Eddy van der Meijden

Eddy van der Meijden
Leiden University | LEI · Institute of Biology Leiden

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73
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Publications

Publications (73)
Article
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IntroductionUsually whole plant or whole leaf extracts are analyzed to study the chemical ecology of insect-plant interactions. For herbivore species the contact with the leaf surface enables them to estimate the quality of the plant. The relationship between the leaf-surface and leaf-tissue secondary metabolites (SMs) could offer important new ins...
Article
It is estimated that, in spite of plant breeding and pest control efforts, 15% of crop yield is worldwide lost to herbivory by insects. Examples demonstrate how insect pests have developed in the past and why they will develop in the future. The evolutionary potential of insects to become new pests is considered for traditionally and genetically mo...
Article
Full-text available
Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites (PSMs) that may be selective against herbivores. Yet, specialist herbivores may use PSMs as cues for host recognition, oviposition, and feeding stimulation, or for their own defense against parasites and predators. This summarizes a dual role of PSMs: deter generalists but attract specialists. It is...
Article
In a choice-experiment, 42 chrysanthemum cultivars were screened for resistance to Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Oviposition preference, two types of feeding damage and thrips numbers per flower were recorded as measures of resistance. A large genetic variation in thrips resistance was found among the cultivars screened. The amount of feed...
Article
Plant metabolomic analyses have been mostly applied to analyse metabolomes of crops and model species. However, metabolomic analyses may also be extremely valuable for plant ecologists. Because of the untargeted nature of most metabolomic platforms, the analyses will provide a comprehensive overview of both the primary and secondary plant metabolom...
Article
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We examined the effects of water and nutrient availability on the expression of the defense pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Senecio jacobaea and S. aquaticus. Senecio jacobaea, and S. aquaticus are adapted to different natural habitats, characterized by differing abiotic conditions and different selection pressures from natural enemies. We tested...
Article
Full-text available
Large differences exist in flower and fruit herbivory between dune and inland populations of plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). Two specialist weevils Ceutorhynchus atomus and C. contractus (Curculionidae) and their larvae are responsible for this pattern in herbivory. We test, by means of a reciprocal transplant experiment, whether the...
Chapter
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To explore genetic variation in defence against the natural herbivores of Arabidopsis thaliana, we transplanted genotypes between a dune habitat and inland habitat in both of which A.thaliana occurred naturally. In previous years we had observed that the specialist weevils Ceutorhynchus atomus and C.contractus (Curculionidae) fed conspicuously on f...
Article
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Many recent studies show that plant-pollinator interaction webs exhibit consistent structural features such as long-tailed distributions of the degree of generalization, nestedness of interactions and asymmetric interaction dependencies. Recognition of these shared features has led to a variety of mechanistic attempts at explanation. Here it is hyp...
Article
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Among other consequences in plants, hybridization may influence the expression and evolution of resistance to natural enemies. Plant resistance to parasites, including both microbial pathogens and herbivores, is often mediated by the composition of secondary metabolites expressed by the plant. Here, we focus on pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), a clas...
Article
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Because many secondary metabolites in plants act as defense against herbivores it has been postulated that these compounds have evolved under selective pressure by insect herbivores. One explanation for the within-species variation in metabolite patterns in a particular species is that different populations are under selection by different herbivor...
Article
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A recently discovered feature of plant-flower visitor webs is the asymmetric specialization of the interaction partners: specialized plants interact mainly with generalized flower visitors and specialized flower visitors mainly with generalized plants. Little is known about the factors leading to this asymmetry and their consequences for the extinc...
Article
The metabolic alterations of Brassica rapa (L.) leaves attacked by larvae of the specialist Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and the generalist Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by a multivariate data analysis. The principal component a...
Article
Although maintenance of species-rich plant communities in ditch banks seems possible with agri-environment schemes, in general these schemes have not delivered an increase in species richness in these habitats. This could be related to an emphasis in the existing management guidelines on preventing extinction of desirable plant species as opposed t...
Article
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The number of interactions with flower visitor species differs considerably among insect pollinated plants. Knowing the causes for this variation is central to the conservation of single species as well as whole plant–flower visitor communities. Species specific constraints on flower visitor numbers are seldom investigated at the community level. I...
Article
The effect of spatial habitat structure and patchiness may differ among species within a multi-trophic system. Theoretical models predict that species at higher trophic levels are more negatively affected by fragmentation than are their hosts or preys. The absence or presence of the higher trophic level, in turn, can affect the population dynamics...
