Eamon Joseph Mccrory

Eamon Joseph Mccrory
University College London | UCL · Division of Psychology and Language Sciences

PhD

About

104
Publications
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Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Childhood maltreatment is associated with significant, enduring risk of psychiatric disorder. In this paper, we review how neurocognitive alterations after maltreatment might indirectly increase the risk of psychiatric disorder via their impact on social functioning. We propose a neurocognitive social transactional model, within which the neurocogn...
Article
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In this longitudinal study of children and adolescents with a documented history of maltreatment, we investigated the impact of maltreatment on behavioral and neural indices of effort-based decision making for reward and examined their associations with future internalizing symptoms. Thirty-seven children with a documented history of maltreatment (...
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Background: Child maltreatment is associated with poorer social functioning and increased risk of mental health problems in adolescence and adulthood, but the processes underlying these associations remain unclear. Although crucial for establishing and maintaining relationships, trust judgements have not been experimentally investigated in childre...
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Children who experience maltreatment are at increased risk of revictimization across the life span. In childhood, this risk often manifests as peer victimization. Understanding the nature of this risk, and its impact on mental health, is critical if we are to provide effective support for those children who are most vulnerable. A systematic scoping...
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Children with conduct problems (CP) and high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CP/HCU) have been found to have an intact ability to represent other minds, however, they behave in ways that indicate a reduced propensity to consider other people's thoughts and feelings. Here we report findings from three tasks assessing different aspects of menta...
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Investigating patterns of neural response associated with childhood abuse v. childhood neglect – Corrigendum - Vanessa Bianca Puetz, Essi Viding, Mattia Indi Gerin, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Arjun Sethi, Annchen R. Knodt, Spenser R. Radtke, Bart D. Brigidi, Ahmad R. Hariri, Eamon McCrory
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Background Childhood maltreatment is robustly associated with increased risk of poor mental health outcome and changes in brain function. The authors investigated whether childhood experience of abuse (e.g. physical, emotional and sexual abuse) and neglect (physical and emotional deprivation) was differentially associated with neural reactivity to...
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Purpose An emerging body of work suggests a link between childhood maltreatment and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, research examining the role of maltreatment in the early course of the disorder lacks robust evidence from longitudinal studies. Our aim was to examine concurrent and prospective associations between maltreat...
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Importance Exposure to bullying is a prevalent experience with adverse consequences throughout the life span. Individual vulnerabilities and traits, such as preexisting mental health problems, may be associated with increased likelihood of experiencing bullying. Identifying such individual vulnerabilities and traits is essential for a better unders...
Article
Childhood maltreatment is associated with a lifetime increase in risk of mental health disorder. We propose that such vulnerability may stem in large part from altered patterns of social functioning. Here, we highlight key findings from the psychological and epidemiological literature indicating that early maltreatment experience compromises social...
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Parenting children with conduct problems (CP) is challenging, yet very little is known about the impact of the child’s behaviour on family functioning or how parents of children with CP perceive their child. The aim of this research was to examine whether families with children with CP and high vs. low levels of callous–unemotional traits (HCU vs....
Article
Introduction Recent work has indicated that there at least two distinct subtypes of psychopathy. Whilst ‘primary’ psychopathy is characterized by low anxiety and thought to result from a genetic predisposition, ‘secondary’ psychopathy is characterized by high anxiety and thought to develop in response to environmental adversity. Primary psychopathy...
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The ability to empathize relies in part on using one's own affective experience to simulate the affective experience of others. This process is supported by a number of brain areas including the anterior insula (AI), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and the amygdala. Children with conduct problems (CP), and in parti...
Poster
Objective: Alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making are associated with psychiatric disorders commonly associated with maltreatment. This study investigated, for the first time, the computational and neurocognitive basis of these processes in individuals with maltreatment histories. Methods: A probabilistic passive avoidance task and a mo...
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Importance Exposure to bullying is associated with poor mental health. However, the degree to which observed associations reflect direct detrimental contributions of exposure to bullying to mental health remains uncertain, as noncausal relationships may arise from genetic and environmental confounding (eg, preexisting vulnerabilities). Determining...
Chapter
A growing body of research has investigated how stress, and specifically different forms of childhood maltreatment, can influence neural structure and function. This chapter focuses on studies of children, first considering those that have investigated differences in brain structure followed by a number of studies that have investigated the potenti...
Data
Information about thresholds Uploaded as ‘Supplementary material - thresholds.doc’; details breakdown of item thresholds by gender (as part of gender invariance analysis)
Chapter
Childhood maltreatment has been associated with a range of maladaptive outcomes such as poorer physical health and an increased risk of psychiatric disorder throughout an individual's life. This chapter first reviews findings from neuroimaging studies of key brain structures involved in emotion processing, memory and regulation processes, with a pa...
