Duncan S Buchan

Duncan S Buchan
University of the West of Scotland | UWS · School of Science

PhD

About

85
Publications
18,471
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993
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
University of the West of Scotland
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Difficult-to-control asthma associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) is challenging with limited treatment options. The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in this population are uncertain. Methods: This is a randomised controlled trial of an eight-week asthma-tailored PR programme versus usual care (UC) in participants wi...
Article
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Objectives: Patients with asthma may feel limited in physical activity (PA). Reduced PA has been demonstrated in asthmatics versus healthy controls, and increasing PA associated with improved asthma outcomes. Obesity is commonly found with difficult-to-control asthma and worsens outcomes. We compared PA levels in participants with difficult-to-con...
Article
Background: Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) provide real time in-the-moment behavior change support to people when they need it most. JITAIs could be a viable way to provide personalized physical activity (PA) support to older adults in the community. However, it is unclear how feasible it is to remotely deliver a PA intervention throu...
Article
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This study evaluated the equivalence of activity outcomes from three accelerometer brands worn on both wrists during free-living. Forty-four adults wore a GENEActiv, ActiGraph and Axivity accelerometer for 7-days. Outcomes were assessed between and within accelerometer brand and wrist location with average acceleration and the intensity gradient (I...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Just-in-time-adaptive-interventions (JITAIs) provide real-time ‘in the moment’ behaviour change support to people when they need it most. JITAIs could be a viable way to provide personalised physical activity support to older adults in the community. However, it is unclear how feasible it is to remotely deliver a physical activity interv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Patients with asthma may find it impacts their ability to be physically active. Physical activity (PA) has been demonstrated to be lower in asthmatics compared to healthy controls. Obesity is commonly linked with difficult-to-control asthma and can worsen outcomes. At least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity (PA) per week is recom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Difficult-to-control asthma associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) represents a significant challenge, with limited treatment options. The effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in this population are uncertain. Methods This randomised controlled trial compared an asthma-tailored PR programme to usual care (UC) in participants...
Article
Full-text available
The study of physical activity in older adults is becoming more and more relevant. For evaluation of physical activity recommendations, intensity-specific accelerometer cut-points are utilized. However, research on accelerometer cut-points for older adults is still scarce. The aim of the study was to generate placement-specific cut-points of ActiGr...
Article
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(1) Background: Scotland has one of the highest rates of obesity in the Western World, it is well established that poor weight profiles, and particularly abdominal obesity, is strongly associated with Type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Whether these associations are apparent in ethnic population groups in Scotland is unclear. The purpose...
Article
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Purpose: This study explored the feasibility of conducting a classroom-based active breaks intervention on sedentary behavior (SB), physical activity (PA) and attention in 8-12-year-old children. Methods: Eight schools were randomized on a 1:1 basis to the control or intervention. Teachers selected 10 cards detailing an activity break at random....
Article
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Purpose: Physical inactivity and overweight status has been linked to low socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. Parents are known to influence both their child’s weight and physical activity (PA). The relationship between parent and child PA is of interest to many researchers, however previous research typically relies on self-reported measures. The...
Preprint
High levels of childhood obesity have been observed globally over the last three decades. Schools are promising settings to implement interventions aiming to improve health-related behaviours in children. The aim of this study was two-fold; (1) explore the feasibility of Happy Homework (HH) from qualitative investigations with teachers and pupils a...
Article
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Background: Raw acceleration data lends itself to innovative metrics in which comparisons can be made across populations. This study examined whether the intensity gradient (IG) or average acceleration (AvAcc) was associated with body mass index (BMI) in children and adults and explored parent-child associations between time spent in physical activ...
Article
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This study evaluated agreement in activity outcomes from ActiGraph accelerometers worn on both wrists in a laboratory and free-living setting. Part 1: Thirty-seven participants (25.5 ± 10.5 years) completed laboratory activities. Part 2: Thirty-nine participants (28.5 ± 9.8 years) wore accelerometers for 7 days. Outcomes included average accelerati...
Article
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Background: High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a sustainable and effective method for improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF) in adolescents. HIIT is proven to produce equal or greater improvements in CRF when compared to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in adolescents. Methods: The studies included were considered eligible i...
Article
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Introduction Early detection screening tools are needed to aid in preventing vascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes. As low muscular strength is linked to increased diabetes risk, the purpose of this study is to establish muscular strength cut points for determining diabetes risk using a large, nationally representative U.S. sample....
