E. Tobias Krause

E. Tobias Krause
Friedrich Loeffler Institute | FLI · Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry

Dr.

About

110
Publications
17,802
Reads
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1,327
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - present
Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Institute of Animal Welfare and Animal Husbandry in Celle, Germany
October 2012 - June 2015
Bielefeld University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Post doc on an own acquired position from the VolkswagenFoundation
July 2011 - September 2012
Bielefeld University
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Temporary Lecturer in the Dean's Office
Education
April 2007 - June 2011
Bielefeld University
Field of study
  • Biology
September 2001 - December 2006
Bielefeld University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Full-text available
Stocking densities for domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are regulated by the Council Directives of the European Union for both laying hens and broiler chickens. For layer pullets no regulation of stocking density has been established yet. Based on the existing Council Directives for laying hens (1999/74/EC), broiler chickens (2007/43/EC...
Article
When pigs cannot perform innate species-specific behaviours (e.g. rooting or chewing), behavioural disorders, like tail biting, can occur. However, it seems that various enrichment materials enhance the pigs to perform exploration behaviour and therefore can help to reduce and prevent tail biting. The aim of this study was to identify such highly e...
Article
Full-text available
Animal activity is an indicator for its welfare and manual observation is time and cost intensive. To this end, automatic detection and monitoring of live captive animals is of major importance for assessing animal activity, and, thereby, allowing for early recognition of changes indicative for diseases and animal welfare issues. We demonstrate tha...
Article
Full-text available
The study of consistent individual differences has become an important focus in research on animal behaviour. These behavioural differences are typically measured through standardized testing procedures. One frequently used paradigm is the novel object test, in which animals are exposed to unfamiliar objects and their reaction is quantified. We use...
Article
Several alternatives to avoid killing male day-old chicks are available. One of these alternatives is to keep dual-purpose chicken strains. The aim of this study was to compare dual-purpose hens (Lohmann Dual, LD) with conventional laying hens (Lohmann Tradition, LT) in terms of performance, animal welfare parameters such as keel bone state and foo...
Article
Full-text available
The Open Science movement aims at ensuring accessibility, reproducibility, and transparency of research. The adoption of Open Science practices in animal science, however, is still at an early stage. To move ahead as a field, we here provide seven practical steps to embrace Open Science in animal science. We hope that this paper contributes to the...
Article
1. This trial investigated the effects of three diets with increasing proportions of insoluble dietary fibre (3%, 6% and 9%) but with similar metabolisable energy on behaviour, plumage condition and laying performance of Lohmann Tradition hens.2. At 21 weeks of age, four groups of 20 hens each (= four replicates/treatment) were randomly assigned to...
Article
Full-text available
Animal science researchers have the obligation to reduce, refine, and replace the usage of animals in research (3R principles). Adherence to these principles can be improved by transparently publishing research findings, data and protocols. Open Science (OS) can help to increase the transparency of many parts of the research process, and its implem...
Article
Full-text available
The well-being of animals kept by humans in laboratories, farms, or as pets should always be of the highest importance, and a prerequisite for this is adequate housing. To assess the potential indicators for animal well-being, ideally simple, non-invasive, and reliable methods are necessary. Here, we propose a novel plumage scoring system for small...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Open Science movement aims at ensuring accessibility, reproducibility and transparency of research. The adoption of Open Science practices in animal science, however, is still at an early stage. To move ahead as a field, we here provide seven practical steps to embrace Open Science in animal science. We hope that this paper contributes to the s...
Article
Full-text available
The behavior of animals is related to their health and welfare status. The latter plays a particular role in animal experiments, where continuous monitoring is essential for animal welfare. In this study, we focus on red foxes in an experimental setting and study their behavior. Although animal behavior is a complex concept, it can be described as...
Article
Full-text available
Pigs housed in commercial barns with slatted floors cannot fully perform their natural behavioral needs such as rooting or exploring. Enrichment materials can stimulate these behaviors in pigs. Here, we investigated whether exploration can be stimulated by offering additional enrichment material, i.e., chopped straw, once compared to four times dai...
Preprint
Full-text available
A significant proportion of research is directly or indirectly supported through public funding. It is therefore imperative to make obtained scientific findings freely accessible and the way this knowledge is generated as transparently as possible. However, the traditional scientific publication system involves a number of obstacles likely to hinde...
