Edgar Erdfelder

Edgar Erdfelder
Universität Mannheim · Department of Psychology

About

162
Publications
82,515
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67,915
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
47972 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000
201720182019202020212022202302,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000
201720182019202020212022202302,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,000

Publications

Publications (162)
Article
Full-text available
The question of whether recognition memory should be measured assuming continuous memory strength (signal detection theory) or discrete memory states (threshold theory) has become a prominent point of discussion. In light of limitations associated with receiver operating characteristics, comparisons of the rival models based on simple qualitative p...
Article
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Cyberchondria is characterized by excessive health-related online search behavior associated with an unfounded escalation of concerns about common symptomatology. It often co-occurs with health anxiety. We investigated whether base-rate neglect–the cognitive bias to ignore a priori probabilities (e.g., of serious diseases)–plays a significant role...
Article
Bayesian t tests have become increasingly popular alternatives to null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) in psychological research. In contrast to NHST, they allow for the quantification of evidence in favor of the null hypothesis and for optional stopping. A major drawback of Bayesian t tests, however, is that error probabilities of statistic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many psychological theories assume that observable responses are determined by multiple latent processes. Multinomial processing tree (MPT) models are a class of cognitive models for discrete responses that allow researchers to disentangle and measure such processes. Before applying MPT models to specific psychological theories, it is necessary to...
Article
People who learn the outcome to a situation or problem tend to overestimate what was known in the past-this is hindsight bias. Whereas previous research has revealed robust hindsight bias in the visual domain, little is known about how outcome information affects our memory of others' emotional expressions. The goal of the current work was to test...
Preprint
People recall more information after sleep than after an equally long period of wakefulness. This sleep benefit in episodic memory has been documented in almost a century of research. However, an integrative review of hypothesized underlying processes, a comprehensive quantification of the benefit, and a systematic investigation of potential modera...
Article
Imagining being stranded in the grasslands of an unknown territory without basic survival materials and subsequently rating the relevance of words for this situation leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention, primarily because it has been argued to disclose the evolutionary found...
Article
People recall more information after sleep than after an equally long period of wakefulness. This sleep benefit in episodic memory has been documented in almost a century of research. However, an integrative review of hypothesized underlying processes, a comprehensive quantification of the benefit, and a systematic investigation of potential modera...
Article
In this comment, we report a simulation study that assesses error rates and average sample sizes required to reach a statistical decision for two sequential procedures, the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) originally proposed by Wald (1947) and the independent segments procedure (ISP) recently suggested by Miller and Ulrich (2020). Followin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bayesian t tests have become an increasingly popular alternative to null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) in psychological research. In contrast to NHST, they allow for the quantification of evidence in favor of the null hypothesis and for optional stopping. A major drawback of Bayesian t tests, however, is that error probabilities of statist...
Article
Full-text available
Humans preferentially remember information processed for their survival relevance, a memorial benefit known as the survival processing effect . Memory is also biased towards information associated with the prospect of reward. Given the adaptiveness of these effects, they may depend on similar mechanisms. We tested whether motivation drives both eff...
Article
Full-text available
We present an open-access platform, Lehr-Evaluation-Online (LEO; Teaching Evaluation Online), which provides higher education faculty with an option to conduct student teaching evaluations free of charge. LEO is based on a German adaption of the “Student Evaluation of Educational Quality” (Marsh, 1982; 2007). First data collected with LEO during a...
Article
Full-text available
After imagining being stranded in the grasslands of a foreign land without any basic survival material and rating objects with respect to their relevance in this situation, participants show superior memory performance for these objects compared to a control scenario. A possible mechanism responsible for this memory advantage is the richness and di...
Article
Full-text available
Memories formed in the context of an imagined survival scenario are more easily remembered, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are still under debate. We investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the survival processing effect by examining event-related potentials (ERPs) during memory encoding. Participants imagined being either s...
