E. Fereres

E. Fereres
University of Cordoba (Spain) | UCO · Department of Agronomy

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301
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (301)
Article
Full-text available
Spatial variations of crop yields are commonly observed in typical rainfed systems worldwide. It is accepted that such variations are likely to be associated, among other factors, with water spatial variations due to lateral water flows occurring in fields with undulating topography. However, some of the main processes governing water spatial distr...
Article
There is growing interest in the use of canopy temperature to evaluate the water status of crops for irrigation water management. One of the main indicators currently used is the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI). In this index, the canopy temperature is normalized by the environmental conditions to account for the evaporative demand of the atmosphere...
Article
Full-text available
Process-based crop models such as AquaCrop are useful for a variety of applications but must be accurately calibrated and validated. Sugar beet is an important crop that is grown in regions under water scarcity. The discrepancies and uncertainty in past published calibrations, together with important modifications in the program, deemed it necessar...
Article
This paper evaluates the usefulness of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) for monitoring transpiration and water status in almond trees, and proposes a methodology for assessing crop yield derived from the relation between canopy temperature and transpiration. For this purpose, a Non-Water Stress Baseline (NWSB) was developed from canopy temperatur...
Article
Full-text available
Wheat grain protein concentration is an important determinant of wheat quality for human nutrition that is often overlooked in efforts to improve crop production. We tested and applied a 32‐multi‐model ensemble to simulate global wheat yield and quality in a changing climate. Potential benefits of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration by 2050 on g...
Article
Full-text available
Citrus is a major evergreen fruit crop around the temperate areas and in the tropics. In the Mediterranean area, its production is largely dependent on irrigation, and given the current water supply situation and future scenarios, it is important to delineate strategies for optimizing water use. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies have be...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate methods to determine irrigation requirements are necessary for the efficient use of water in agriculture. We conducted measurements of transpiration (T) of one almond tree placed in a large weighing lysimeter and instrumented with sap-flow probes for three seasons (2014–2016; 6–9 years after transplanting). We also conducted independent T...
Article
A recent innovation in assessment of climate change impact on agricultural production has been to use crop multi model ensembles (MMEs). These studies usually find large variability between individual models but that the ensemble mean (e‐mean) and median (e‐median) often seem to predict quite well. However few studies have specifically been concern...
Article
Full-text available
The data set reported here includes the part of a Hot Serial Cereal Experiment (HSC) experiment recently used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat models and quantify their response to temperature. The HSC experiment was conducted in an open-field in a semiarid environment in the southwest USA. The data reported herewit...
Article
Full-text available
Irrigation optimization under limited water supply requires knowledge of the relation between consumptive use and production. The recent expansion of almond production is highly dependent on irrigation which may be limited by water scarcity in the future. A 3-year experiment was conducted in Cordoba, Spain, to determine the yield and water producti...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the capability of several xanthophyll, chlorophyll and structure-sensitive spectral indices to detect water stress in a commercial farm consisting of five fruit tree crop species with contrasting phenology and canopy architecture. Plots irrigated and non-irrigated for eight days of each species were used to promote a range of pl...
Preprint
Nendel 38 | Jørgen Eivind Olesen 37 | Taru Palosuo 44 | John R. Porter 42,45,46 | Eckart Priesack 39 | Dominique Ripoche 47 | Mikhail A. Semenov 48 | Claudio Stöckle 17 | Pierre Stratonovitch 48 | Thilo Streck 33 | Iwan Supit 49 | Fulu Tao 50,44
Article
Recently planted intensive almond plantations may have access to limited water supply due to water scarcity thus, information on almond water use under limited irrigation is needed. Here, the soil water balance was used to assess the consumptive use (ET) of full irrigated, moderately stressed and severely stressed almond trees over a three-year stu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Palabras Clave: riego, modernización, productividad RESUMEN Los sistemas colectivos de riego cuentan normalmente con turnos fijos entrega de agua, lo cual dificulta acompañar adecuadamente los requerimientos de agua de los cultivos. Asimismo, los hábitos de riego a nivel de finca habitualmente conducen a un uso poco eficiente del agua. En las últim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the Arid environment of southern Tunisia, FAO's AquaCrop model version 4.0 has been calibrated to evaluate the effect of irrigation strategies with saline water on barley yield. Data sets during barley cropping seasons 2012 and 2013 in Médenine, southern Tunisia, were used to calibrate and evaluate this model. Barley canopy cover, grain yield, b...
