E. Aharonov

E. Aharonov
Hebrew University of Jerusalem | HUJI · Fredy and Nadine Herrmann Institute of Earth Sciences

PhD

About

135
Publications
25,232
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3,837
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Publications

Publications (135)
Preprint
Full-text available
Shear strain localization into shear bands is associated with velocity weakening instabilities and earthquakes. Here, we simulate steady-state plane-shear flow of numerical granular material (gouge), confined between parallel surfaces. Both constant shear stress and constant strain-rate boundary conditions are tested and the two types of boundary c...
Article
Shear strain localization into shear bands is associated with velocity weakening instabilities and earthquakes. Here, we simulate steady-state plane-shear flow of numerical granular material (gouge), confined between parallel surfaces. Both constant shear stress and constant strain-rate boundary conditions are tested, and the two types of boundary...
Article
Full-text available
Salt basins often exhibit a shelf/slope region of extension and a deeper domain of contraction. The up‐slope normal faults in such salt tectonics systems are often associated with the pinch‐out edge of the buried salt layer. Although the spatial correlation between the normal faults and the salt pinch‐out was previously observed, the mechanism was...
Article
Full-text available
We present a minimal one-dimensional continuum model for the transition from cracklike to pulselike propagation of frictional rupture. In its nondimensional form, the model depends on only two free parameters: the nondimensional prestress and an elasticity ratio that accounts for the finite height of the system. The model predicts stable slip pulse...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a minimal one-dimensional model for the transition from crack-like to pulse-like propagation of frictional rupture. In its non-dimensional form, the model depends on only two free parameters: the non-dimensional pre-stress and an elasticity ratio that accounts for the finite height of the system. The model contains stable slip pulse solu...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of heterogeneous and anisotropic media in the uniform dissolution regime (low Damköhler number) is studied here using a numerical network model. The uniform dissolution extensively homogenizes the medium and therefore the flow field. The homogenization is further enhanced when the surface reaction is transport controlled—when slow dif...
Article
In many natural granular systems, the interstitial pores are filled with a fluid. Deformation of this two-phase system is complex, is highly coupled, and depends on the initial and boundary conditions. Here we study granular compaction and fluid flow in a saturated, horizontally shaken, unconfined granular layer, where the fluid is free to flow in...
Research
Dissolution by reactive fluid flow is a fundamental process in geological systems. It controls diagenesis and karst evolution and has broad implications for groundwater hydrology. Specifically, reactive flow controls the evolution of the void-space structure via the feedback between the reaction and transport. In some instances, advective transport...
Data
Supporting Information for A.Paldor et al., 2020 JGR-Oceans: Deep submarine groundwater discharge – Evidence from Achziv Submarine Canyon at the exposure of the Judea Group confined aquifer, eastern Mediterranean
Article
Full-text available
Deep submarine groundwater discharge (DSGD) of fresh‐brackish water was suggested to occur globally, yet its driving mechanism is not well constrained. Specifically, it is unclear whether the phenomenon may represent a steady‐state condition of a hydrological system, in which the terrestrial recharge area is hydraulically connected with the submari...
Article
Deep Submarine Groundwater Discharge (DSGD) is a ubiquitous and highly significant phenomenon, yet it remains poorly understood. This work proposes a simple theoretical basis for steady-state DSGD from a confined aquifer. The simple theory is tested against numerical modeling (FEFLOW) of a case study of DSGD offshore northern Israel (eastern Medite...
Article
Numerous normal faults, expressing thin-skinned salt tectonics, are detected along the Levant continental slope, 15–30 km west of the Israeli coast. Previous studies estimated that this faulting initiated during Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, which leaves an uncertainty of about 50% in the total duration of active faulting. The purpose of this...
Article
Full-text available
Many coastal areas around the world suffer severe water stresses due to improper management of water resources. In these areas, groundwater is typically the most important source for drinking water, and its overexploitation may lead to deterioration in water quality. In coastal confined aquifers, the dynamics of saltwater intrusion (SWI) and well s...
