Edmund Storms

Edmund Storms
kiva lab · research

Ph.D.

About

144
Publications
16,957
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3,048
Citations
Citations since 2016
1 Research Item
625 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (144)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The cold fusion process is explained using a new understanding of the observed behavior that shows how many of the behaviors are related to each other and to the mechanism causing cold fusion. A mechanism is described that can guide a more reliable initiation of the nuclear process. Methods are suggested by which the model can be tested. The need f...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty-five years ago in March 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced their success in initiating fusion between deuterons in palladium used as the cathode in an electrolytic cell. Since then, a battle has waged between skeptics who reject the claim and people who observe behaviour that is consistent with the claim. This article briefl...
Article
The phenomenon called 'cold fusion' or low energy nuclear reaction has been a challenge to accept and explain. The problem is compounded because an effective explanation must be consistent with the observed behaviour and natural laws. Hundreds of explanations have been published, but none was able to meet this expectation. Consequently, acceptance...
Book
The phenomenon called cold fusion or low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) has been demonstrated by hundreds of studies to be a real and important method for causing nuclear fusion in various materials without application of high energy. The process makes energy without producing significant radiation or radioactive isotopes by fusing the isotopes of...
Article
Five assumptions are identified that apply to all theories. These assumptions and several others are used to create a new explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion) based on formation of a novel active environment within a variety of materials. The method to form this environment and the nuclear consequences are described. The fusion...
Chapter
IntroductionFirst Reports of Observation of Pd Isotopic AnomaliesMiley-Patterson thin Film Light Water Electrolysis ExperimentsMizuno and Ohmori: Transmutation Products on Pd Cathodes in D2O Electrolysis ExperimentsNeutron Activation Analysis of Deuterated Pd Samples that had Produced Significant Amounts of Excess HeatAnomalies in Trace Element Com...
Article
A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offer...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief...
Article
Full-text available
In his criticisms of the review article on LENR by Krivit and Marwan, Shanahan has raised a number of issues in the areas of calorimetry, heat after death, elemental transmutation, energetic particle detection using CR-39, and the temporal correlation between heat and helium-4. These issues are addressed by the researchers who conducted the origina...
Article
Full-text available
Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process. These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deute...
Article
Cold fusion has been a challenge to explain. Hundreds of attempts have been made, most of which are inconsistent with either observation or well-established conventional theories. This paper evaluates some of the attempts and suggests approaches and observations that need to be considered.
Article
Full-text available
ElectroMagnetic Radiation (EMR) and anomalous radiation (potentially produced by nuclear reactions, involving high energy particles), in a low-voltage discharge in a gas containing deuterium was measured using a Geiger counter located within the apparatus. This radiation is found to consist of energetic particles that are produced only when the vol...
Book
One of the most important discoveries of this century - cold fusion - was summarily rejected by science and the media before sufficient evidence had been accumulated to make a rational judgment possible. Enough evidence is now available to show that this rejection was wrong and that the discovery of a new source of clean energy may help solve some...
Chapter
molybdenum carbide;arc melting;carbonateborate-fluoride-metal oxide salt baths;fused-salt electrolysis;oxycarbides
Chapter
lanthanum carbide;Arc melting;carbon;inert environment;lanthanum oxide;dissolved oxygen
Chapter
thorium carbide;thorium oxide;Arc melting;dissolved oxygen;carbides
Chapter
plutonium carbide;plutonium monocarbides;arc melting;plutonium oxide;carbides
Chapter
rare-earth carbides;preparation techniques;intercalation compound;tantalum bomb;preparation techniques
Article
Full-text available
The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy wit...
Article
Full-text available
A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD. This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.
Article
Dr. Shanahan has published two papers (Thermochim. Acta 428 (2005) 207, Thermochim. Acta 382 (2002) 95) in which he argues that excess heat claimed to be produced by cold fusion is actually caused by errors in heat measurement. In particular, he proposes that unrecognized changes in the calibration constant are produced by changes in the locations...