Article
The majority of world almond acreage is grown under rainfed conditions but most of the production is obtained under irrigation. Increased water scarcity is reducing water availability for irrigation thus the need to characterize the responses of almond to water deficits. Several works have defined well the stomatal closure in almond leaves under wa...
Article
Full-text available
Nature Plants 3, 17102 (2017); published online 17 July 2017; corrected online 27 September 2017.
Article
Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here, we show that variations in the mathematical funct...
Article
Full-text available
The consumptive use of water by almond trees in California has become a controversial topic due to a worsening drought that began in 2011. The research reported herein was designed to provide information that could be used in irrigation decision-making including how to evaluate the risks/rewards of seeking/acquiring additional supplies in a drought...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the arid environment of southern Tunisia, FAO’s AquaCrop model version 4.0 has been calibrated to evaluate the effect of irrigation strategies with saline water on barley yield. Data sets during barley cropping seasons 2012 and 2013 in Médenine, southern Tunisia, were used to calibrate and evaluate this model. Barley canopy cover, grain yield, b...
Article
Full-text available
Crop simulation models are valuable tools for quantifying crop yield response to water, and for devising strategies to improve agricultural water management. However, applicability of the majority of crop models is limited greatly by a failure to provide open-access to model source code. In this study, we present an open-source version of the FAO A...
Article
Full-text available
Martre P, Reynolds MP, Asseng S, Ewert F, Alderman PD, Cammarano D, Maiorano A, Ruane AC, Aggarwal PK, Anothai J, Basso B, Biernath C, Challinor AJ, De Sanctis G, Doltra J, Dumont B, Fereres E, Garcia-Vila M, Gayler S, Hoogenboom G, Hunt LA, Izaurralde RC, Jabloun M, Jones CD, Kassie BT, Kersebaum KC, Koehler AK, Müller C, Kumar SN, Liu B, Lobell D...
Article
The responses of almond trees 'Guara' to different levels of water deficits were investigated. Three irrigation treatments as well as a rainfed treatment were applied in the field to 5-year-old trees during the summer of 2013. Plant water status was monitored by measurement of stem water potential at midday (Ψx), leaf gas-exchange was measured with...
Article
AquaCrop is a crop simulation model developed by the FAO aimed at assessing the yield response to water supply. Once the model is calibrated and validated, it is a useful tool to simulate crop yields under different management options or climatic and soil conditions. Until now, AquaCrop has not been parameterized for dry beans ( L.), and thus our o...
Article
Full-text available
The potential impact of global temperature change on global crop yield has recently been assessed with different methods. Here we show that grid-based and point-based simulations and statistical regressions (from historic records), without deliberate adaptation or CO2 fertilization effects, produce similar estimates of temperature impact on wheat y...
Article
The seasonal stability of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) vs field-measured leaf CO2 assimilation (A) was assessed over a period of 2 years by means of airborne flights performed at midday and diurnally over a citrus (evergreen) crop canopy. The orchard was cultivated under a control treatment (ET) that received 100% of its water requi...
Article
Full-text available
Red leaf blotch is one of the major fungal foliar diseases affecting almond orchards. High-resolution thermal and hyperspectral airborne imagery was acquired from two flights and compared with concurrent field visual evaluations for disease incidence and severity. Canopy temperature and vegetation indices were calculated from thermal and hyperspect...
Article
Stomatal features such as size and density are known to affect transpiration, even though stomata cover less than two percent of the area of a leaf. A study was undertaken to evaluate the differences in stomatal density among three grapevine cultivars in Albacete, (La Mancha, Spain) and its relation to grapevine transpiration. Work was conducted in...
Article
Full-text available
In the current scenario of worldwide limited water supplies, conserving water is a major concern in agricultural areas. Characterizing within-orchard spatial heterogeneity in water requirements would assist in improving irrigation water use efficiency and conserve water. The crop water stress index (CWSI) has been successfully used as a crop water...
Article
Full-text available
Removal of irrigation network limitations under a rotational delivery schedule has been focused on improving infrastructures without paying sufficient attention to improving management. We developed a methodology to assess the yield and water productivity gaps in the Río Dulce irrigation system, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. The AquaCrop model wa...