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Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack there...
Article
Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. It is, however, unclear whether this association is causal or due to familial confounding. Method Data from 18 168 adult twins, aged 20���46 years, were drawn from the population-based Swedish t...
Article
Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies have reported volume reductions in several brain regions implicated in social cognition and emotion recognition in juvenile antisocial populations. However, it is unclear whether these structural abnormalities are specifically related to antisocial features, or to co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) t...
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Childhood maltreatment has been shown to increase the risk of a range of psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with the onset, course and severity of illness. We review the evidence for alterations in brain structure and neurocognitive processing in individuals who have experienced childhood maltreatment,...
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Substance abuse and drug addiction are two of the most common psychopathologies among the general population. While a host of risk factors are associated with the onset of drug abuse and drug addiction, there is a growing body of evidence pointing to the powerful influence of early adverse experiences, both child neglect and maltreatment, as well a...
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While maltreatment is known to impact social and emotional functioning, threat processing and neural structure, the potentially dimorphic influence of sex on these outcomes remains relatively understudied. We investigated sex-differences across these domains in a large community sample of children aged 10 to 14 years (n=122) comprising 62 children...
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Genetic, behavioural and functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that different vulnerabilities characterise children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CP/HCU) compared with children with conduct problems and low callous-unemotional traits (CP/LCU). We used voxel-based morphometry to study grey matter volume...
Chapter
Child maltreatment is a worldwide phenomenon that is still often under-recognised. This Chapter primarily covers physical and emotional maltreatment, and neglect; sexual abuse is specifically addressed in a separate chapter. Such abuse experiences are usually associated with marked distress, impairments in mental health, social and academic functio...
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Maltreatment in childhood is associated with a significantly increased likelihood of psychiatric disorder that endures across the life span. If disorders emerge they tend to be more severe and less responsive to treatment. We introduce the concept of latent vulnerability as a way of conceptualizing the nature of this psychiatric risk. We argue that...
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In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely...
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According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no...
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Childhood maltreatment is associated with risk for sleep disturbances, including Disruptive Nocturnal Behaviours (DNBs). Yet, little is known regarding associations between specific forms of maltreatment and DNBs, or factors that mediate and moderate these associations. Data from a community sample of high-risk youth (n = 193; M = 18.87 years) indi...
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Previous studies have found childhood trauma to be associated with functional and structural abnormalities in corticostriatal-limbic brain regions, which may explain associations between trauma and negative mental and physical health outcomes. However, functional neuroimaging of maltreatment-related trauma has been limited by largely using generic...
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This report helps children’s social care practitioners to spot risk factors associated with a likelihood of actual harm or future harm to very young children.
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It has been reported previously that infant faces elicit enhanced attentional allocation compared to adult faces in adult women, particularly when these faces are emotional and when the participants are mothers, as compared to non-mothers [1]. However, it remains unclear whether this increased salience of infant faces as compared to adult faces ext...
Article
Psychopathy is a condition that has long captured the public imagination. Newspaper column inches are devoted to murderers with psychopathic features and movies such as No Country for Old Men and We Need to Talk About Kevin focus on characters who are exceptionally cold and callous. Psychopathy is in fact a personality disorder characterised by lac...
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Individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits tend to undervalue long-term, affiliative relationships, but it remains unclear what motivates them to engage in social interactions at all. Their experience of social reward may provide an important clue. In Study 1 of this paper, a large sample of participants (N = 505) completed a measure of ps...
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Background: Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for maladjustment and psychopathology. Although maltreated youth are more likely to experience community violence, both forms of adversity are generally examined separately. Consequently, little is known about the unique and interactive effects that characterise maltreatment and community viol...
Data
Table S1.Diagnostic information for the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) group. Abbreviations: ADOS = autism diagnostic observational schedule, ADI-R = Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised; SCQ = Social and Communication Questionnaire, soc = social, comm = communication, RRBI= rigid and repetitive behaviours and interests. N/A = Not applicable; OCD =...
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Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measur...
Article
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Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty understanding other minds (Theory of Mind; ToM), with atypical processing evident at both behavioural and neural levels. Individuals with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (CP/HCU) exhibit reduced responsiveness to others' emotions and difficulties in...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for maladjustment and psychopathology. Although maltreated youth are more likely to experience community violence, both forms of adversity are generally examined separately. Consequently, little is known about the unique and interactive effects that characterize maltreatment and community violence exposur...