Article
Full-text available
Significant heat was generated for about 740 min when a sample of palladium foil was electrolyzed as the cathode in D2O+LiOD. A very stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to make the measurements. The source of this anomalous energy is unknown. However, the observed energy and production of unexpected elements based on EDX examination ar...
Article
Full-text available
The LENR-CANR.org web site has proven to be a popular source of information about cold fusion. This site has distributed more full text papers about LENR than any other source. In addition, it contains many features that allow easy search and insertion of the discovered references into a document.
Article
The Seebeck calorimeter is very effective in measuring heat generation over a wide range of power and with high sensitivity and stability. Such a device can be constructed cheaply and easily, although with considerable investment of time. A successful example is described.
Article
Nuclear reactions are now claimed to be initiated in certain solid materials at an energy too low to overcome the Coulomb barrier. These reactions include fusion, accelerated radioactive decay, and transmutation involving heavy elements. Evidence is based on hundreds of measurements of anomalous energy using a variety of calorimeters at levels far...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon called cold fusion or LENR (Low-Energy-Nuclear-Reaction) has now achieved a level of reproducibility and understanding that warrants re-examination of the claims. A summary of what is known and want is being done worldwide to obtain more knowledge will be given. Rather than disappearing as better data are obtained, the effects are be...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann effect occurs is wrong. The environment is not highly loaded beta-PdD. Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium. In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically importa...
Article
Full-text available
Characteristics of a commercial Seebeck calorimeter are described. This very stable instrument is applied to a study of the Pons-Fleischmann effect using a palladium anode and a platinum cathode. The use of a laser to stimulate anomalous heat production (the Letts effect) is also described. Positive results were obtained for both effects and these...
Article
Full-text available
The idea that nuclear reactions can be initiated at low energy in a solid lattice has been ridiculed because it is contrary to conventional theory and because the claim has been difficult to reproduce. Attempts to explain the observed effects have assumed that the nuclear reactions occur in palladium deuteride having a composition near PdD1.0, the...
Article
Energy from present sources has proven to have serious limitations. Fortunately for the future of mankind, several new but controversial sources of energy have been discovered. This paper will describe a method to initiate nuclear reactions within solid materials, so-called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR). Proposed is a new field of st...
Article
Full-text available
Many new studies are available to make an objective evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect possible. The phenomenon is conventionally known as "cold fusion,"or "chemically assisted nuclear reactions (CANR)" when the environment is emphasized, or "low-energy nucle-ar-reactions (LENR)" if emphasis is placed on the process. A wide range of observat...
Article
Full-text available
A dual calorimeter is described which can be used to study electrolytic processes. Experience with this instrument has revealed several deficiencies inherent in the isoperibolic calorimeter design that apply to all calorimeters of this type when used to study the cold fusion effect. I. BACKGROUND A calorimeter has been designed to measure heat ener...
Article
A binary, boron-based alloy as a source for field-emission-type, ion-beam generating devices, wherein boron predominates in the alloy, preferably with a presence of about 60 atomic percent. The other constituent in the alloy is selected from the group of elements consisting of nickel, palladium and platinum. Predominance of boron in these alloys, d...
Article
The limiting composition of β-PdD obtained during electrolytic loading results from a complex competition between diffusion of D atoms through any surface barrier, diffusion within the bulk sample, and loss of deuterium gas from surface-penetrating cracks. Reductions in surface-crack concentration and surface-barriers are essential steps to achieve...
Article
More than 190 studies reporting evidence for the `cold fusion` effect are evaluated. New work has answered criticisms by eliminating many of the suggested errors. Evidence for large and reproducible energy generation as well as various nuclear reactions, in addition to fusion, from a variety of environments and methods in accumulating. The field ca...
Article
Full-text available
The conditions required for producing excess energy in PdD created in an electrolytic cell are described and reasons for their importance are discussed. Procedures are described that will increase the chance for success in producing an effect whose concept has been difficult to accept. 51 refs., 1 fig.
