Eduardo R Butelman

Eduardo R Butelman
The Rockefeller University | Rockefeller

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81
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Publications (81)
Chapter
The substance use disorders are chronic relapsing brain diseases associated with drug use, often referred to as addictions, with behavioral manifestations and considerable morbidity. Addictions are complex disorders with genetic, epigenetic, neurobiological, and drug exposure factors, as well as environmental factors. Addictions to specific drugs s...
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Background Overdoses caused by synthetic mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists such as fentanyl are causing increasing mortality in the United States. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have complex effects on public health, including opioid use disorders (OUD). It is unclear whether recent increases in mortality caused by synthetic opioids have reache...
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Background One of the most prominent opioid analgesics in the United States is the high potency agonist fentanyl. It is used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain and as an anesthetic adjuvant. When used inappropriately, however, ingestion of just a few milligrams of fentanyl or other synthetic opioid can cause opioid-induced respiratory depre...
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The kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) / dynorphin system is implicated with behavioral and neurobiological effects of stress exposure (including heavy exposure to drugs of abuse) in translational animal models. Thus some KOR-antagonists can decrease the aversive, depressant-like and anxiety-like effects caused by stress exposure. The first generation of...
Article
Rationale The dynorphin/ kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system (encoded by PDYN and OPRK1 genes respectively) is highly regulated by repeated exposure to drugs of abuse, including mu-opioid agonists and cocaine. These changes in the dynorphin/KOR system can then influence the rewarding effects of these drugs of abuse. Activation of the dynorphin/KOR s...
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Background: Persons with severe opioid or cocaine use disorders are particularly vulnerable to morbidity and mortality. Heaviest use of mu-opioid receptor agonists and cocaine typically commences in early adulthood and is preceded by substantial adolescent exposure to cannabis and/or alcohol. Little information exists on the age trajectories of ex...
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Background Novel short-acting κ(kappa)-opioid receptor selective antagonists are translational tools to examine the impact of the κ-receptor/dynorphin system in assays related to central nervous system dysfunction (e.g., substance use disorders, anhedonia and depression). The effects of such compounds have been compared in males and females under v...
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Introduction: A functional tandem repeat polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene (SLC6A4) has been studied for association to neuropsychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders. Short (S) forms of this repeat result in reduced transcription, and presumably greater synaptic levels of serotonin, which are in...
Article
The widely abused prescription opioid oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist and addiction to such opioids is a relapsing disorder. The human MOP-r gene (OPRM1) has an important functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), A118G, which affects risk of severe opioid use disorders. A112G (G/G) knock-in mice are models of human A118G ca...
Chapter
The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and its primary cognate ligands, the dynorphin peptides, are involved in diverse physiological processes. Disruptions to the KOR/dynorphin system have been found to likely play a role in multiple neuropsychological disorders, and hence KOR has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. Targeting KOR is complicated by...
Article
Persons with dual severe opioid and cocaine use disorders are at risk of considerable morbidity, and the bidirectional relationship of escalation of mu-opioid agonists and cocaine use is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between escalation of heroin and cocaine use in volunteers dually diagnose...
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Rationale: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by compulsive drug intake and dysregulation of brain reward systems. Few preclinical studies have modeled the natural longitudinal course of cocaine addiction. Extended access self-administration protocols are powerful tools for modeling the advanced stages of addiction; however...
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Objective: Naltrexone and nalmefene are approved for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, in different countries. Naltrexone is also approved for the treatment for opioid use disorders, most recently in a depot formulation. These compounds target primarily μ(mu)- and κ(kappa)-opioid receptor systems, which are involved in the downstream neurobi...
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Background: Persons dually diagnosed with opioid and cocaine dependence (OD + CD) present a clinical challenge and are at risk of morbidity and mortality. The time of escalation of heroin and cocaine exposure in persons with OD + CD remain understudied, and the influence of gender and other variables have not been examined. This observational stud...
Article
Cocaine use disorders (CUD) cause major morbidity and optimized prevention efforts are critical. It is unclear if trait impulsivity and exposure to cannabis or alcohol are associated with age trajectory of cocaine use (e.g., age of onset of heaviest use, or time of escalation), or with vulnerability to develop a CUD. This is an observational study...
Article
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (Dyn/KOR) system is involved in reward processing and dysphoria/anhedonia. Exposure to mu-opioid receptor agonists such as heroin increases expression of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) in the brain. In this study in a Caucasian cohort, we examined the association of the functional PDYN 68-bp repeat polymorphism wit...
