## About

24

Publications

3,359

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

688

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Additional affiliations

July 2014 - present

## Publications

Publications (24)

The mega amp spherical tokamak (MAST) was a low aspect ratio device (R/a = 0.85/0.65 ∼ 1.3) with similar poloidal cross-section to other medium-size tokamaks. The physics programme concentrates on addressing key physics issues for the operation of ITER, design of DEMO and future spherical tokamaks by utilising high resolution diagnostic measurement...

We investigate the effect of varying the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow on ion-scale turbulence in the outer core of MAST by means of local gyrokinetic simulations. We show that nonlinear simulations reproduce the experimental ion heat flux and that the experimentally measured values of the ITG and the fl...

New results from MAST are presented that focus on validating models in order to extrapolate to future devices. Measurements during start-up experiments have shown how the bulk ion temperature rise scales with the square of the reconnecting field. During the current ramp up models are not able to correctly predict the current diffusion. Experiments...

The confinement of heat in the core of a magnetic fusion reactor is optimised using a multidimensional optimisation algorithm. For the first time in such a study, the loss of heat due to turbulence is modelled at every stage using first-principles nonlinear simulations which accurately capture the turbulent cascade and large-scale zonal flows. The...

Unstable perturbations driven by the pressure gradient and other sources of free energy in tokamak plasmas can grow exponentially and eventually saturate nonlinearly, leading to turbulence. Recent work has shown that in the presence of sheared flows, such systems can be subcritical. This means that all perturbations are linearly stable and a transi...

Transfer of free energy from large to small velocity-space scales by phase mixing leads to Landau damping in a linear plasma. In a turbulent drift-kinetic plasma, this transfer is statistically nearly canceled by an inverse transfer from small to large velocity-space scales due to "anti-phase-mixing" modes excited by a stochastic form of plasma ech...

A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g. drift-wave turbulence driven by ion temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating
$\boldsymbol{E}\times \boldsymbol{B}$
flows and of its phase...

The Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) programme is strongly focused on addressing key physics issues in preparation for operation of ITER as well as providing solutions for DEMO design choices. In this regard, MAST has provided key results in understanding and optimizing H-mode confinement, operating with smaller edge localized modes (ELMs), pre...

To rigorously model fast ions in fusion plasmas, a non-Maxwellian equilibrium
distribution must be used. In the work, the response of high-energy alpha
particles to electrostatic turbulence has been analyzed for several different
tokamak parameters. Our results are consistent with known scalings and
experimental evidence that alpha particles are ge...

New diagnostic, modelling and plant capability on the Mega Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST) have delivered important results in key areas for ITER/DEMO and the upcoming MAST Upgrade, a step towards future ST devices on the path to fusion currently under procurement. Micro-stability analysis of the pedestal highlights the potential roles of micro-tea...

Sheared toroidal flows can cause bifurcations to zero-turbulent-transport states in tokamak plasmas. The maximum temperature gradients that can be reached are limited by subcritical turbulence driven by the parallel velocity gradient. Here it is shown that q/ϵ (magnetic field pitch/inverse aspect ratio) is a critical control parameter for sheared t...

Experimental data from the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is used to show that the inverse gradient scale length of the ion temperature
has its strongest local correlation with the rotational shear and the pitch angle of the magnetic field. Furthermore,
is found to be inversely correlated with the gyro-Bohm-normalized local turbulent heat flux...

The transport of heat that results from turbulence is a major factor limiting
the temperature gradient, and thus the performance, of fusion devices. We use
nonlinear simulations to show that a toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow
can completely suppress the turbulence across a wide range of flow gradient and
temperature gradient values. We demon...

Turbulence in the presence of a strongly sheared equilibrium flow can be
thought of as the result of a three-way competition between underlying
drives such as a background temperature gradient, the suppression of
turbulence due to the gradient of the component of the velocity
perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the additional driving of
turbul...

Differential rotation is known to suppress linear instabilities in fusion
plasmas. However, even in the absence of growing eigenmodes, subcritical
fluctuations that grow transiently can lead to sustained turbulence. Here
transient growth of electrostatic fluctuations driven by the parallel velocity
gradient (PVG) and the ion temperature gradient (I...

First-principles numerical simulations are used to describe a transport
bifurcation in a differentially rotating tokamak plasma. Such a bifurcation is
more probable in a region of zero magnetic shear than one of finite magnetic
shear because in the former case the component of the sheared toroidal flow
that is perpendicular to the magnetic field ha...

Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations have been conducted to investigate
turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear. At sufficiently
large flow shears, linear instabilities are suppressed, but transiently growing
modes drive subcritical turbulence whose amplitude increases with flow shear.
This leads to a local minimum in the heat flu...

The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak
plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport
regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum
input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence.
However, it is possible to drive too much velocity...

We study the effect of sheared flow on the turbulent transport of energy and momentum employing the gyrokinetic flux tube code GS2. The results show two features, namely, (i) given the value of the heat flux, there is a maximum temperature gradient that is achieved for a finite velocity shear; and (ii) the ratio of turbulent momentum and energy dif...

Motivated by ideas from plasma theory, we use a suite of coupled plasma physics codes to explore the confinement performance of a range of tokamak configurations. The codes include GS2, Gryffin, Trinity and TOQ.

The effect of flow shear on turbulent transport in tokamaks is studied
numerically in the experimentally relevant limit of zero magnetic shear. It is
found that the plasma is linearly stable for all non-zero flow shear values,
but that subcritical turbulence can be sustained nonlinearly at a wide range of
temperature gradients. Flow shear increases...

This paper reviews transport and confinement in spherical tokamaks (STs) and our current physics understanding of this that is partly based on gyrokinetic simulations. Equilibrium flow shear plays an important role, and we show how this is consistently included in the gyrokinetic framework for flows that greatly exceed the diamagnetic velocity. The...