Article
Suppose the ancient Alchemists were on the right track after all - that nuclear reactions can be made to occur within unique chemical environments, that elements can be transmuted, and that power can be generated from such processes. On the other hand, conventional scientists might find this possibility too impossible to be believed and reject it r...
Article
Nuclear propulsion using hydrogen has been demonstrated to operate at nearly twice the performance level of today`s chemical rockets. However, higher temperatures lead to a variety of degradations that compromise safety and longevity. Foremost among these is the melting of the propulsion reactor fuel. The melting behaviour of the U-Zr-C and U-Nb-C...
Article
Full-text available
Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleis- chmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.
Article
The idea that tabletop equipment at room temperature could produce nuclear fusion was widely rejected five years ago by the scientific community. Nevertheless, recent results from numerous labs show that a novel phenomena of some kind may indeed be occurring, though theorist are still groping for an explanation. Many aspects of the cold fusion effe...
Article
Full-text available
Two pieces of palladium sheet similar to that used by Takahashi were loaded with deuterium in a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell, and heat production was measured. One sheet produced a steady increase in excess power that reached 7.5 W (20% of input power) before the study was interrupted. A second similar sheet from a different batch of pal...
Article
Compatibility experiments were performed between UN and rhenium simulating the high temperature environment that the fuel and liner will experience in the SP-100 fuel pin. The reaction between UN and rhenium to form URe2 was characterized in terms of fuel composition and temperature. A reaction rate analysis showed that formation of URe2 was extrem...
Conference Paper
The U-Zr-C ternary-phase diagram is optimized using melting point and vapor pressure data recently measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory and by graphical and numerical curve fitting of self-consistent thermodynamic and phase diagram data reported in the literature. The system is described from 2473 K to 3693 K using isothermal ternary phase di...
Article
The phase diagrams, thermochemical information, and transport properties of ZrC(1-x) and U(y)Zr(1-y)C(1-x) have been assembled and evaluated. Predictions have been made concerning the general behavior of these alloys in flowing hydrogen. Various tests have been evaluated to show that general predictions are valid to at least 3000 K and possibly up...
Article
In this paper the experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann and independently...
Article
Full-text available
When Pd gains or loses hydrogen or deuterium, the lattice expands or contracts causing a change in physical dimension. Under certain conditions, there is an additional expansion that is largely irreversible. Repeated gain and loss of hydrogen caused this excess volume to steadily increase. After all dissolved hydrogen has been removed, the diameter...
Article
A renewed interest in manned exploration of space has revitalized interest in the potential for advancing nuclear rocket technology developed during the 1960's. Carbide fuel performance, melting point, stability, fabricability and compatibility are key technology issues for advanced Nuclear Thermal Propulsion reactors. The Rover fuels development e...
Article
The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated palladium cathode is determined and compared with the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction. Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen absorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can...
Article
A goal of fuel development for a space propulsion reactor is to design a fuel system that will remain solid at temperatures greater than 2800 K during reactor operation. Proposed high-temperature fuels for this application are (U,Zr)Cx, (U, Nb)Cx, and (U, Zr, Nb)Cx solid-solutions. Preliminary experimental results are presented that serve as a star...
Article
Full-text available
Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in 11 cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made. The distribution ratio (gas/liquid) for tritium in the electrolyte is not a constant...
Article
Full-text available
Tritium production is being investigated using cathodes made from palladium and its alloys with various surface treatments. Three anode materials have been studied as well as different impurities in the electrolyte. Tritium has been produced in about 10% of the cells studied but there is, as yet, no pattern of behavior that would make the effect pr...
Article
UN and Re interact at high temperatures to form URe2 when the nitrogen pressure in equilibrium with UN is sufficiently low. This reaction has been studied as a function of temperature between 1700 and 1900 K to give the equation log P(atm) = 9.015-20026 T for the equilibrium nitrogen pressure over the reaction UN + 2Re ai URe2 + 1 2N2. The Gibbs en...