Chapter
As developments in information and communication technologies increase, new opportunities are becoming available to refine agronomic management. Precision agriculture, or site-specific crop management, is a farm management concept based on observing and responding to intra field variability. This concept is being increasingly applied to irrigation...
Chapter
The main characteristics of pesticides to consider from an agronomic viewpoint are selectivity, mobility within the plant and toxicity on non-target plants, insects and other fauna. Pesticide application should be aimed at maximizing the protective effect while preventing drift, which is increased with high wind speed, unstable conditions and high...
Chapter
Weeds are plants whose presence is undesirable at a time and/or place because they compete with crops for resources, deteriorate the quality of the harvested product and can hinder harvesting. The most important weed species include C4 perennials with vegetative propagation. Usually weeds are able to produce many seeds that often present dormancy,...
Chapter
Salinity is a threat to the sustainability of many agricultural systems and especially for irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid zones. Besides the possible specific toxicity the main effect of salts is the reduction of soil osmotic potential causing an effect similar to that of water deficit. The expected yield under saline conditions can be calcu...
Chapter
Reference ET (ET0) is defined as the ET of short grass with full soil cover, and an unlimited supply of water and nutrients. In the absence of water deficit, the ET of any crop may be calculated as the product Kc x ET0, where Kc is the crop coefficient, which depends on crop related factors (leaf area, roughness) and ET0, the reference ET (grass),...
Chapter
Evapotranspiration is the sum of evaporation from the soil surface and the plant surfaces, and transpiration. The evaporation from the soil in agronomy follows a two-stage process depending if the soil surface is wet after a rain or irrigation or has already dried up. When the soil surface is wet the rate of evaporation is potentially very high; th...
Chapter
The main components of the energy balance are net radiation, latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (H) and soil heat flux (G). These can be manipulated through changes in net radiation, LE, H or G. The relative importance of the components depends mainly on the availability of water for evaporation. The extreme cases will be the humid environme...
Chapter
When the level of irrigation supply is less than crop ET, deficit irrigation (DI) programs are needed to optimize the use of the limited water. In annual crops where yield and transpiration are linearly related, DI aims at achieving maximum profits by minimizing application losses and maximizing use of stored soil water. Crops that respond positive...
Chapter
Water stress is due to a low water potential in the plant as a result of low soil water potential, high evaporative demand and/or a substantial resistance to water flow through the plant. The water deficit affects many processes in the crop, although most of the effects are related to the reduction in growth, the most sensitive process, and to stom...
Chapter
Tillage has been developed in farming to improve soil conditions in relation to the water balance and crop growth, to incorporate crop residues, and for weed control and preparation of the seedbed. The effects of tillage depend greatly on the water content and the characteristics of the soil. Clay soils will not be usually found under the more suit...
Chapter
Successful crop establishment depends on several factors at the time of sowing (soil water content, soil structure and soil temperature, seed viability, presence of pests). Therefore decisions regarding the date and depth of sowing, the planting density, the spatial arrangement of plants and other cultural techniques (irrigation, fertilization, app...
Chapter
Air temperature shows unstable profiles during the day and stable profiles during the night. Therefore, canopy temperature is generally higher than that of the air during the day and lower during the night. Heat transfer between the crop and the atmosphere is sustained by turbulence and will be more effective the higher the wind speed, i.e. when ae...
Chapter
The flow of wind over crop canopies causes a transfer of momentum from the air to the canopy that generates turbulence which enhances the exchange of matter and energy between the atmosphere and crops. Turbulence increases with wind velocity and aerodynamic roughness which is proportional to crop height. Wind speed varies logarithmically with heigh...
Chapter
The components of the water balance (infiltration, deep percolation, evaporation from the soil surface, etc.) determine the amount of water available to the crop. Water flow in the soil occurs following the gradient of water potential and can be analyzed by the Richards equation, but there are simpler alternative methodologies to quantify the water...
Chapter
Lessons learned since the discovery of agriculture suggest that good agronomy as an integrative science is essential for improving the sustainability of current agricultural systems. To meet the challenges of producing sufficient, nutritious food for a growing population, future agronomists will have to combine advances in plant breeding and biotec...