Article
Stimulated by William H. Batchelder’s seminal contributions in the 1980s and 1990s, multinomial processing tree (MPT) modeling has become a powerful and frequently used method in various research fields, most prominently in cognitive psychology and social cognition research. MPT models allow for estimation of, and statistical tests on, parameters t...
Article
Full-text available
Multinomial processing tree (MPT) models allow testing hypotheses on latent psychological processes that underlie human behavior. However, past applications of this model class have mainly been restricted to the analysis of main effects. In this paper, we adopt the interaction concept as defined in log-linear models and show why it is appropriate f...
Article
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According to (a) the beauty ideal of a full head of hair and (b) the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS; "what is beautiful is good"), bald men should appear less attractive than nonbald men, not only physically but also socially. To explain inconsistent results on this prediction in previous research, we suggest two antagonistic processes: th...
Article
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Simonsohn, Nelson, and Simmons (2014a) proposed p-curve – the distribution of statistically significant p-values for a set of studies – as a tool to assess the evidential value of these studies. They argued that, whereas right-skewed p-curves indicate true underlying effects, left-skewed p-curves indicate selective reporting of significant results...
Article
For several years, the public debate in psychological science has been dominated by what is referred to as the reproducibility crisis. This crisis has, inter alia, drawn attention to the need for proper control of statistical decision errors in testing psychological hypotheses. However, conventional methods of error probability control often requir...
Article
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In his comment on Heck and Erdfelder (2016), Starns (2018) focuses on the response time-extended two-high-threshold (2HT-RT) model for yes-no recognition tasks, a specific example for the general class of response time-extended multinomial processing tree models (MPT-RTs) we proposed. He argues that the 2HT-RT model cannot accommodate the speed-acc...
Preprint
Full-text available
To ensure robust scientific conclusions, cognitive modelers should optimize planned experimental designs a priori in order to maximize the expected information gain for answering the substantive question of interest. Both from the perspective of philosophy of science, but also within classical and Bayesian statistics, it is crucial to tailor empiri...
Article
Full-text available
To ensure robust scientific conclusions, cognitive modelers should optimize planned experimental designs a priori in order to maximize the expected information gain for answering the substantive question of interest. Both from the perspective of philosophy of science, but also within classical and Bayesian statistics, it is crucial to tailor empiri...
Article
We tested two competing models on the memory representation of truth-value information: the Spinozan model and the Cartesian model. Both models assume that truth-value information is represented with memory “tags,” but the models differ in their coding scheme. According to the Cartesian model, true information is stored with a “true” tag, and false...
Article
Under specific conditions humans tend to repeat previous choices regardless of the outcome. This phenomenon is known as ‘decision inertia’. In most studies of decision inertia, the effect has been linked to motivational factors like consistency-seeking or indecisiveness. We argue that cognitive processes may play an even larger role in explaining w...
Article
Full-text available
Multinomial processing tree models assume that discrete cognitive states determine observed response frequencies. Generalized processing tree (GPT) models extend this conceptual framework to continuous variables such as response times, process-tracing measures, or neurophysiological variables. GPT models assume finite mixture distributions, with we...
Article
Replication studies are associated with different goals in the empirical sciences, depending on whether research aims at developing new theories or at testing existing theories (context of discovery vs. context of justification, cf. Reichenbach, 1938). Conceptual replications strive for generalization and can be useful in the context of discovery....
Article
Publication bias hampers the estimation of true effect sizes. Specifically, effect sizes are systematically overestimated when studies report only significant results. In this paper we show how this overestimation depends on the true effect size and on the sample size. Furthermore, we review and follow up methods originally suggested by Hedges (198...
Article
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According to the recognition heuristic (RH), for decision domains where recognition is a valid predictor of a choice criterion, recognition alone is used to make inferences whenever one object is recognized and the other is not, irrespective of further knowledge. Erdfelder, Küpper-Tetzel, and Mattern (2011) questioned whether the recognition judgme...