Article
Measurements of fission gas release (R) from UN nuclear fuel are correlated to average fuel temperature (T), atom percent burnup (B) and theoretical density (TD) using the following equation which properly describes the boundary conditions: . An equation of this form, when applied to the various published data sets and compared to the other publish...
Article
Liquid PdAsx, and Pd0.75(As1 − xBx)0.25 were studied by mass spectrometry combined with Knudsen effusion to determine the variation of arsenic and palladium activity with composition and temperature. Equations are given which describe the thermodynamic properties. At 1200 K, Pd0.75As0.25 is the congruently vaporizing composition and the high pallad...
Article
The Pd-B and Pd-B-C liquid phases were studied by the Knudsen effusion technique to determine the variation of palladium and boron activity with composition and temperature. Equations are given which describe the thermodynamic properties throughout the liquid phase region. In addition, the phase boundary composition was determined between the liqui...
Article
The activity of nickel was measured as a function of composition and temperature throughout the Ni-B and Ni-B-C liquid range by the Knudsen effusion technique. Equations are given which describe thermodynamic properties as a function of composition and temperature. At 1600 K, the liquid phase exists between Ni0.922B0.078 and Ni0.473B0.527. Within t...
Article
The uranium activity has been measured between 1667 and 2175 K, and between and UO2.0 using a mass spectrometer to study the behavior of UO(g). Equations are presented which allow the pressure of the vapor species to be calculated as a function of temperature and composition. The composition variation of activity agrees well with the average of the...
Article
The vanadium-silicon system has been investigated by Knudsen cell-mass spectrometry in the temperature range 1600-2000 K. Thermodynamic activities were obtained by direct comparison with the elements. Vanadium silicide was shown to have a negligible range of homogeneity and V//6Si//5 to be stable only at high temperatures. Standard free energies of...
Article
The blue lanthanum boride LaB/sub 6+delta/ previously reported as LaB/sub 9/, was investigated in arc-melted samples of LaB/sub 9/ bulk stoichiometry. The samples were structurally analyzed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy including comparative computer imaging and analytically studied by using backscattered electron imaging, qua...
Article
The addition of various compounds to LaB 6 did not improve the thermionic emission over that of pure LaB 6 . This experience and general conclusions, which result by considering the vaporization properties of these and other materials, greatly limit the options available to improve the properties of LaB 6 by forming a ternary system. The principles...
Article
The thermionic emission properties of polycrystalline NdB 6 have been determined as a function of surface composition throughout its single‐phase region. the equation log I = 1.673-15637/T+2 log T-0.0042 T/{exp[0.07X/(X-6)]+1} describes the relationship between emitted current flux I (A/cm<sup>2</sup>), temperature T (K), and surface composition X...
Article
Thermionic emission, vapor composition, chemical activity, and weight loss have been measured over a range of compositions in the Gd‐B system. Values are reported for various compositions in the GdB 4 phase and for one composition in the GdB 6 phase. The congruently vaporizing composition at 1700 K was found to be GdB 4.03 , with an effective work...
Article
The Nd-B system was studied between NdBâ â⁠and NdBâ ââ, and between 1700 and 2100 K by Langmuir and Knudsen techniques to determine the phase relationship, the chemical activity of the components, the vaporization rate, and the vapor composition. At 1900 K, the neodymium hexaboride phase exists bwtween NdBâ âââ and NdBâ â with a congruently vapor...
Article
Using commercially available equipment, a photon counting pyrometer was constructed which permits temperatures from 1400 K to above 2200 K to be measured routinely to within 0.5 K and 1.0 K, respectively, of the International Practical Temperature Scale.
Article
The emissivity of LaB 6 at 650 nm between 1600 and 2100 K can be described by the equation e=1.2144-2.467×10<sup>-4</sup>T s , where T s is the observed surface temperature.
Article
Full-text available
The variables which influence the surface composition of vaporizing compounds have been studied using the behavior of LaB 6 as an example. The thermionic work function of LaB 6 has been determined as a function of surface stoichiometry. A nearly constant value of 2.93 eV for the effective work function was observed from the LaB 6 +LaB 4 boundary up...