Data
Code used in paper: Takola, E., Krause, E., Müller, C., & Schielzeth, H. (2021). Novelty at second glance: a critical appraisal of the novel object paradigm based on meta-analysis. Animal Behaviour, 180, 123-142. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2021.07.018 | Data can be found in the file (Novelty_at_second_glance_Takolaetal2021_Data.csv).
Data
Data used in paper: Takola, E., Krause, E., Müller, C., & Schielzeth, H. (2021). Novelty at second glance: a critical appraisal of the novel object paradigm based on meta-analysis. Animal Behaviour, 180, 123-142. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2021.07.018 | Explanation of variable names can be found in the code file (Novelty_at_second_glance_Takolaetal2021...
Article
Full-text available
Enrichment can reduce stress and stereotypic behavior and therefore enhance captive animal welfare. In cognitive enrichment, cognitive tasks engage and challenge the animals' natural behavioral repertoire and provide mental stimulation. Enrichment with similarities to "puzzle boxes" in cognitive research is widespread in zoos but rarely applied in...
Article
Full-text available
Tail biting is a common problem in pigs kept in conventional fully slatted pens. Suitable enrichment materials can help to prevent the occurrence of this behavioural disorder by encouraging pigs to increase exploration behaviour. We investigated whether additional flavours can increase exploration behaviour in undocked pigs. Therefore, we offered s...
Preprint
Full-text available
The study of consistent individual differences in behaviour has become an important focus in research on animal behaviour. Behavioural phenotypes are typically measured through standardized testing paradigms and one frequently used paradigm is the novel object test. In novel object tests, animals are exposed to new (unknown) objects and their react...
Article
Tail biting is one of the biggest problems in pig production systems that causes animal welfare and economic problems. Therefore, tail docking is a widely used intervention to reduce tail biting. However, appropriate enrichment material that stimulates and increases exploration behaviour of pigs also reduces the prevalence and risk of tail biting....
Article
Full-text available
Injurious pecking is one of the main welfare issues in fattening turkey husbandry. Birds pecked by conspecifics can suffer from serious injuries which may even lead to the death of the victimized animals or require their culling. In the present study the behavior of male turkeys was documented day and night using video recordings throughout the ent...
Article
Laying hens have undergone strong selection pressure for traits related to productivity in recent decades. This has led to an impressive increase in egg production but is also assumed to cause undesirable side effects, such as behavioural changes or increased bone damage. Resource trade-offs resulting from egg production might trigger such changes....
Chapter
Beobachtungen des Verhaltens von Tieren führen meist zu den Fragen „Was?“, „Wie?“, „Warum?“, „Wann?“ oder auch „Wer?“ und „Wo?“. Solche Fragen und deren mögliche Antworten führen zur Bildung von Hypothesen und den davon abgeleiteten Vorhersagen. Klare Hypothesen und die darauf aufbauenden Schritte der wissenschaftlichen Methodik bilden eine der gru...
Chapter
Der Einsatz von technischen Hilfsmitteln ist in heutigen verhaltensbiologischen Studien allgegenwärtig. Einerseits kann ein PC, Laptop oder Tablet dazu genutzt werden, Verhaltensbeobachtungen zu registrieren. Andere technische Hilfsmittel sind Voraussetzung dafür, dass ein Verhalten überhaupt erfasst und einer Analyse zugänglich gemacht werden kann...
Chapter
Das Verhalten von Tieren ist außerordentlich variabel, und zwar sowohl zwischen Arten, zwischen Individuen derselben Art als auch situationsabhängig innerhalb von Individuen. Diese hierarchische Organisation in der Variation von Verhalten lässt sich mit statistischen Verfahren analysieren und verstehen.
Chapter
Eine differenzierte Beschreibung der gängigen statistischen Verfahren geht über den Rahmen dieses Buches hinaus. Hierzu sind statistische Fachbücher notwendig (z. B. Quinn und Keough 2002; Köhler et al. 2012; Crawley 2013; Zar 2013; Wollschläger 2016). In der Verhaltensbiologie ist ein sehr gutes Verständnis im Umgang mit Daten und deren statistisc...
Chapter
Eine quantitative Registrierung von Verhalten ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für eine statistische Analyse und für die Beantwortung von wissenschaftlichen Fragen. Einige Verhaltensweisen lassen sich vergleichsweise einfach zählen oder messen. Andere Verhaltensweisen hingegen sind nicht immer einfach klar voneinander abzugrenzen. In diesen Fällen müsse...