Chapter
Tillage serves to improve soil conditions in relation to the water balance and crop growth, to incorporate crop residues, to control weeds and to prepare the seedbed. However, tillage significantly increases the risk of soil erosion. These problems have led to the development of conservation tillage techniques which typically rely on the maintenanc...
Chapter
Crop Ecology deals with agricultural ecosystems that are manipulated by man to funnel the maximum energy into usable products (food and raw materials). Agricultural ecosystems show normally low biodiversity, low autonomy and a short trophic chain. The main features of farming systems are productivity, stability, resilience, and sustainability, the...
Chapter
Crops respond to planting density modifying the characteristics of individual plants by changing the number and size of their organs. The density response can be described mathematically by the “Law of Reciprocal Yield”. Under very high density mortality of individuals occurs and is often more pronounced when environmental conditions are more suita...
Chapter
Solar radiation (short wave) is the energy source for photosynthesis, warming and evaporation in agricultural systems. Its value can be calculated as a function of latitude, time of year and cloud cover. Fifty percent of solar radiation is available to photosynthesis and is called photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), although only a very smal...
Chapter
Growth of crops, plants or plant parts is defined as the irreversible increase in size whereas development is the continuous change in plant form and function with characteristic transition phases. Growth is primarily associated with capture and allocation of resources whereas development is mostly related to non-resource environmental cues such as...
Chapter
The simplest and most robust method for irrigation scheduling, i.e. deciding the dates and amounts of irrigation, is based on the water balance. The soil water deficit (depth of water required to bring the soil to field capacity) is calculated using ET and rainfall data, and rules are defined for calculating the dates and depths of irrigation. The...
Chapter
Environmental factors including water stress, nutrient deficiency, high or low temperatures, chemical (Al-toxicity, salinity) and physical soil constraints (e.g. compaction), and biotic factors reduce crop yield. Deficit of water and nitrogen, and soil constraints generally have a larger impact on canopy size and duration, hence growth reductions a...
Chapter
The soil temperature regime depends on its thermal properties (specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal admittance). The main factors affecting the thermal regime are water content, soil texture and compaction. The rate of heating (or cooling) of the soil is proportional to its diffusivity which is higher in sandy soils....
Chapter
Harvesting is the key operation in farming that culminates the season’s efforts. It represented an important fraction of all labor used in agriculture until recently and the equivalent in production costs. With the advent of mechanical harvest, costs have decreased dramatically contributing greatly to the reduction of food prices in recent decades....
Chapter
Cropping systems can be based on a single crop (monoculture) or on many (polyculture), including intercrops and rotations. Intercrops are rarely used in western agriculture although they offer several advantages (better use of resources, improved nutrient cycling) that are quantified by the Land Equivalent Ratio (LER). Agroforestry systems are a ca...
Chapter
Photosynthesis is the set of processes whereby radiant energy is converted and stored as chemical energy in most plants, algae and cyanobacteria. This process depends on radiation, temperature and CO2 concentration. The maximum efficiency of the process is 6 % but it is usually well below. The leaf-level photosynthesis can be described mathematical...
Book
This textbook explains the various aspects of sustainable agricultures to undergraduate and graduate students. The book first quantifies the components of the crop energy balance, i.e. the partitioning of net radiation, and their effect on the thermal environment of the canopy. The soil water balance and the quantification of its main component (ev...
Article
Background and AimsMapping the spatial variability of vine water status within a vineyard is necessary for the efficient management of irrigation water. The objective of this study was to determine whether estimates of remotely sensed leaf water potential (Ψrem) could be employed as a precise tool for scheduling irrigation at the irrigation sector...
Poster
Given the pressures from other sectors of society, agriculture must aim for a more efficient use of water. A prerequisite for efficient irrigation practices is the precise calculation of crop water requirements in relation to atmospheric demand. Lisymetry is the most accurate technique for measuring crop evapotranspiration directly. The objective o...
Article
Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production1. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature2. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improveme...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted in a large pistachio farm in Madera County, California, to assess the spatial variability in water status and irrigation needs by using high-resolution thermal imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial system. We determined the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) of two fields, 130 ha each, based on canopy temperature measurements of...
Article
Full-text available
The links between water and crop yield are well known. In agricultural systems, maximum yield and maximum water productivity (WP; yield divided by water use) are not always compatible goals. In water-limited situations, optimal solutions must be reached by finding a compromise between the levels of crop production and WP. The tradeoffs between prod...