Article
The La-B system was studied between LaB4.24 and LaB29.2, and between 1400 and 2100 K to determine the phase relationship, the chemical activity of the components, the vaporization rate and the vapor composition. A blue colored phase near LaB9 was found to exist between purple colored LaB6 and elemental boron. Diffusion is so much slower than vapori...
Article
The La-B system was studied between LaB/sub 4.24/ and LaB/sub 29.2/, and between 1400 and 2100 K to determine the phase relationship, the chemical activity of the components, the vaporization rate, and the vapor composition. A blue colored phase near LaBâ was found to exist between purple colored LaBâ and elemental boron. Diffusion is so much slowe...
Article
The energies of combustion in fluorine of well-characterized samples of MoC0.502 ± 0.004, (α-Mo2C), and MoC0.651 ± 0.004, (Mo3C2), were measured in a bomb calorimeter. The standard enthalpies of formation were derived to be ΔHfo(MoC0.502, α, 298.15 K) = −(6.37 ± 0.73) kcalth mol−1 and ΔHfo(MoC0.651, c, 298.15 K) = −(4.98 ± 0.76) kcalth mol−1.
Article
The chemical activity of boron has been measured for compositions throughout the Mo-B system between 1800 and 2200 K using a mass spectrometer. A complete thermodynamic analysis is given. Based on this data and previously reported work, the Mo-B phase diagram has been refined. A value of 137.4 ± 0.2 kcal/mol (574.9 ± 0.8 kJ/mol) at 298.15 K was det...
Article
Full-text available
The work function determinations of candidate materials for low temperature (1400 K) thermionics through vacuum emission tests are discussed. Two systems, a vacuum emission test vehicle and a thermionic emission microscope are used for emission measurements. Some nickel and cobalt based super alloys were preliminarily examined. High temperature phy...
Article
The work function determinations of candidate materials for low temperature (1400 K) thermionics through vacuum emission tests are discussed. Two systems, a vacuum emission test vehicle and a thermionic emission microscope are used for emission measurements. Some nickel and cobalt based super alloys were preliminarily examined. High temperature phy...
Article
Thermal energy transport in zirconium carbide samples with various degrees of carbon vacancies was investigated. Thermal diffusivities and electrical resistivities were measured from 100 to 800 K and some measurements were extended to 2000 K. The results confirmed a remarkable increase in the electron and phonon contributions to the thermal conduct...
Article
The formation of vacancies in the niobium sublattice is found to coincide with the maximum superconducting transition temperature in the NbN-NbC system. The relationships between Tc the electron concentration and the vacancy content of both sublattices are explored.Oxygen, when added to NbN, increases the metal vacancy concentration and causes a de...
Article
The high temperature enthalpy of uranium monocarbide, uranium sesquicarbide and uranium dicarbide has been determined by a copper block drop calorimeter of the isoperibol type. The experimental data cover the temperature range to 1700 K relative to 298 K for the monocarbide and sesquicarbide, and to 1500 K relative to 298 K for the dicarbide. These...
Article
Full-text available
Various critiques provided by reviewers assembled by the DOE to evaluate cold fusion are addressed. Important issues are clarified and some misunderstandings are corrected.
Article
Full-text available
A large data base now exists to support the claim for nuclear reactions, including fusion, being initiated in solid environments at modest temperatures. This phenomenon is called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or "cold fusion". Detailed information supporting the claims can be obtained from the w...
Article
Full-text available
The characteristics of and errors associated with Seebeck calorimeters, as applied to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, are described. This type of calorimeter as well as a flow type calorimeter were used to measured apparent excess energy from the same sample of platinum plated with palladium and other materials.
Article
Full-text available
Application of calorimetry to cold fusion or LENR presents unique problems that have not been previously summarized. This paper discusses various calorimetric methods that have been applied to the subject and evaluates each in light of what has been discovered about their limitations and errors based on experimental studies. Such information is ess...