Article
Background: The Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) scales provide a rapid assessment of maximal self-exposure to specific drugs and can be used as a dimensional instrument. This study provides a re-evaluation of the KMSK scales for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin in a relatively large multi-ethnic cohort, and also the first systematic com...
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Background: The impact of increasing non-medical cannabis use on vulnerability to develop opioid use disorders has received considerable attention, with contrasting findings. A dimensional analysis of self-exposure to cannabis and other drugs, in individuals with and without opioid dependence (OD) diagnoses, may clarify this issue. Objective: To ex...
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Background Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 r...
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Introduction: Substance use disorders are a group of chronic relapsing disorders of the brain, which have massive public health and societal impact. In some disorders (e.g., heroin/prescription opioid addictions) approved medications have a major long-term benefit. For other substances (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines and cannabis) there are no approv...
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The KOP-r system and its endogenous ligands, the dynorphins, are involved in the neurobiological regulation of addictive states, and of mood. There is limited data on the impact of selective KOP-r antagonism in humans on basic bio-behavioral functions, or on addictive diseases and mood disorders. Previously studied selective KOP-r antagonists have...
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Rationale The recruitment of the stress circuitry contributes to a shift from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms sustaining long-term cocaine addiction. The kappa opioid receptor (KOPr) signaling is upregulated by stress and chronic cocaine exposure. While KOPr agonists induce anhedonia and dysphoria, KOPr antagonists display antidepress...
Article
Since the discovery and verification of the components of the endogenous opioid system in the 1970s, consisting of the mu, kappa, and delta-opioid receptors, and the cognate ligands β-endorphin, the enkephalins, and the dynorphins, a role for the endogenous opioid system in addiction to opiates has been established. Further, studies demonstrated th...
Article
Objective: To determine in mice how chronic adolescent oxycodone self-administration (SA) affects subsequent oxycodone-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), locomotor activity, and anti-nociception once mice reach early adulthood. Methods: Adolescent C57BL/6J male mice (4 weeks old, n = 6-11) and adult mice (10 weeks old, n = 6-10) were su...
Article
Background: Heroin addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease. Genetic factors are involved in the development of drug addiction. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific variants in genes of the opioid system are associated with non-dependent opioid use and heroin dependence. Methods: Genetic information from four subject gr...
Chapter
Opioid receptors (MOP-r, KOP-r, DOP-r, as well as NOP-r) and their endogenous neuropeptide agonist systems are involved in diverse neurobiological and behavioral functions, in health and disease. These functions include pain and analgesia, addictions, and psychiatric diseases (e.g., depression-, anxiety-like, and stress-related disorders). Drug dis...
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in gene expression of opioid system components induced by extended access (18 h) cocaine self-administration and to determine the impact of genetic background in the vulnerability to escalate cocaine intake. Comparing two inbred rat strains, we previously reported that Lewis rats progressi...
Chapter
The addictions are chronic relapsing brain diseases, with behavioral manifestations and considerable morbidity. Addictions are complex disorders with genetic, epigenetic, neurobiological, and drug exposure factors, as well as environmental factors. Addictions to specific drugs such as alcohol, nicotine/tobacco, cocaine/psychostimulants (e.g. metham...
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Full-text available
Salvinorin A is a potent hallucinogen, isolated from the ethnomedical plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is a selective high efficacy kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist, and thus implicates the KOPr system and its endogenous agonist ligands (the dynorphins) in higher functions, including cognition and perceptual effects. Salvinorin A is the onl...
Article
Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic marke...
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Full-text available
Rationale: Mu opioid receptors (MOPRs) are the target of heroin and other prescription opioids, which are currently responsible for massive addiction morbidity in the U.S. The gene coding for the human MOPR (OPRM1) has an important functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), A118G. The OPRM1 A118G genotype results in substantially increased ri...
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Chronic inflammation may contribute to neuropsychological impairments in individuals with HIV, and modulation of this inflammatory response by opiate receptor ligands is important in light of the prevalence of drug use in HIV populations. Exogenous MOR and KOR agonists have differential effects on central nervous system (CNS) immunity and, while so...
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A facile method for quantifying the concentration of the powerful and widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (a selective kappa opioid agonist) from non-human primate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and human plasma has been developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. With...
