiology and regenerative medicine) with the physical sciences and engineering (mathematics, physics and applied chemistry) to better understand and safely interact with the nervous system. Their current project is 'Development of a Cortical Visual Neuroprosthesis for the Blind.'
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - present
Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Harvard University

Publications

Publications (417)
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the success of cochlear implants for deaf patients, we are now facing the goal of creating a visual neuroprosthesis designed to interface with the occipital cortex as a means through which a limited but useful sense of vision could be restored in profoundly blind patients. We review the most important challenges regarding this neuropro...
Article
Full-text available
Rehabilitation of sensory and/or motor functions in patients with neurological diseases is more and more dealing with artificial electrical stimulation and recording from populations of neurons using biocompatible chronic implants. As more and more patients have benefited from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significan...
Article
Full-text available
Light-regulated drugs allow remotely photoswitching biological activity and enable plausible therapies based on small molecules. However, only freely diffusible photochromic ligands have been shown to work directly in endogenous receptors and methods for covalent attachment depend on genetic manipulation. Here we introduce a chemical strategy to co...
Article
Full-text available
Restoring vision by stimulating the brain Electrical stimulation of the visual cortex has long been proposed as an approach to restoring vision in blind people. Previous studies positioned electrodes on the surface of the brain and thus required delivery of relatively high currents. However, this approach limits the number of electrodes that can be...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUNDA long-held goal of vision therapy is to transfer information directly to the visual cortex of blind individuals, thereby restoring a rudimentary form of sight. However, no clinically available cortical visual prosthesis yet exists.METHODS We implanted an intracortical microelectrode array consisting of 96 electrodes in the visual cortex...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Microstimulation via electrodes that penetrate the visual cortex creates visual perceptions called phosphenes. Besides providing electrical stimulation to induce perceptions, each electrode can be used to record the brain signals from the cortex region under the electrode which contains brain state information. Since the future visual p...
Chapter
Radiographs of the sacroiliac joints are commonly used as the first imaging methods for the diagnosis of Sacroileitis in patients with back pain. This study aims to develop and validate a new artificial intelligence approach for the automatic classification of the grade of sacroiliitis on conventional radiographs. We included a total of 267 patient...
Chapter
There are stimuli than can evoke us a feeling of connection between them. For example, we can easily appreciate differences when a musical piece is played in a continuous (legato) or discontinued way (martellato). This is called articulation, and this feature can be also applied to other sensorial modalities such as paintings or food images. In thi...
Chapter
The violence - without the apparent “Gender Peace”, if data and households are examined - occurs against adult and older women, is beginning to become apparent, but there is only information from recent years. The objective is demonstrate that social isolation can be a key factor in gender peace in the case of adult and older women, even more so in...
Chapter
In the field of prosthetic vision, functional assessment refers to tests that capture a person’s ability to use vision to perform everyday tasks. That includes assessments ranging from basic psychophysical tests of light perception and discrimination to performance-based tests. Visual prosthesis devices are not able to provide high-resolution visua...
Chapter
In this study we have implemented and validated the Azure Kinect system for the acquisition and analysis of the human kinematics to be applied to the practical clinic for physiotherapy and rehabilitation, as well as in research studies. The progressive increase in the ageing of the world population in the first world countries, increasingly demands...
Chapter
Cortical visual prostheses are a subgroup of visual prostheses which use electrical stimulation of the occipital cortex to evoke visual percepts in profoundly blind people. The stimulation approaches are usually open-loop, meaning that the stimulation is not controlled by any other factor. However, closed-loop approaches have shown advantages in ma...
Chapter
Various Facial Expression Recognition (FER) systems have been studied in the field of computer vision and machine learning to encode expression information from facial representations. In this research paper, a facial emotion recognition system is proposed, addressing automatic face detection and facial expression recognition using 1) Residual Neur...
Chapter
Although electrical stimulation is an established treatment option for multiple central nervous and peripheral nervous system diseases, its effects on the tissue and subsequent safety of the stimulation are not well understood. Therefore, it is crucial to design stimulation protocols that maximize therapeutic efficacy while avoiding any potential t...
Article
Full-text available
Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising materials for gene delivery because of their unique physicochemical and biological features, along with their possibility of combination with other nonviral systems. Our aim was to evaluate the biophysical performance of NDs as helper components of niosomes, named nanodiasomes, to address a potential nonviral gene d...