Article
Population dynamics of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. were studied in a natural habitat of this species on the coastal dunes of the Netherlands. The main objective was to elucidate factors controlling population dynamics and the relative importance of factors affecting final population density. Permanent plots were established an...
Article
Hybridization may lead to unique phytochemical expression in plant individuals. Hybrids may express novel combinations or extreme concentrations of secondary metabolites or, in some cases, produce metabolites novel to both parental species. Here we test whether there is evidence for extreme metabolite expression or novelty in F1 hybrids between Sen...
Article
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A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an autosomal R-gene, inherited as a single, dominant locu...
Article
In dioecious plants the fraction of males among flowering plants in the field (the secondary sex ratio) is the result of the fraction of males in the seeds (the primary sex ratio) and the subsequent survival and age at first reproduction of the two genders. It has been assumed that survival and age at first reproduction are the main determinants of...
Article
Thus far not many studies focussed on how herbivory in one plant part affects plant defence in the other. The effects of root damage and a leaf-feeding herbivore (Mamestra brassicae) on pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) levels of Senecio jacobaea were investigated in a controlled environment. Three cloned S. jacobaea genotypes, which differed in PA conce...
Article
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Long-term studies of two-species interactions under field conditions are unusual; most long-term field studies are of single species dynamics (1-6). Concurrent long-term studies on the dynamics of the same two interacting species in different locations are very rare. This result has led to the tacit assumption that different cases of the same two-s...
Article
The ontogeny of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) synthesis and constraints on defence level during the seedling stage were examined in the annual Senecio vulgaris and the monocarpic perennial Senecio jacobaea. In both species, PAs were actively synthesized from the onset of seedling growth so that juvenile stages did not go through an undefended stage....
Article
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The evolution of the diversity of related secondary metabolites in plants is still poorly understood. It is often thought that the evolution of plant secondary metabolites is driven by specialist insect herbivores and under this coevolutionary model it is expected that related compounds differ in their effects on specialist herbivores. Here we focu...
Article
In the literature there is a persistent temptation to accept at face value the hypothesis that plants manipulate the natural enemies of their herbivores. This hypothesis has received a lot of attention both theoretically and in reductionist laboratory experiments, but evidence that plants actually benefit from the active attraction of natural enemi...
Article
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Because storage of resources to regrow after damage and investment in defence draw upon the same resource pool, it has been argued that they should show a negative correlation. We sketch a model for optimal allocation to defence and to storage for regrowth. In the model generalist herbivores exert a constant herbivore pressure against which the pla...
Article
Ragwort plants were damaged experimentally by removing the whole shoot. Within about 1 month the original allocation pattern of biomass to root and shoot was reestablished to a large extent. If left undisturbed for a longer period, plant growth accelerated into compensatory growth. Intraspecific variation in storage and tolerance (shoot weight), 1...
Article
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1. We quantified geitonogamous selfing in Echium vulgare, a self-compatible, bumble-bee pollinated plant. A maximum estimate of selfing was determined using a paternity analysis with RAPDs. In the first experiment, bumble-bees visited a sequence of virgin flowers. The percentage selfing increased rapidly from 12% in the first flower visited, up to...
Article
We present a model for the evolutionary dynamics of seed size when there is a trade-off between seed size and seed number, and seedlings from large seeds are better competitors and have a higher precompetitive survival than seedlings from small seeds. We find that strong competitive asymmetry, high resource levels, and intermediate harshness of the...
Chapter
The relationship between the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae, a specialist herbivore, and its food plant ragwort, Senecio jacobaea, involves periodic total defoliation (and defloration) of the plant, followed by population crashes of the insect. The insect is not only dependent on ragwort for food, but also for the plant’ secondary chemicals - pyrro...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes whether, and to what extent, interactions within a tritrophic system are affected by the spatial distribution of habitat patches. The chapter reviews long-term data (two decades) on the relationships between the plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea), its most important herbivore, the monophagous cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae), and...
Article
We present a model for the evolutionary dynamics of seed size when seedlings from large seeds are better competitors than seedling from small seeds and there is a trade-off between seed size and seed number. We first consider two limiting cases where seed size either has no effect on the competitive ability of seedlings, or where seedlings from lar...
Article
The effects of test-location, daylength, thrips density, and choice or no-choice test on feeding damage by Frankhiniella occidentalis (Pergande) were studied in chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. Under all circumstances, tested cultivars differed significantly in the level of both silver and growth damage caused by thrips feeding on o...