Article
Full-text available
Infant facial cues play a critical role in eliciting care and nurturance from an adult caregiver. Using an attentional capture paradigm we investigated attentional processing of adult and infant emotional facial expressions in a sample of mothers (n = 29) and non-mothers (n = 37) to determine whether infant faces were associated with greater task i...
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Antisocial behaviour Antisocial behaviour is one of the most common reasons for a childhood referral to mental health and educational services and represents a substantial public health cost. Callous-unemotional traits Callous-unemotional traits can be used to distinguish children who are capable of pre-meditated antisocial behaviour and violence f...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment has been shown to significantly elevate the risk of psychiatric disorder. Previous neuroimaging studies of children exposed to maltreatment have reported atypical neural structure in several regions, including the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes. These studies have exclusively investigated volumetric differences rather t...
Article
Full-text available
Children with conduct problems (CP) persistently violate others' rights and represent a considerable societal cost [1]. These children also display atypical empathic responses to others' distress [2], which may partly account for their violent and antisocial behavior. Callous traits index lack of empathy in these children and confer risk for adult...
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Background. Children with conduct problems (CP) are a heterogeneous group. Those with high levels of callous–unemotional traits (CP/HCU) appear emotionally under-reactive at behavioural and neural levels whereas those with low levels of CU traits (CP/LCU) appear emotionally over-reactive, compared with typically developing (TD) controls. Investigat...
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Background: Childhood adversity is associated with significantly increased risk of psychiatric disorder. To date, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of children have mainly focused on institutionalisation and investigated conscious processing of affect. Aims: To investigate neural response to pre-attentively presented affect cu...
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Objective: In children with conduct problems, high levels of callous-unemotional traits are associated with amygdala hypoactivity to consciously perceived fear, while low levels of callous-unemotional traits may be associated with amygdala hyperactivity. Behavioral data suggest that fear processing deficits in children with high callous-unemotiona...
Article
Visual checks of thousands of X-ray images are carried out daily to detect and confiscate items that may compromise public security. Although technological advances are improving detection accuracy, screener-specific factors are also likely to matter. Here we investigated whether individual differences in self-rated attention to detail predicted pe...
Article
Background: Childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorder. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported atypical neural structure in the orbitofrontal cortex, temporal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum in maltreated samples. It has been hypothesised that these structural differences may relate to...
Article
An overview is provided of recent twin, molecular genetic, and magnetic resonance imaging studies that are helping to inform a model of developmental vulnerability to adult psychopathy. Although the current evidence base suggests that children with high levels of callous-unemotional traits are genetically and neurocognitively vulnerable to developi...
Article
Reduced neural responses to others' distress is hypothesized to play a critical role in conduct problems coupled with callous-unemotional traits, whereas increased neural responses to affective stimuli may accompany conduct problems without callous-unemotional traits. Heterogeneity of affective profiles in conduct problems may account for inconsist...
Article
More than 15 years of research have documented behavioural differences between callous-unemotional and non-callous subtypes of children with antisocial behaviour. Recent studies also suggest that children with callous-unemotional traits may be genetically vulnerable to antisocial behaviour, while those without callous-unemotional traits appear to h...
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Childhood abuse is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety and depression as well as a heightened risk of health and social problems. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity increases vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is l...
Article
Callous-unemotional traits consist of lack of empathy, guilt and shallow affect. A growing body of research suggests that the presence of these traits are of clinical significance, even if they occur in the absence of concurrent antisocial behaviour.
Article
Although atypical moral and empathy processing are considered core features of psychopathic personality, little is known about how these constructs are associated with psychopathic traits in the general population. One-hundred and twenty-four adult males from the community were administered the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale 4 Short Form, as well as...
Article
Exposure to family violence affects a significant minority of children: estimates of physical abuse range from 4 to 16%, while intimate partner violence affects between 8 and 25% of children [1]. These maltreatment experiences represent a form of environmental stress that significantly increases risk of later psychopathology, including anxiety [1,2...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such...
Article
This work was supported by ESRC (RES-062-23-2202) and British Academy (BARDA 53229) grants to EV, an ESRC grant (RES-061-25-0189) to EMC, and Royal Society University Fellowship to SJB. We thank Patricia Lockwood for her assistance in preparing this manuscript.
Article
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder, and risk genes are thought to act through disruption of brain development. Several genetic studies have identified dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1, also known as dysbindin) as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, but its impact on brain development is poorly understood. The presen...
Chapter
Childhood maltreatment is associated with later psychopathology, including conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety, and depression. However, the neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood adversity heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. There is likely to be a complex interaction between environme...
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Molecular Psychiatry publishes work aimed at elucidating biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders and their treatment