Article
Within the adaptive toolbox approach, it has repeatedly been shown that, on average, people tend to adapt their decision strategies to the decision context. Building upon these results, we investigated whether individuals systematically differ in their ability to successfully adapt to the situation when applying the fast-and-frugal recognition heur...
Article
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When making inferences about pairs of objects, one of which is recognized and the other is not, the recognition heuristic states that participants choose the recognized object in a noncompensatory way without considering any further knowledge. In contrast, information-integration theories such as parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS) assume that r...
Article
According to the recognition-heuristic theory, decision makers solve paired comparisons in which one object is recognized and the other not by recognition alone, inferring that recognized objects have higher criterion values than unrecognized ones. However, success-and thus usefulness-of this heuristic depends on the validity of recognition as a cu...
Article
The recognition heuristic (RH) theory predicts that, in comparative judgment tasks, if one object is recognized and the other is not, the recognized one is chosen. The memory-state heuristic (MSH) extends the RH by assuming that choices are not affected by recognition judgments per se, but by the memory states underlying these judgments (i.e., reco...
Article
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Words judged for their relevance in a survival context are remembered better than words processed in non-survival contexts. This phenomenon is known as the survival processing effect. Recently, inconsistent results were reported on whether the size of the survival processing effect is affected by cognitive load. Whereas Kroneisen, Rummel, and Erdfe...
Article
In paired comparisons based on which of two objects has the larger criterion value, decision makers could use the subjectively experienced difference in retrieval fluency of the objects as a cue. According to the fluency heuristic (FH) theory, decision makers use fluency—as indexed by recognition speed—as the only cue for pairs of recognized object...
Article
Zusammenfassung. In letzter Zeit mehren sich Hinweise darauf, dass gehauft falsch-positive Befunde in wissenschaftlichen Publikationen berichtet werden und so die Forschungsliteratur ein verzerrtes Bild der Realitat widerspiegelt. Das Fachkollegium Psychologie der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft hat dieses Problem aufgegriffen und die moglichen Ur...
Article
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Multinomial processing tree (MPT) models account for observed categorical responses by assuming a finite number of underlying cognitive processes. We propose a general method that allows for the inclusion of response times (RTs) into any kind of MPT model to measure the relative speed of the hypothesized processes. The approach relies on the fundam...
Article
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Outcome knowledge influences recall of earlier predictions of the event in question. Researchers have hypothesized that age-related declines in inhibitory control may underlie older adults' increased susceptibility to the two underlying bias processes that contribute to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon, recollection bias and reconstruction bias....
Article
The recognition heuristic (RH) is a simple decision strategy that performs surprisingly well in many domains. According to the RH, people decide on the basis of recognition alone and ignore further knowledge when faced with a recognized and an unrecognized choice object. Previous research has revealed noteworthy individual differences in RH use, su...
Article
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Parental gender-stereotyped perceptions of newborns – particularly their physical characteristics – have been discussed as important determinants of sex-role socialization from birth on. However, corresponding empirical evidence is inconclusive. We propose that inconsistent findings on gender-correlated perceptions are due to whether or not actual...
Article
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One of the most important issues in structural equation modeling concerns testing model fit. We propose to retain the likelihood ratio test in combination with decision criteria that increase with sample size. Specifically, rooted in Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing, we advocate balancing α- and β-error risks. This strategy has a number of desirab...
Article
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The advantages of model fitting compared to model simulation in research on preference construction Edgar Erdfelder *, Marta Castela, Martha Michalkiewicz and Daniel W. Heck • Cognition and Individual Differences Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany In sum, both goodness-of-fit tests and model selection criteri...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of ad...
Article
The cue-utilization view to judgments of learning (JOLs) assumes that both ease of processing during study and people's beliefs about memory may contribute to people's predictions on the likelihood of remembering recently studied information. However, a recent study (Mueller, Tauber, & Dunlosky, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(2), 378-384, 2013;...
Article
Full-text available
After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contribu...