Chapter
Die unmittelbare Anwesenheit eines Beobachters kann sich auf das Verhalten der Tiere auswirken. Eine Datenaufnahme sollte daher so geplant werden, dass mögliche Einflüsse des Beobachters minimiert oder systematisch eingeplant werden. Da dies nicht in allen Fällen möglich ist, muss umso mehr Sorgfalt darauf verwendet werden, mögliche Probleme zu ide...
Chapter
Einer deskriptive Studie, in der das unbeeinflusste Verhalten von Tieren beobachtet wird, müssen andere Überlegungen vorausgehen als einer experimentellen Studie. Bei einer experimentellen Studie wird ein Tier in einem vom Versuchsleiter kontrollierten Experiment getestet oder in einer experimentell kontrollierten Umwelt gehalten. Dies kann sowohl...
Book
Full-text available
Ein Vogel singt morgens, weil… - es hell wird. - sich sein Hormonstatus ändert. - er damit Rivalen aus seinem Revier fernhält. - Partner durch den Gesang angelockt werden. Durch die Vielfalt von Ebenen, auf denen Tierverhalten wissenschaftlich untersucht werden, wird die Verhaltensbiologie zu einer sehr lebendigen und modernen Disziplin. In diesem...
Article
Warning colouration reduces predation risk by signalling or mimicking the unpleasantness of prey and therefore increases survival. We tested in two experiments the evolutionary costs and benefits of the yellow colour pattern in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra), which display a yellow/black colour pattern usually associated with toxic alkalo...
Article
A major problem in conventional pig production systems is the occurrence of abnormal behaviours such as tail biting. Tail biting is a multifactorial problem, but it seems that a lack of proper enrichment materials prevents the animals from performing normal species-specific behaviour, e.g., rooting, nosing or chewing, and thus increases the prevale...
Article
General locomotor activity is a highly variable phenotypic trait of animals. In domestic chickens it is different within and between breeds. The general locomotor activity is a substantially heritable trait and has been shown to be correlated with several other behavioural traits, such as for example feather pecking and anxiety in chickens. However...
Article
Full-text available
Parental care is among the most widespread and variable behavioral traits between and within species, associated often both with large fitness costs and benefits. Despite its fitness consequences and evolutionary significance, we know very little about the ontogeny of this behavior, specifically, whether and how social experiences from parents cont...
Article
Walking ability is related to motor co-ordination which, in rodents, can be assessed by an established test in pharmacological studies — the rotarod test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a modified rotarod test for chickens and its relation to the often-used gait score system. At the end of their rearing period, we tested 138 male chicken...
Article
The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) is involved in the regulation of the neural serotonin. Polymorphisms in the 5-HTT gene have been described in many species to be involved in physiological processes and emotions. A functional polymorphism in the 5´-flanking region of the 5-HTT gene is known from chickens, with a deletion-allele (D), which is a...
Article
Full-text available
The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays a key role in regulating serotonergic transmission via removal of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) from synaptic clefts. Alterations in 5-HTT expression and 5-HT transmission have been shown to cause changes to adult behavior including fear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the 5-HTT...
Article
Full-text available
The intense selection of chickens for production traits, such as egg laying, is thought to cause undesirable side effects and changes in behavior. Trade-offs resulting from energy expenditure in productivity may influence other traits: in order to sustain energetic costs for high egg production, energy expenditure may be redirected away from specif...
Article
Different lines of laying hens have undergone a strong selection pressure for productivity traits, which has been proposed as a potential cause of undesirable side effects like behavioural disorders. One reason for such behavioral changes might be due to energy trade-offs, as high productive laying hens may conserve energy expenditure on activity i...
Article
Full-text available
Starting on January 1st, 2019, the castration of male piglets without anesthesia is prohibited in Germany, due to the July 4th, 2013 modification of the German Animal Welfare Act. Available alternatives are the surgical castration under general- or local anesthesia, the vaccination against boar taint and the fattening of young boars. Surgical castr...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiology relies on understanding the distribution of pathogens which often can be detected through DNA-based techniques, such as quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Typically, the DNA of each individual sample is separately extracted and undergoes qPCR analysis. However, when performing field surveys and long-term monitoring, a large...
Article
1. The aim of this study was to investigate which nest heights are preferred by high producing laying hens in the absence of familiar nest locations and whether preferred nest heights are more attractive than a familiar location. In two experiments, a total of 108 hens of four different layer breeds, which were at least 50 weeks of age, were studie...