Article
Although non-medical use of oxycodone continues to be a growing problem in the United States, there are no animal studies examining the effects of long-term oxycodone self-administration (SA). The current study was designed to examine chronic oxycodone SA by mice (14 days), in novel extended (4 h) SA sessions and its effect on selective striatal ne...
Article
Illicit use of prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. Our goal was to determine whether oxycodone self administration differentially affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Groups of adolescent mice (4...
Chapter
KOP-r have been studied as potential targets for novel analgesics for a considerable period of time. Early studies showed that acutely administered high efficacy centrally-penetrating KOP-r agonists were problematic due to considerable central side effects, including dysphoria and psychotomimesis. Current opportunities for KOP-r ligands in analgesi...
Article
Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disease with periods of chronic escalating self-exposure, separated by periods of abstinence/withdrawal of varying duration. Few studies compare such cycles in preclinical models. This study models an "addiction-like cycle" in mice to determine neurochemical/molecular alterations that underlie the chronic, r...
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Full-text available
Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadapta...
Article
Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. κ-Opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN), have counter-modulatory e...
Article
Relapse is a serious problem for the effective treatment of cocaine addiction. Examining cocaine re-exposure-induced behavioral and neurobiological alterations following chronic escalating-dose binge cocaine administration and withdrawal may provide insight into the neurobiological basis of cocaine relapse. Our goal was to determine how exposure to...
Article
Modification of the furan ring of salvinorin A (1), the main active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. Conversion of the furan ring to an aldehyde at the C-12 position (5) has allowed for the synthesis of analogues with new carbon-carbon bonds at that position. Pr...
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Drug addiction is a disease with a genetic component that may be involved in different stages of its progression. Cocaine users escalate unit doses and frequency of self-administration events in naturalistic settings. Rats that self-administer drugs of abuse over extended sessions increase the number of infusions over days. Comparison of two geneti...
Article
Although morphine and other mu-opioid agonists are the main analgesics for severe pain, these compounds have potential for abuse and/or addiction. This has complicated the use of mu-agonists in the treatment of chronic pain. However, clinical studies show that when mu-agonist analgesics are appropriately used to control pain, actual abuse or addict...
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The widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A is a unique example of a plant-derived compound selective for kappa-opioid receptors and may produce effects distinct from those of other compounds with classic hallucinogenic or dissociative properties which are also abused in humans. The objective of this study is to characterize the salvinorin A dis...
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We have determined the systemic biodistribution of the hormone leptin by PET imaging. PET imaging using (18)F- and (68)Ga-labeled leptin revealed that, in mouse, the hormone was rapidly taken up by megalin (gp330/LRP2), a multiligand endocytic receptor localized in renal tubules. In addition, in rhesus monkeys, 15% of labeled leptin localized to re...
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This review primarily focuses on our recent findings in bidirectional translational research on opiate and cocaine addictions. First, we present neurobiological and molecular studies on endogenous opioid systems (e.g. proopiomelanocortin, mu opioid receptor, dynorphin, and kappa opioid receptor), brain stress-responsive systems (e.g. orexin, argini...
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Full-text available
Salvinorin A is the main active component of the widely available hallucinogenic plant, Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is a selective high-efficacy kappa-agonist in vitro, with some unique pharmacodynamic properties. Descriptive reports show that salvinorin A-containing products produce robust behavioral effects in humans. However, these effects ha...
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Full-text available
Nonmedical use of the prescription opioid analgesic oxycodone is a major problem in the United States, particularly among adolescents and young adults. This study characterized self-administration of oxycodone by adolescent and adult mice, and how this affects striatal dopamine levels. Male C57BL/6J mice (4 or 10 weeks old) were allowed to acquire...
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Full-text available
Herkinorin is the first mu-opioid receptor-selective ligand from the salvinorin A diterpenoid scaffold. Herkinorin has relative mu > kappa > delta binding selectivity, and it can act as an agonist at both mu- and kappa-receptors, in vitro. These studies were the first in vivo evaluation of the effects of herkinorin in nonhuman primates, using prola...
Article
The in vivo pharmacodynamics of the opioid neuropeptide beta-endorphin (a major endogenous agonist at the mu-opioid receptor) is difficult to determine in non-human primate models with translational value, or in humans. The present studies therefore employed a neuroendocrine biomarker assay, prolactin release, to systematically compare the in vivo...
