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E. Brady Trexler

E. Brady Trexler
Hudson Valley Scientific

Ph.D.

About

29
Publications
3,506
Reads
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1,755
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
347 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
20162017201820192020202120220102030405060
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - December 2011
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2001 - December 2005
University of Texas Medical School
January 1996 - December 2003

Publications

Publications (29)
Data
NetClamp is a computer program that addresses the interrelated yet distinct purposes of modeling neural networks and performing dynamic clamp experiments. Its intuitive and powerful interface facilitates designing, building and testing a network of cells with a variety of synaptic connections and intrinsic conductances. The networks can be hybrid i...
Article
Full-text available
Many neurons are coupled by electrical synapses into networks that have emergent properties. In the retina, coupling in these networks is dynamically regulated by changes in background illumination, optimizing signal integration for the visual environment. However, the mechanisms that control this plasticity are poorly understood. We have investiga...
Article
Full-text available
In the retina, rod bipolar (RBP) cells synapse with many rods, and suppression of rod outer segment and synaptic noise is necessary for their detection of rod single-photon responses (SPRs). Depending on the rods' signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the suppression mechanism will likely eliminate some SPRs as well, resulting in decreased quantum efficienc...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
This updated version of how microBIOMETER estimates Fungal:Bacterial ratio and how the ratio was validated.
Article
Full-text available
Climate extremes pose a global threat to crop security. Conservation agriculture is expected to offer substantial climate adaptation benefits. However, synergistic effects of conservation practices on yield during normal versus extreme climates and underlying regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we analyze 29-years of climate data, cotton (G...
Preprint
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White paper describing correlation of microBIOMETER estimation of microbial biomass with carbon fumigation extraction.
Patent
Full-text available
Methods and compositions for the preparation of soil samples and the determination of the number of microbes within a soil sample are disclosed. The methods include measuring, solubilizing, bleaching and filtering soil samples and measuring the turbidity of the filtered solution. The turbidity of the sample can be determined by visual inspection of...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the possibility of making a null measurement of optical absorbance by using pulse-width modulation to control the intensity of a light-emitting diode (LED). This type of measurement is intriguing because the instrumental sources of noise are different from those in the traditional absorbance measurement. Our experiment employed phototra...
Article
Full-text available
In the mammalian retina, the scotopic threshold of ganglion cells is in part dependent on how rod inputs are summed by their presynaptic cone bipolar cells. For ON cone bipolar cells, there are two anatomical routes for rod signals: 1) cone photoreceptors receive inputs via gap junctions with the surrounding, more numerous rods; and 2) ON cone bipo...
Article
Full-text available
The anomalous photovoltaic effect (APE) in ferroelectric thin films has been utilized for the development of an optical micro-detector active in the visible range (from 350 to 800 nm). La-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PLZT) ferroelectric films epitaxially grown on Pt(001)/Mg(001) substrate were fabricated into micro-detector arrays and characterized as to t...
Article
Full-text available
Rod signals traverse several synapses en route to cone bipolar cells. In one pathway, rods communicate directly with cones via gap junctions. In a second pathway, signals flow rods-rod bipolars-AII amacrines-cone bipolars. The relative contribution of each pathway to retinal function is not well understood. Here we have examined this question from...
Article
Full-text available
Gap junction (GJ) channels provide an important pathway for direct intercellular transmission of signaling molecules. Previously we showed that fixed negative charges in the first extracellular loop domain (E1) strongly influence charge selectivity, conductance, and rectification of channels and hemichannels formed of Cx46. Here, using excised patc...
Article
Gap junctions are abundant in the mammalian retina and many neuronal types form neural networks. Several different neuronal connexins have now been identified in the mammalian retina. Cx36 supports coupling in the AII amacrine cell network and is essential for processing rod signals. Cx36 is probably also responsible for photoreceptor coupling. Hor...
Article
Full-text available
The substituted cysteine accessibility method was applied to single Cx46 hemichannels to identify residues that participate in lining the aqueous pore of channels formed of connexins. Criteria for assignment to the pore included reactivity to sulfydryl-specific methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents from both sides of an open hemichannel and observabl...