Article
The presence of deleterious secondary metabolites to western flower thrips (WFT) (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) in several chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cultivars was tested. WFT performance on leaf sap mixed with artificial diet was compared to WFT performance on a control of artificial diet mixed with water. Leaf sap of...
Article
The involvement of the glucoalkaloid strictosidine in antimicrobial and antifeedant activity inCatharanthus roseus leaves was investigated. Strictosidine and its deglucosylation product, specifically formed by the enzyme strictosidine glucosidase, were shown to be active against several microorganisms. In contrast, neither the intact glucoside, nor...
Article
Central in the resource availability theory (Coley et al., 1985) and the plant apparency theory (Feeny, 1976; Rhoades & Cates, 1976) is the notion that defences against herbivores are costly. In both theories it is argued that the selective forces operating on a plant’s anti-herbivore defences are dependent on the abundance of the attacking herbivo...
Article
Contrasting effects of generalist and specialist herbivores can explain why all plants have not evolved high levels of defence. Maintenance of variation in concentration of defence substances can be explained by a shifting balance between natural selection for defence against herbivory by specialists and generalists. Generalist natural enemies will...
Chapter
When estimating the relative importance of herbivores with regard to the amount of plant material they consume, insects are among the most voracious herbivores. A few plant species appear to be relatively free from insect herbivory and some secondary metabolites, such as nicotine and azadirachtin, are extremely poisonous to most insects. Yet it is...
Article
In a choice-experiment, 42 chrysanthemum cultivars were screened for resistance toFrankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Oviposition preference, two types of feeding damage and thrips numbers per flower were recorded as measures of resistance. A large genetic variation in thrips resistance was found among the cultivars screened. The amount of feedi...
Article
Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), performance on intact chrysanthemums, Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev, was compared with that on the sap of squeezed chrysanthemums to examine the importance of plant chemical characteristics. Seventy-six percent of the variation in resistance of intact chrysanthemum cultivars could be...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we tested whether pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) ofCynoglossum officinale serve as antifeedants against herbivores. Total PA N-oxide extracts of the leaves significantly deterred feeding by generalist herbivores. Specialist herbivores did not discriminate between food with high and low PA levels. Three PAs fromC. officinale, heliosupin...
Article
Optimal defence theories predict that the most valuable parts of a plant should be best protected. This theory was tested with pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in the leaves of rosette plants of Cynoglossum officinale. The youngest leaves contained up to 190 times higher levels of PAs than older leaves. This skewed distribution of PAs may be a strateg...
Article
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In this paper we test three plant species for the inducibility of their alkaloid production. The plants were heavily damaged by cutting off 50% of their leaf surface using a pair of scissors. The cut-off leaf tips were used as controls for possible diurnal fluctuations. After 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively, the leaf bases of the damaged plants...
Article
Full-text available
Two methods were used to measure the resistance of 5 chrysanthemum cultivars to thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera, Thripidae). As a measure of resistance of a cultivar, growth and survival of the insect population were taken. First, leaf cages were used to look at the survival of thrips larvae on a single leaf. The survival o...
Article
YoungCinchona ledgeriana plants contain two types of alkaloid: indole alkaloids in the leaves and quinoline alkaloids in the root. FromCinchona leaves, a crude alkaloid extract was made, containing the cinchophylline type of indole alkaloids and a small amount of 5-methoxytryptamine. The leaf alkaloid extract exerted a strong detrimental effect on...
Article
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Extinction of local populations of plants of many biennial plant species has been frequently reported. Survival of these species on the meta-population level implies a balance between extinction and regeneration, either through seed dispersal or from the seedbank. We distinguish between three types of biennials (transient, fugitive and persistent)...
Chapter
Is resistance to leaf miners in chrysanthemum affected by culture practices? Probably the most important quality factor for insects is leaf nitrogen content. We decided to manipulate plants by varying the nitrogen gift. As we noticed that plants raised in greenhouses in the winter showed much less susceptibility than plants raised in the summer, we...
Article
During germination of seeds ofCinchona ledgeriana, a rapid increase in alkaloid content occurs, which stopsca 4 days after the onset of germination.Cinchona alkaloids are derived from the precursor strictosidine, which itself is synthesized by enzymatic condensation of tryptamine and secologanin. When the increase in alkaloid content of the seedlin...