Article
Full-text available
Current teaching and training methods for surgical techniques in the pediatric population involve artificial models (manikins), animals or adult human cadavers embalmed using various techniques. We found no references in the literature concerning the use of the Thiel method in the pediatric population. The aim of this study, therefore, was to asses...
Preprint
Full-text available
Challenges in the field of retinal prostheses motivate the development of retinal models to accurately simulate Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) responses. The goal of retinal prostheses is to enable blind individuals to solve complex, reallife visual tasks. In this paper, we introduce the functional assessment (FA) of retinal models, which describes...
Chapter
Compression of the cervical spinal cord can be caused by a wide range of causes, but the most common is cervical spondylosis (CS), a degenerative process that affects the vertebral bodies and inter-vertebral discs of the cervical spine. In CS, the severity of compression and neurological deficits varies greatly across individuals, with patients exp...
Conference Paper
Retinal models are needed to simulate the translation of visual percepts to Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) neural spike trains, through which visual information is transmitted to the brain. Restoring vision through neural prostheses motivates the development of accurate retinal models. We integrate biologically-inspired image features to RGC models....
Conference Paper
Challenges in the field of retinal prostheses motivate the development of retinal models to accurately simulate Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGCs) responses. The goal of retinal prostheses is to enable blind individuals to solve complex, reallife visual tasks. In this paper, we introduce the functional assessment (FA) of retinal models, which describes...
Conference Paper
Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves has long been used and proven effective in restoring function caused by disease or injury. Accurate placement of electrodes is often critical to properly excite the nerve and yield the desired outcome. Computational modeling is becoming an important tool that can guide the rapid development and optimizati...
Article
Conventional rehabilitation strategies for stroke survivors become difficult when voluntary movements are severely disturbed. Combining passive limb mobilization, robotic devices and EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) systems might improve treatment and clinical follow-up of these patients, but detailed knowledge of neurophysiological mechan...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess the potential use of a new advanced inertial navigation system for guiding dental implant placement and to compare this approach with standard stereolithographic template guiding. A movement processing unit with a 9-axis absolute orientation sensor was adapted to a surgical handpiece and wired to a computer navig...
Article
The aim was to evaluate relevant biophysic processes related to the physicochemical features and gene transfection mechanism when sphingolipids are incorporated into a cationic niosome formulation for non-viral gene delivery to central nervous system. For that, two formulations named niosphingosomes and niosomes devoid of sphingolipid extracts, as...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and safety of subretinal transplantation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells into the healthy margins and within areas of degenerative retina in a swine model of geographic atrophy (GA). Methods: Well-delimited selective outer...
Article
Full-text available
Cationic polypeptides and cationic polymers have cell-penetrating capacities and have been used in gene transfer studies. In this study, we investigate the capability of a polymer of D-lysine (PDL), a chiral form of α-Poly-lysine, as a possible nonviral vector for releasing genetic materials to neuroblastoma cells and evaluate its stability against...
Chapter
This chapter aims to know the psychosocial impact and social behaviours and related to the perception of technological needs in adults and older persons with diseases, health problems and/or sensory or motor disabilities. This work delves into this reality from a gender, inclusive and, at the same time, technological, biotechnological and/or virtua...
Article
Full-text available
One of the causes of nervous system degeneration is an excess of glutamate released upon several diseases. Glutamate analogs, like N-methyl-DL-aspartate (NMDA) and kainic acid (KA), have been shown to induce experimental retinal neurotoxicity. Previous results have shown that NMDA/KA neurotoxicity induces significant changes in the full field elect...
Article
Full-text available
A novel therapeutic approach for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy has been carried out through in vitro and in vivo testing by using the prodrug camptothecin-20-O-(5-aminolevulinate) (CPT-ALA). The incorporation of ALA to CPT may promote uptake of the cytotoxic molecule by glioblastoma cells where the heme synthesis pathway is active, improvin...
Article
Full-text available
Las metáforas visuales que se utilizan en la publicidad impresa suelen presentar una de las siguientes estructuras: dos o más objetos alineados, dos objetos combinados en uno solo, y un objeto ausente pero sugerido por el contexto. Distintas investigaciones han tratado de establecer si cada estructura visual implica un grado diferente de elaboració...