Article
Full-text available
A theory of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) is shown to be a direct consequence of a recently developed physics-based constitutive law for rock friction (Aharonov & Scholz, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013829), which assumes exponential creep on contacts. The theory was previously tested against experimental data for sliding at low ambi...
Article
Stylolites are surfaces of localized dissolution, ubiquitous in sedimentary rocks. They belong to a family of sub-planar defects caused by localized volume reduction (LVR), alongside compaction bands, localized negative-volume phase transitions, and dehydration structures. In the past such LVR structures have been labeled as “anti-cracks”, but rece...
Data
3D X-Ray computerized tomographic view of anastomosed stylolites in a limestone from Bure-sur-Meuse, cylindrical core ( 2 cm diameter, 4 cm length) - successions of slices through planes parallel to the cylinder principal axis.
Article
Article available in original editor format up to 2018, Aug 25th, in open access on this link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1XLFPhdGqOcCr Highlights: . Stylolite formation depends on rock composition and structure, stress and fluids. . Stylolite geometry, fractal and self-affine properties, network structure, are investigated. . The experiments a...
Article
This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the...
Article
Full-text available
Soil liquefaction is a significant natural hazard associated with earthquakes. Some of its devastating effects include tilting and sinking of buildings and bridges, and destruction of pipelines. Conventional geotechnical engineering practice assumes liquefaction occurs via shear-driven compaction and consequent elevation of pore pressure. This assu...
Article
Full-text available
Experiments measuring friction over a wide range of sliding velocities find that the value of the friction coefficient varies widely: friction is high and behaves according to the Rate and State constitutive law during slow sliding, yet markedly weakens as the sliding velocity approaches seismic slip speeds. We introduce a physics-based theory to e...
Conference Paper
Soil liquefaction is a devastating earthquake hazard, commonly causing tilting, sinking and floating of infrastructure. The classical mechanism for liquefaction requires undrained and loosely packed soil, that upon shear experiences elevated, lithostatic, pore pressure and consequently zero effective stress. However, some field and experimental obs...
Article
Full-text available
Fluid flow in transforming porous rocks, fracture networks, and granular media is subject to considerable current interdisciplinary research activity in Physics, Earth Sciences, and Engineering. Examples of natural and engineered processes include hydrocarbon recovery, carbon dioxide geo-sequestration, soil drying and wetting, pollution remediation...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we show for the first time how quantitative stress estimates can be derived by combining calcite twinning and stylolite roughness stress fingerprinting techniques in a fold-and-thrust belt. First, we present a new method that gives access to stress inversion using tectonic stylolites without access to the stylolite surface and compare...
Conference Paper
This contribution presents for the first time how quantitative stress estimates can be derived by combining cal-cite twinning and stylolite roughness stress fingerprinting techniques in a structure part of a complex fold and thrust belts. We report a high-resolution deformation and stress history that was experienced by Meso-Cenozoic limestone stra...
Article
Full-text available
The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications.We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration.We solve the flow kinemati...
Chapter
A new study of the Israeli Mediterranean continental slope provides an understanding of the interaction between submarine landslides, fault scarps, and subsurface evaporites. Faults and landslides interact in the northern part of the studied continental slope where fault scarps rupture the seabed. In this area landslides are thought to be triggered...
Research
Full-text available
Pressure solution (PS) is a widespread phenomenon in the Earth’s upper crust, which influences many important natural processes, including porosity evolution of sedimentary rocks and fault healing. PS is a creep process effecting porous rocks, involving microscale dissolution and precipitation reactions mediated by diffusion of solutes in the fluid...
Article
Glossy, light reflective surfaces are commonly exposed in carbonate fault-zones. It was suggested that such surfaces, recently termed Fault Mirrors (FMs), form during seismic slip. Ultramicroscopic analyses indicate that FMs are highly smooth and composed of a cohesive thin layer of nano-size grains. We explore here mechanisms of formation and dest...
Article
Pressure solution (PS) is a widespread phenomenon in the Earth’s upper crust, which influences many important natural processes, including porosity evolution of sedimentary rocks and fault healing. PS is a creep process effecting porous rocks, involving microscale dissolution and precipitation reactions mediated by diffusion of solutes in the f...