Article
This study focused on the in vivo effects of the kappa-opioid hallucinogen salvinorin A, derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. The effects of salvinorin A (0.0032-0.056 mg/kg i.v.) were studied in a neuroendocrine biomarker assay of the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin in gonadally intact, adult male and female rhesus monkeys (n = 4 each). S...
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Genetic variation may partially underlie complex personality and physiological traits--such as impulsivity, risk taking and stress responsivity--as well as a substantial proportion of vulnerability to addictive diseases. Furthermore, personality and physiological traits themselves may differentially affect the various stages of addiction, defined c...
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Salvinorin A, a potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum, has gained popularity among adolescents in the USA. No detailed study of the pharmacokinetics has been conducted in vivo. The present study investigates the in vivo pharmacokinetics of salvinorin A (0.032 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) in rhesus monkeys (n=4, 2 male, 2 female). T...
Article
Structural modification of salvinorin A, the active component of Salvia divinorum, has resulted in the synthesis of novel neoclerodane diterpenes with opioid receptor affinity and activity. We report in this study a nonnitrogenous neoclerodane diterpene with mu opioid receptor affinity (13) that is an agonist at mu opioid receptors. This represents...
Article
Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is also a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor agonist in vitro. It has been shown that kappa agonists decrease dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and cause conditioned place aversion in rodents. To study the effe...
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Salvinorin A was quantitated in human and rhesus monkey plasma, rhesus monkey cerebrospinal fluid, and human urine by negative ion LC-MS/APCI. The method for Salvinorin A has been fully validated, the LLOQ using FDA guidelines is 2 ng/mL for 0.5 mL plasma samples. The linear range was from 2 to 1000 ng/mL. Several derivatives in the Salvinorin fami...
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Brain kappa-opioid receptors (ORs) may be involved in several pathologic conditions, such as addiction, psychosis, and seizures. (+/-)-4-Methoxycarbonyl-2-[(1-pyrrolidinylmethyl]-1-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)acetyl]-piperidine (GR89696) is a potent and selective kappa-OR agonist. The (-)-isomer, GR103545, is the active enantiomer of GR89696. The aim of t...
Article
Capsaicin produces thermal allodynia in animals and humans by acting as an agonist at vanilloid receptor subtype 1 [VR1; also known as transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1)]. VR1 receptors are widely distributed in the periphery (e.g., on primary afferent neurons). These studies examined the ability of loperamide (0.1-1 mg/kg s.c.;...
Article
Effects of synthetic kappa opioid receptor agonists on cocaine-induced reward have been studied extensively in rats but relatively few studies have used the endogenous kappa agonist dynorphin A(1-17). Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of the natural sequence dynorphin on cocaine-induced increases in dopamine, on the formation of co...
Article
While the effects of several kappa opioid receptor agonists on cocaine-induced reward have been studied, such effects of R-84760, a novel non-peptidic, potent and selective kappa opioid agonist that has been studied in humans, are not yet known. To study the effects of R-84760 on basal levels of dopamine, cocaine-induced increases in dopamine level...
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The potency and effectiveness of dynorphin A(1-17), E-2078 (a synthetic dynorphin A(1-8) analog) and non-peptidic kappa-opioid agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys in two assays: 1) a drug discrimination assay with the centrally-penetrating kappa-agonist U69,593 as the training stimulus (n=3) and 2) a prolactin release assay; a neuroendocrine ef...
Article
Salvinorin A is the active component of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum. The potential mode of action of this hallucinogen was unknown until recently. A recent in vitro study detected high affinity and efficacy of salvinorin A at kappa-opioid receptors. It was postulated that salvinorin A would produce discriminative stimulus effects simi...
Article
The roots of the Laboratory of the Biology of the Addictive Diseases are in the development of methadone maintenance for the treatment of opiate addiction. Methadone maintenance therapy continues to be one of the major effective forms of addiction pharmacotherapy and underscores the importance of biological factors in the physiology and treatment o...
Article
Topically administered capsaicin produces thermal allodynia, and this effect has been used to investigate pain transduction and its pharmacological modulation. This study investigated the parameters of topical capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia in unanesthetized rhesus monkeys and its pharmacological modulation by centrally acting compounds [a kap...
Article
Rationale: The discriminative effects of kappa-agonists may be mediated centrally, whereas their effects in a neuroendocrine biomarker assay (prolactin release) may be mediated by kappa-receptors in hypothalamic areas outside the blood-brain barrier. Prolactin may thus be a useful biomarker, due to its potential to provide quantitative pharmacodyn...