Thesis
Full-text available
The field of Emotional Robots begins to be perceived by many as a tangible reality that seems to develop robustly in the field of research, promoting interdisciplinary approaches. Emotional or socially intelligent robots try to emulate human social intelligence, to be integrated into our society naturally. To this end, robots must be able to learn...
Article
Facial emotion recognition (FER) has been extensively researched over the past two decades due to its direct impact in the computer vision and affective robotics fields. However, the available datasets to train these models include often miss-labelled data due to the labellers bias that drives the model to learn incorrect features. In this paper, a...
Article
Full-text available
The restoration of a useful visual sense in a profoundly blind person by direct electrical stimulation of the visual cortex has been a subject of study for many years. However, the field of cortically based sight restoration has made few advances in the last few decades, and many problems remain. In this context, the scientific and technological pr...
Article
Full-text available
Affective human-robot interaction is still an active area of research in part due to the great advances in artificial intelligence. Now, the design of autonomous devices that work in real therapeutic environments has become a plausible reality. Affective human-robot interaction requires a robot to analyze the emotional state of the human interlocut...
Article
The manuscripts included in this special issue grew out from the 7th International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation (IWINAC 2019), that was held in Almeria, Spain, June 3rd–June 7th, 2019. The conference received 191 submissions. Eighty-nine (89) papers were accepted for presentation and publication in the...
Article
Artificial intelligence and all its supporting tools, e.g. machine and deep learning in computational intelligence-based systems, are rebuilding our society (economy, education, life-style, etc.) and promising a new era for the social welfare state. In this paper we summarize recent advances in data science and artificial intelligence within the in...
Article
Full-text available
Visual neuroprosthesis, that provide electrical stimulation along several sites of the human visual system, constitute a potential tool for vision restoration for the blind. Scientific and technological progress in the fields of neural engineering and artificial vision comes with new theories and tools that, along with the dawn of modern artificial...
Article
Full-text available
In vitro neuronal cultures embodied in a closed-loop control system have been used recently to study neuronal dynamics. This allows the development of neurons in a controlled environment with the purpose of exploring the computational capabilities of such biological neural networks. Due to the intrinsic properties of in vitro neuronal cultures and...
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small double-stranded RNAs that exert a fine-tuning sequence-specific regulation of cell transcriptome. While one unique miRNA regulates hundreds of mRNAs, each mRNA molecule is commonly regulated by various miRNAs that bind to complementary sequences at 3’-untranslated regions for triggering the mechanism of RNA interference...
Article
The cortical and subcortical circuit regulating both cognition and cardiac autonomic interactions are already well established. This circuit has mainly been analyzed from cortex to heart. Thus, the heart rate variability (HRV) is usually considered a reflection of cortical activity. In this paper, we investigate whether HRV changes affect cortical...
Article
Understanding the neurophysiology of emotions, the neuronal structures involved in processing emotional information and the circuits by which they act, is key to designing applications in the field of affective neuroscience, to advance both new treatments and applications of brain-computer interactions. However, efforts have focused on developing c...
Article
Full-text available
Non-viral vectors have emerged as a promising alternative to viral gene delivery systems due to their safer profile. Among non-viral vectors, recently, niosomes have shown favorable properties for gene delivery, including low toxicity, high stability, and easy production. The three main components of niosome formulations include a cationic lipid th...
Article
Emotion estimation systems based on brain and physiological signals such as electro encephalography (EEG), blood-volume pressure (BVP), and galvanic skin response (GSR) are gaining special attention in recent years due to the possibilities they offer. The field of human–robot interactions (HRIs) could benefit from a broadened understanding of the b...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a new test that evaluates the clinical competencies of sixth-year medical students in Spain. OBJECTIVE In this framework the main goal is to explore possible applications and usefulness of portable eye tracking systems in the context of this new kind of tests, particularly question...
Article
Full-text available
Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a test used throughout Spain to evaluate the clinical competencies, decision making, problem solving, and other skills of sixth-year medical students. Objective The main goal of this study is to explore the possible applications and utility of portable eye-tracking systems in the s...
Article
Full-text available
In order to develop more precise and functional affective applications, it is necessary to achieve a balance between the psychology and the engineering applied to emotions. Signals from the central and peripheral nervous systems have been used for emotion recognition purposes, however, their operation and the relationship between them remains unkno...