Article
Full-text available
Large landslides exhibit surprisingly long runout distances compared to a rigid body sliding from the same slope, and the mechanism of this phenomena has been studied for decades. This paper shows that the observed long runouts can be explained quite simply via a granular pile flowing downhill, while collapsing and spreading, without the need for f...
Article
The present work maps and studies the continental slope off the southeastern Mediterranean Israeli coast. Bathymetric grids with 15-50. m/pixel resolution were used to map over four hundred submarine landslides and numerous fault scarps exposed on the sea floor.Landslide scars are found at water depth ranging between 130m and 1000m, where slopes ex...
Article
We use numerical two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) to study the controls on the size and geometry of an individual landslide. This method allows us to analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of slope failure and landsliding from the intact, pre-failure slope to the restabilized, post-failure slope. The size of our simulated landslide...
Article
Stylolites are rough surfaces, formed by localized rock dissolution, and prevalent in carbonates and other sedimentary rocks. Their impact on porosity and permeability, and capacity to accommodate compactive strain, are well documented. This paper presents a meso-scale field study on sedimentary stylolites in carbonates, characterizing large-scale...
Article
Fluid-saturated granular and porous layers can undergo liquefaction and lose their shear resistance when subjected to shear forcing. In geosystems, such a process can lead to severe natural hazards of soil liquefaction, accelerating slope failure, and large earthquakes. Terzaghi's principle of effective stress predicts that liquefaction occurs when...
Article
The coupled mechanics of fluid-filled granular media controls the behavior of many natural systems such as saturated soils, fault gouge, and landslides. The grain motion and the fluid pressure influence each other: It is well established that when the fluid pressure rises, the shear resistance of fluid-filled granular systems decreases, and as a re...
Article
Full-text available
Many faults are characterized by naturally polished, reflective, glossy surfaces, termed fault mirrors (FMs), that form during slip. Recent experiments also find that FMs form during rapid sliding between rock surfaces, and that FM formation coincides with pronounced friction reduction. The structure of FMs and the mechanism of their formation are...
Article
Numerous shallow submarine slope failures (scars and deposits) are observed in recent high resolution bathymetric grids of the continental slope off the Israeli eastern Mediterranean coast. The nature of these slope failures is currently not comprehensively understood as well as the question of whether the eastern Mediterranean continental slope is...
Article
Full-text available
Stylolites, which constitute surfaces of localized rock dissolution and compaction, have a documented impact on porosity and permeability, and are important for the evolution of sedimentary basins and for accomodating compactive strain. We present here a meso-scale field study on sedimentary stylolites in carbonates, characterizing large scale dist...
Article
Full-text available
Many faults are characterized by naturally polished glossy surfaces, termed fault mirrors (FMs), which form during slip. Recent experiments also find that FMs form during rapid (but not slow) sliding between rock surfaces, and that FM formation coincides with pronounced friction reduction. The structure of FMs and the mechanism of their formation a...
Article
Full-text available
Dynamically induced spatial variations of pore pressure and the meaning of Terzhagi's effective stress
Article
When seismic waves travel through certain soils, these can lose resistance to shear, and become liquid-like: they display a thixotropic behavior. The buildings and structures lying on them can then subside, or sink partly in the soild, while mud volcanoes are formed around pipes and cracks where the liquefied soil exits. We show how a simple criter...
Article
Full-text available
Compaction of sedimentary porous rock by dissolution and precipitation is a complex deformation mechanism, that is often localized on stylolites and pressure solution seams. We consider a one-dimensional model of compaction near a thin clay-rich stylolite embedded in a porous rock. Under the assumption that the clay enhances solubility, the model p...
Article
Full-text available
Pressure solution is considered the most important ductile deformation mechanism operating in the Earths upper crust. Pressure solution (also termed chemical compaction) is a major player in a variety of geological processes, including evolution of sedimentary basins, hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers, earthquake recurrence cycles, and fault healing...