Article
The inhibition of seed germination by quinoline alkaloids synthesized by plants of the tropical genus Cinchona was studied. The germination of Ocimum (a tropical herb), of Spermacoce and Catharanthus (two tropical, alkaloid-producing plants), and of Cinchona itself was strongly inhibited by the alkaloids when applied at concentrations higher than a...
Article
We hypothesize that the tritrophic interaction between ants, the aphid Aphis jacobaeae, the moth Tyria jacobaeae, and the plant Senecio jacobaea can explain the genetic variation observed in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration in natural populations of S. jacobaea. The ant Lasius niger effectively defends S. jacobaea plants infested with A. jacoba...
Article
We report on a 17-year study on the population dynamics of the cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae). As in other long-term studies of this species scramble competition for food leads to periodic crashes in abundance. This results in delayed density-dependent oscillations in the rate of increase of this insect with strikingly similar amplitudes. Recovery...
Article
Recent studies have demonstrated that relationships between nitrogen levels and oviposition, food selection, larval survival and/or damage to host plants are not simple. We studied the effect of different levels of nitrogen on oviposition in the cinnabar moth in relation to the concentrations of alkaloids, that are positively correlated with nitrog...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARYA model is developed to calculate the population growth rate of different lineages within a biennial species, in a density-independent situation. The types differ in the minimum size they require for flowering. The environment is stochastic in the sense that each year a value for combined seed and early seedling survival was drawn from a pro...
Article
Largely limiting the review to short-lived plants, which have more frequent within-species interactions, the author emphasises that population control includes a number of different processes by which population numbers are regulated. The significance of density dependence is examined, and the question of the fate of populations without density-dep...
Article
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(1) Seed production of flowering plants of Cirsium vulgare without damage to the flowering stem varied strongly between years in the sand-dunes at Meijendel. The percentage of plants that were noticeably damaged by herbivores also varied between years, and caused a reduction of the seed production by 80% in 1982 and 15% in 1984. (2) Mean seed loss...
Article
Differences in intensity or frequency of defoliation between species do not necessarily imply differences in ultimate effect: survival or growth. Several species appear to be very successful to overcome a high defoliation pressure because of their regrowth capacity. The hypothesis is formulated that defence mechanisms and regrowth capacity are alte...
Article
The rabbit, the only grazer of importance in the coastal dunes of northwestern Europe, is thought to stabilize the species composition of the typical dune grasslands. In addition to selectively grazing, it produces shallow scrapes. The function of this scrape-digging behaviour for the rabbit, and the effect on the distribution and abundance of dune...
Article
1. In the dune system under observation, Ragwort is distributed in small local populations that have only a restricted lifetime; (temporary) extinction has been observed frequently. 2. Cinnabar Moth attack on these populations is of even shorter duration. Colonization and extinction of the Cinnabar Moth is related to the amount of food present. 3....
Article
(1) Field observations of three sand-dune populations of ragwort (Senecio jacobaea L.) in the Netherlands showed that flowering and seed production were related to plant size. Small-sized plants might not flower in their second year, but live on for 3 or more years. This perennial behaviour was not accompanied by a repeated seed production, however...
Article
Apanteles popularis, a parasitoid of Tyria jacobaeae, does not regulate its host numbers, though the percentage attack may be very high. The effects of food shortage of the host on its parasite are discussed and suggestions are made why Apanteles does not regulate its host. This lack of a regulating influence is also mentioned in several other para...
Article
1. Egg-batch distribution in the Cinnabar Moth is related to plant size. The number of eggs per batch, however, is independent of size and other characteristics of the plant. 2. The adult behaviour of laying eggs in larger batches and the behaviour of young larvae to live gregariously leads to a higher survival. 3. The dispersal behaviour of larvae...
Article
The distribution of S. jacobaea in The Netherlands is compared with local water-table depth, degree of drainage and calcium content. As surface units, hour squares (5.25 km × 5.25 km) are used. Water-table depth accounts for a greater part of the variance in the distribution of Ragwort than soil drainage. The variance accounted for by water-table d...
Article
A number of experiments is described from which it is concluded that a predating ant, Lasius alienus Först, locally has a very important influence on the population dynamics of the Cinnabar Moth. Moreover, Tyria appears to be absent in some of the dry dune vegetations and it is suggested that this is due to the presence of Lasius in high densities...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Phytophagous thrips can inhabit all non-woody aerial parts of plants where there is access to food (Kirk, 1997). Infestation of chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora, by Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, causes two types of feeding damage. When young parts of the plant are affected by the insect, leaves and flowers c...

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