Article
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This study used the intensity gradient (IG) and average acceleration metrics to describe children’s activity profiles and explore associations with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Two hundred and forty-six children (n = 138 girls) aged 9.6 ± 1.4 years wore a wrist-mounted ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for 7 days on their non-dominant wrist. Physi...
Article
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1 School-based health activities that involve parents are more likely to be effective for child 2 health and wellbeing than activities without a parent component. However, such school-based 3 interventions tend to recruit the most motivated parents and limited evidence exists 4 surrounding the involvement of hard-to-reach parents with low socioecon...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study used the intensity gradient (IG) and average acceleration metrics to describe children’s activity profiles and explore associations with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Two hundred and forty-six children (n = 138 girls) aged 9.6 ± 1.4 years wore a wrist-mounted ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for 7 days on their non-dominant wrist. Physi...
Article
Full-text available
Previous school-based interventions have produced positive effects upon measures of children's health and wellbeing but such interventions are often delivered by external experts which result in short-term effects. Thus, upskilling and expanding the resources available to classroom teachers could provide longer-term solutions. This paper presents a...
Article
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Background: Recommendations on resistance training (RT) set-volume protocols in preparation for spaceflight muscular strength conditioning remains equivocal. A meta-analysis was performed on the effects of single-set (S), or three-set (M3) RT on muscular strength per exercise for different body segments and joint types (multi-joint and single-joint...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study evaluated agreement between activity outcomes and Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) from accelerometers worn in a laboratory and free-living setting. Part 1: Thirty-seven participants (25.5 ± 10.5 years) completed laboratory-based activities. Part 2: Forty-two participants (32.3 ± 10.4 years) wore accelerometers on both wrists for 1 day. A...
Article
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This study examined whether single-gender or mixed-gender PE lessons were more conducive to increasing the physical activity levels of girls. One hundred and twenty girls (12–15 years) wore a wGT3x+ActiGraph accelerometer while participating in basketball games. Time spent in low (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physi...
Article
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Background: This study examined the volume and patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) across different segments of the week among boys and girls. Methods: A total of 188 children aged 7-12 years wore a wrist-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days. Time spent in PA and ST was calculated using ActiLife software. The m...
Article
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Background: This study examined the impact of a 4-week school-based sprint interval training program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), daily physical activity (PA) behavior, and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) outcomes in adolescents. Methods: A total of 56 adolescents (22 females) were allocated to either an intervention (n = 22; 17.0 [0.3] y) or...
Article
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Context: Walking football (soccer) has recently emerged as a physical activity option targeted at older males to enhance health and wellbeing. Design: This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining males aged 50 years and over to an 8-week walking football programme in a professional football club. Intervention:...
Preprint
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This study examined differences in physical activity (PA) estimates provided from raw and counts processing methods. One hundred and sixty-five children (87 girls) wore a hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 days. Data were available for 129 participants. Time in moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) were c...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of international normative centiles for the 20 m shuttle run test (20mSRT) to identify youth at increased cardiometabolic risk. This was a cross-sectional study involving 961 children aged 10–17 years (53% girls) from the United Kingdom. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determined t...
Article
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Background: The current recommendations for resistance training (RT) frequency range from 2 to 5 days per week (days week- 1) depending on the subjects' training status. However, the relationship between RT frequency and muscular strength remains controversial with reported variances existing across different population groups. We conducted a meta...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement between several activity measures using raw acceleration data from accelerometers worn concurrently on the dominant and non‐dominant wrist. Fifty‐five adults (31·9 ± 9·7 years, 26 males) wore two ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors continuously for 1 day, one on their non‐dominant wrist and the other on...
Article
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This study examined the compliance of children wearing wrist- and hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers and compared estimates of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) between devices. One hundred and eighty-eight 9-12-year-old children wore a wrist- and hip-mounted accelerometer for 7 days. Data were available for 160 (hip) and...
Article
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Background: Given the current global child obesity epidemic, testing the effectiveness of interventions in reducing obesity and its influencers is paramount. The purpose of this study was to determine immediate and long-term changes in body mass index and psychosocial variables following a 10-week lifestyle intervention. Methods: Seven hundred and...