Article
Full-text available
Amacrine cells in the mammalian retina are famously diverse in shape and function. Here, we show that two wide-field GABA amacrine cells, S1 and S2, have stereotyped synaptic contacts with the appropriate morphology and distribution to perform specific functions. S1 and S2 both supply negative feedback to rod bipolar terminals and thus provide a su...
Article
In the mammalian retina, maximum sensitivity is achieved in the rod pathway, which serves dark-adapted vision. Rod bipolar cells carry the highly convergent rod input and make ribbon synapses with two postsynaptic elements in the inner retina. One postsynaptic neuron is the AII amacrine cell, which feeds the rod signal into the cone pathways. The o...
Article
The AII amacrine cell is a critical interneuron in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Rod signals pass into cone pathways by means of gap junctions between AII amacrine cells and ON cone bipolar cells. Filling AII amacrine cells with Neurobiotin produces labeling of cone bipolar cells by means of these gap junctions. However, tracer injection...
Article
The AII amacrine cell is a critical interneuron in the rod pathway of the mammalian retina. Rod signals pass into cone pathways by means of gap junctions between AII amacrine cells and ON cone bipolar cells. Filling AII amacrine cells with Neurobiotin produces labeling of cone bipolar cells by means of these gap junctions. However, tracer injection...
Article
Studies of ion channels often utilize patch clamping in excised patch configurations together with rapid solution exchange to examine the kinetics of drug and/or agonist action at the single-channel level. However, studies of these sorts have not been possible for gap junction (GJ) channels, which are formed by the coupling of two hemichannels, one...
Article
Intercellular channels formed of members of the gene family of connexins (Cxs) vary from being substantially cation selective to being anion selective. We took advantage of the ability of Cx46 to function as an unopposed hemichannel to examine the basis of Cx charge selectivity. Previously we showed Cx46 hemichannels to be large pores that predomin...
Article
Full-text available
The mouse connexin 36 (Cx36) gene was mapped on chromosome 2 and an identical transcriptional start site was determined in brain and retina on exon I. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to the presumptive cytoplasmic loop of the Cx36 protein recognized in immunohistochemical analyses Cx36 expression in the retina, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, inferior ol...
Article
Full-text available
The mouse connexin 36 (Cx36) gene was mapped on chromosome 2 and an identical transcriptional start site was determined in brain and retina on exon I. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies to the presumptive cytoplasmic loop of the Cx36 protein recognized in immunohistochemical analyses Cx36 expression in the retina, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, inferior ol...
Article
Full-text available
Connexin46 (Cx46) forms functional hemichannels in the absence of contact by an apposed hemichannel and we have used these hemichannels to study gating and permeation at the single channel level with high time resolution. Using both cell-attached and -excised patch configurations, we find that single Cx46 hemichannels exhibit some properties expect...
Article
Full-text available
pH is a potent modulator of gap junction (GJ) mediated cell-cell communication. Mechanisms proposed for closure of GJ channels by acidification include direct actions of H+ on GJ proteins and indirect actions mediated by soluble intermediates. Here we report on the effects of acidification on connexin (Cx)46 cell-cell channels expressed in Neuro-2a...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the loss of connexin 32 function and clinical manifestations of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX) disease is unknown. Here, we report that eight of nine CMTX mutations investigated form channels with measurable electrical conductance. Single-channel studies of two mutations demonstrate reduced junctional permeability caus...
Chapter
The cloning of a cDNA encoding a gap junction forming protein from rat liver rapidly led to identification by low stringency hybridization and PCR of many related proteins, now termed connexins (Bennett et al., 1991). At this point, at least thirteen are known from rodents (rat and mouse) and several homologs have been found in human, cow, dog, chi...
Article
Full-text available
Gap junction channels are formed by members of the connexin gene family and mediate direct intercellular communication through linked hemichannels (connexons) from each of two adjacent cells. While for most connexins, the hemichannels appear to require an apposing hemichannel to open, macroscopic currents obtained from Xenopus oocytes expressing ra...
Article
Full-text available
U14 is a member of the rapidly growing family of intronic small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) that are involved in pre-rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. These snoRNA species are encoded within introns of eukaryotic protein coding genes and are synthesized via an intron processing pathway. Characterization of Xenopus laevis U14 snoRNA genes has re...

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