Article
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Educators often face serious time constraints that impede multiple repetition lessons on the same material. Thus, it would be useful to know when to schedule a single repetition unit to maximize memory performance. Laboratory studies revealed that the length of the retention interval (i.e., the time between the last learning session and the final m...
Article
Full-text available
The recognition heuristic (RH) theory states that, in comparative judgments (e.g., Which of two cities has more inhabitants?), individuals infer that recognized objects score higher on the criterion (e.g., population) than unrecognized objects. Indeed, it has often been shown that recognized options are judged to outscore unrecognized ones (e.g., r...
Article
Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typ...
Conference Paper
Schizotypy is a risk factor for schizophrenia and involves memory impairment. Deficits have been found in the ability to discriminate between external stimuli and internal thoughts and the tendency to maintain false beliefs about their own cognitive performance. In our study, students first completed the Wisconsin Schizotypy scale and other metacog...
Article
The present article suggests a possible way to reduce the file drawer problem in scientific research (Rosenthal, 1978, 1979), that is, the tendency for “nonsignificant” results to remain hidden in scientists’ file drawers because both authors and journals strongly prefer statistically significant results. We argue that peer-reviewed journals based...
Article
Full-text available
Studies addressing sensitive issues often yield distorted prevalence estimates due to socially desirable responding. Several techniques have been proposed to reduce this bias, including indirect questioning, psychophysiological lie detection, and bogus pipeline procedures. However, the increase in resources required by these techniques is warranted...
Article
Full-text available
In a series of experiments, Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) demonstrated that words judged for their relevance to a survival scenario are remembered better than words judged for a scenario not relevant on a survival dimension. They explained this survival-processing effect by arguing that nature "tuned" our memory systems to process and rem...
Article
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Heuristics have been described as decision strategies that save time and effort. Given this advantageous property, heuristics should be more often used when cognitive resources are scarce. We tested this general view with respect to the fast and frugal recognition heuristic which assumes one-reason decision making based on recognition alone wheneve...
Article
The fluency of information encoding has frequently been discussed as a major determinant of predicted memory performance indicated by judgements of learning (JOLs). Previous studies established encoding fluency effects on JOLs. However, it is largely unknown whether fluency takes effect above and beyond the effects of item difficulty. We therefore...
Article
Full-text available
Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelde...
Article
Full-text available
Eyewitnesses often report details of the witnessed crime incorrectly. However, there is usually more than 1 eyewitness observing a crime scene. If this is the case, one approach to reconstruct the details of a crime more accurately is aggregating across individual reports. Although aggregation likely improves accuracy, the degree of improvement lar...
Article
Two theoretical frameworks have been proposed to account for the representation of truth and falsity in human memory: the Cartesian model and the Spinozan model. Both models presume that during information processing a mental representation of the information is stored along with a tag indicating its truth value. However, the two models disagree on...
Article
The notion of adaptive decision making implies that strategy selection in both inferences and preferences is driven by a trade-off between accuracy and effort. A strategy for probabilistic inferences which is particularly attractive from this point of view is the recognition heuristic (RH). It proposes that judgments rely on recognition in isolatio...
Article
Buchner, Erdfelder, Steffens, and Martensen (1997) proposed that the memory processes involved in recognition judgments in the process dissociation procedure are the same as those involved in standard source monitoring tasks. Two extensions of that research are presented here. First, following a line of reasoning recently brought forward by Jacoby...
Conference Paper
Previous research has shown superior source memory for cheaters: In explicit source memory tests, humans are better at discriminating actual cheaters from trustworthy persons than persons that are actually trustworthy from cheaters. This result is consistent with evolutionary accounts claiming that human memory has evolved to solve specific adaptiv...
Article
Two experiments designed to examine the specificity of emotional source memory are reported. In the encoding phase, participants saw faces along with emotional context information, that is, descriptions of cheating, trustworthy, or irrelevant behavior. In the test phase, participants were required to complete a source classification test and a cued...