Conference Paper
There are differences between healthy subjects that present a normal aging and subjects that even without showing symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases are already in the previous stages of the disease, when it comes to process emotions. In this way, it would be possible to use the recognition of emotions as a method of aid for the diagnosis of ne...
Article
Full-text available
A significant challenge in neuroscience is understanding how visual information is encoded in the retina. Such knowledge is extremely important for the purpose of designing bioinspired sensors and artificial retinal systems that will, in so far as may be possible, be capable of mimicking vertebrate retinal behaviour. In this study, we report the tu...
Article
Full-text available
Affective human-robot interaction requires lightweight software and cheap wearable devices that could further this field. However, the estimation of emotions in real-time poses a problem that has not yet been optimized. An optimization is proposed for the emotion estimation methodology including artifact removal, feature extraction, feature smoothi...
Article
Purpose Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common, co-occurring developmental disorders and are frequently associated with sleep problems. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of agomelatine as a pharmacotherapy for sleep problems in ASD adults with ID. Method A randomised, crossover, tripl...
Article
Objectives To investigate the effect of cervical spondylosis (CS) in the brain with a combination of advanced neuroimaging techniques. Methods Twenty-seven patients with CS and 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. Disease severity was quantified using the Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scoring System (mJOHA). Magne...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To induce a moderate chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) by injecting polidocanol, a foamed sclerosant drug, in the aqueous humor outflow pathway. Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored for up to 6 months. Pattern and full-field electroretinogram (PERG and ERG) were recorded and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and retinal nerve...
Chapter
Emotional estimation systems based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals are gaining special attention in recent years due to the possibilities they offer. The field of human-robot interactions (HRI) will benefit from a broadened understanding of brain emotional encoding and thus, improve the capabilities of robots to fully engage with the user’s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Visual neuroprostheses that provide electrical stimulation along several sites of the human visual system constitute a potential tool for vision restoring for the blind. In the context of a NIH approved human clinical trials project (CORTIVIS), we now face the challenge of developing not only computationally powerful, but also flexible tools that a...
Chapter
Recognizing emotions in controlled conditions, based on facial expressions, has achieved high accuracies in the past years. This is still a challenging task for robots working in real-world scenarios due to different factors such as illumination, pose variation or occlusions. One of the next barriers of science is to give sociable robots the abilit...
Chapter
For severe motor paralysis patients, most rehabilitation strategies require residual movements that, however, are lacking in up to 30–50% of stroke survivors. In these patients, motor imagery based BCI systems might play a substantial role in rehabilitation strategies. 11 severely motor-injured stroke patients and 6 healthy participants participate...
Chapter
Heart-brain interaction is by nature bidirectional, and then, it is sensible to expect the heart, via the autonomic nervous system (ANS), to induce changes in the brain. Respiration can originate differentiated ANS states reflected by HRV. In this work, we measured the changes in performance during a cognitive task due to four autonomic states orig...
Chapter
Understanding the neurophysiology of emotions, the neuronal structures involved in the processing of emotional information and the circuits by which they act, is key to design applications in the field of affective neuroscience, both to advance in new treatments and in applications of brain-computer interactions. With this objective, we have carrie...
Preprint
In order to develop more precise and functional affective applications, it is necessary to achieve a balance between the psychology and the engineering applied to emotions. Signals from the central and peripheral nervous systems have been used for emotion recognition purposes, however, their operation and the relationship between them remains unkno...
Preprint
The large range of potential applications, not only for patients but also for healthy people, that could be achieved by affective BCI (aBCI) makes more latent the necessity of finding a commonly accepted protocol for real-time EEG-based emotion recognition. Based on wavelet package for spectral feature extraction, attending to the nature of the EEG...
Article
The incorporation of chloroquine within nano formulations, rather than as a co-treatment of the cells, could open a new avenue for in vivo retinal gene delivery. In this manuscript, we evaluated the incorporation of chloroquine diphosphate into the cationic niosome formulation composed of poloxamer 188, polysorbate 80 non-ionic surfactants, and 2,3...
Conference Paper
The interaction of laser light with biological samples acquires increasing importance due to its numerous applications in areas like optogenetics or biophotonics. For many of these applications, it is important to know how light interacts with biological material, if it’s possible to quantify absorption and scattering effects produced and if these...