Article
Olfactory nest recognition has been demonstrated in several avian species, including some gregarious Estrildid finches. In social species, which also form breeding colonies, olfactory nest recognition gives parents and fledglings the opportunity to identify the natal nest. However, in less social birds, such as Diamond Firetails, which rarely breed...
Chapter
We here review the role of olfaction in the Zebra Finch, a key avian model species. We summarize the use of olfaction in social communication and in nonsocial contexts; its impact in addition to other senses throughout life; and how olfaction is involved in kin recognition, mate choice, and inbreeding avoidance. Afterward we explore the mechanisms...
Article
Starting on January 1st, 2019, the castration of male piglets without anesthesia is prohibited in Germany, due to the July 4th, 2013 modification of the German Animal Welfare Act. Available alternatives are the surgical castration under general- or local anesthesia, the vaccination against boar taint and the fattening of young boars. Surgical castr...
Article
Full-text available
Melanin-based plumage polymorphism occurs in many wild bird populations and has been linked to fitness variation in several species. These fitness differences often arise as a consequence of variation in traits such as behaviour, immune responsiveness, body size and reproductive investment. However, few studies have controlled for genetic differenc...
Data
Contains supplementary figure and supplementary information. Fig A. Results of the principle component analysis of microsatellite data from 77 surviving F2 individuals (see Materials and methods for details). The x and y axes represent the first and second principal components respectively. Individuals are represented by dots and the colour morphs...
Data
Contains the raw data. Raw data from the experiment are presented in these tables. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Mechanisms underlying parent-offspring recognition in birds have fascinated researchers for centuries. Yet, the possibility that chicks recognise parental odour at hatching has been completely overlooked, despite the fact that olfaction is one of the first sensory modalities to develop, and social chemosignals occur in avian taxa. Here we show that...
Article
Full-text available
In sexually reproducing species, parents and offspring have different optima in terms of the amount of parental investment. For offspring, higher investment than the parental optimum generally increases their fitness. However, such higher investment will, in theory, result in net parental fitness loss because increased benefits from current offspri...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal is considered to be a species-specific trait, but intraspecific variation can be high. However, when and how this complex trait starts to differentiate during the divergence of species/lineages is unknown. Here, we studied the differentiation of movement behavior in a large salamander population (Salamandra salamandra), in which individua...
Article
Full-text available
The conditions an organism experiences during early development can have profound and long lasting effects on its subsequent behavior, attractiveness, and life history decisions. Most previous studies have exposed individuals to different conditions throughout development until nutritional independence. Yet under natural conditions, individuals may...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental plasticity is a key feature of many organisms and individuals can benefit from early programming to optimize their phenotypes for the expected environmental conditions. However, environmental conditions may sometimes change unexpectedly. Mismatches between early and adult life, for example, can have important repercussions for adult p...
Article
The neural serotonin (5-HT)/serotonin transporter (5-HTT) system is involved in the regulation of physiological processes and emotional states. In humans, the short (S) allele in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, which decreases 5-HTT expression, has been shown to be associated with behavioural changes including an increased level of anxiet...
Article
Full-text available
Our understanding of fundamental organismal biology has been disproportionately influenced by studies of a relatively small number of ‘model’ species extensively studied in captivity. Laboratory populations of model species are commonly subject to a number of forms of past and current selection that may affect experimental outcomes. Here, we examin...
Article
Dispersal is considered to be a species-specific trait, but intraspecific variation can be high. However, when and how this complex trait starts to differentiate during the divergence of species/lineages is unknown. Here, we studied the differentiation of movement behaviour in a large salamander population (Salamandra salamandra), in which individu...
Article
Full-text available
Mate choice decisions of female zebra finches are generally thought to rely on the assessment of male quality, which includes the specific ornamentation of males. A commonly used paradigm to experimentally manipulate a male’s attractiveness is to add a coloured leg ring to the bird. Some studies have shown that female zebra finches prefer or alter...
Data
Additional results for experiment 2. In this supporting file three additional results for experiment 2 are presented. i) Relative number of hops by the females directed to the red colour cues in the three experimental conditions. ii) Association between the choice parameters: Is the same choice indicated by the relative amount of time and number of...
Data
Raw data from the four behavioural experiments. Raw data from the four behavioural experiments are presented in these tables (XLSX)
Article
Keeping animals in captivity should always favour conditions that aim to improve their welfare with respect to species-specific requirements. For laboratory animals, the majority of welfare issues have been explored in rodents thus far, whereas the effect of housing conditions on the well-being of avian lab species has received relatively little at...