Article
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Background: The use of text messages (short message service, SMS) to change physical activity and sedentary behavior in youth is of interest due to the need for novel, more effective intervention approaches. Previous reviews have examined a variety of technology-based interventions and their impact on different health behaviors, but evidence regar...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND The use of text messages (SMS) to change physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) in youth is of interest due to the need for novel, more effective intervention approaches. Previous reviews have examined a variety of technology-based interventions and their impact on different health behaviours but evidence regarding the impac...
Article
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Introduction: Muscular fatigue during voluntary muscle contractions is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon associated with central changes and adaptations of the neuromuscular system. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in both peak torque and hematological parameters in active and inactive healthy subjects following a m...
Article
Objective: We examined changes in youth cardiometabolic risk following a lifestyle intervention. Methods: Forty-five participants had indices of obesity, blood pressure (BP), and biomarkers assessed pre- and post-intervention. We assessed changes in outcome measures between groups across time. Results: Results from the ANCOVA indicated a statistica...
Article
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Objective: To examine the utility of Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist-to-Height-Ratio (WHtR) and cardiorespiratory fitness thresholds to identify cardiometabolic risk in youth. Methods: Cross-sectional cardiometabolic risk factor variables on 534 children aged 10.4-17.6 years of age (52% boys) from the United Kingdom were used. Binary logistic regre...
Article
Body Mass Index (BMI), as an adiposity indicator, assumes that for any given height a change in weight is attributed to a change in fat. This seems problematic in growing youth as great divergence is evident in bone, muscle, and adipose tissue development. Secondly, use of reference populations in categorizing children based on BMI, frequently use...
Article
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Objectives: To evaluate the ability of BMI, WC, and WHtR to identify increased cardiometabolic risk in pre-adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 192 children (10.92 ± 0.58 years, 56% female) from the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the discriminatory ability of B...
Article
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Background: Limited studies have examined the diagnostic performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) or waist to height ratio (WHtR) for identifying cardiometabolic risk (increased clustered glucose, triglycerides, mean arterial pressure and inv-HDL-cholesterol) in pre-adolescent youth. Aim: To compare the utility of BMI, WC and...
Article
Background: The purpose of this pilot study was to report body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) changes following a Child Healthy Weight pilot intervention. Methods: Children (n = 3290) aged 4–12 years from southwest Scotland participated in a 10-week school-based pilot intervention comprised of parental engagement, behaviour change, a...
Article
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Background . A systematised review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to reduce childhood obesity. Methods . Multiple databases were searched for randomised and nonrandomised interventions from 2007 to 2016 in full-time elementary schools, which...
Article
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Research pertaining to the relevance of skeletal muscle glycogen availability during high intensity exercise was first suggested in the work of Saltin. Intense physical exercise is accompanied by rapid glycogen depletion and lactate accumulation in the working muscle, indicating a high rate of glycolysis.
Article
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The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT...
Article
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It is unclear whether the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HTWP) can be used to identify those at most risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The utility of the HTWP as a useful predictor of cardiometabolic risk in youth stratified by body mass index was assessed. Three hundred and eighty-seven children (12-17.5 years) were used within this cross-...
Article
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This study examined the independent relationships between cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness with cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. Subjects were 192 adolescents (118 boys), aged 15-17.5 years. The 2 m multi-stage fitness test assessed cardiorespiratory fitness and the counter movement jump assessed muscular fitness. Additional measures incl...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if fit adolescent males and females indicate myocardial morphology changes outside normal values. Twenty-two young adults 15 to 18 yrs of age acted as subjects. Resting measures included: age (yrs), height (ht, cm), weight (wt, kg), systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mmHg),...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine the independent associations between measures of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardiometabolic risk in adolescents. 209 adolescents (139 boys), aged 15-17.5 years participated. Participants completed anthropometric measurements [height, weight, waist circumference (WC)] whilst...
Article
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With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, the purpose of this study was to examine whether a high intensity training (HIT) intervention could enhance the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents in a time efficient manner. Participants in the study were adolescent school children (64 boys, 25 girls, 1...
Article
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The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing and has become the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understandi...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate levels of clustered cardiometabolic risk and the odds of being ‘at risk’ according to cardiorespiratory fitness status in children. Data from 88 10–11.9-year-old children (mean age 11.05 ± 0.51 years), who participated in either the REACH Year 6 or the Benefits of Fitness Circuits for Primary School Populati...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the independent associations of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness with clustered cardiometabolic risk. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 192 adolescents (118 boys), aged 14-16 years, was recruited from a South Lanarkshire school in the West of Scotland. Anthropometry and blood pressure we...