Article
Fluid-filled granular layers are abundant in the Earth's shallow crust as saturated soils and poorly consolidated hillslope material, and as fluid-filled fault gouge layers. When such grains-fluid systems are subjected to excitation by the passage of seismic waves, tectonic loading, or gravitational loading they exhibit a highly non-trivial dynamic...
Article
Stylolites are ubiquitous pressure-solution seams found in sedimentary rocks. Their morphology is shown to follow two self affine regimes: analyzing the scaling properties of their height over their average direction shows that at small scale, they are self affine surfaces with a Hurst exponent around 1, and at large scale, they follow another self...
Article
Shear of faults is often concentrated within a layer of "fault-gouge" - granular fragments produced by wear of the wall rock during shear. The shear of dry granular media already produces complex enough behavior: strain weakening, stick-slip, and shear localization. On top of this complexity the pores between the grains are in many cases filled wit...
Conference Paper
Stylolites are rough surfaces formed by localized dissolution, mostly in carbonates and sandstones. They often account for a large degree of dissolution, and their impact on porosity and permeability is well recognized. Still, many open questions remain regarding the formation mechanism of these Localized Volume Reduction features. We analyze stylo...
Conference Paper
Localized volume reduction (LVR) in rocks plays an important role in determining rock mechanical and transport properties. In contrast to reversible LVR (associated with elastic strain), irreversible LVR (associated with plastic strain) produced mainly by mechanical and chemical compaction is retained even upon removal of the external load. Despite...
Article
Sedimentary deposits often show alternating layering of different mineralogies and grain sizes. Using Stokes settling velocities, the size and density can indicate the sense and extent of segregation of different grain types during sedimentation. However, in some important sedimentary settings, such as turbidite flows, grains are in a concentrated...
Article
Full-text available
The stability and dynamics of geological faults are often controlled by the frictional strength of the fault gouge, a granular layer that accumulates between the fault blocks due to wear. One of the main factors controlling the shear strength (as measured by an apparent friction coefficient) of such granular layers is the systems resistance to dila...
Article
Full-text available
A remarkable field observation is that landslides of different sizes, from different locations around the globe and triggered by different mechanisms, all seem to follow a single relation, with their volume to surface area ratio following a power law of ˜1.4. This paper presents an analytical examination of the shape of landslides on the basis of l...
Article
The coupled mechanics of fluid-filled granular media controls the physics of many Earth systems, for example saturated soils, fault gouge, and landslide shear zones. It is well established that when the pore fluid pressure rises, the shear resistance of fluid-filled granular systems decreases, and, as a result, catastrophic events such as soil liqu...
Article
Full-text available
The Heart Mountain landslide of northwestern Wyoming is the largest subaerial landslide known. This Eocene age slide slid ∼50 km along a shallow 2° slope, posing a long-standing enigma regarding its emplacement mechanism. We suggest here a mechanism for the catastrophic emplacement of the Heart Mountain landslide that is independent of slide trigge...
Article
The physics of deformation of fluid‐filled granular media controls many geophysical systems, ranging from shear on geological faults to landslides and soil liquefaction. Its great complexity is rooted in the mechanical coupling between two deforming phases: the solid granular network and the fluid‐filled pore network. Often deformation of the granu...
Article
Full-text available
The Eocene age Heart Mountain landslide in northwestern Wyoming is the largest subaerial landslide known. This slide is an extreme example of a long runout with upper plate blocks that slid up to 50 km along a slope with an average dip of 2◦. The emplacement mechanism of ...
Article
Shear of faults often concentrates within a layer of "fault-gouge" - granular fragments produced by wear of the wall rock during shear. The pores between the grains are in many cases filled with fluid, and the fluid pressure in this granular layer controls the strength of the whole fault zone according to the law of `effective stress'. We study cou...
Article
Full-text available
Drilling experiments in rock blocks subjected to pre-existing true triaxial far-field stresses simulating real in situ conditions often result in localized failure around the created borehole, which brings about the formation of borehole breakouts. In weakly bonded quartz-rich porous sandstones breakouts take the form of narrow tabular (slot-like)...