Dukes Paul

Dukes Paul
University of Aberdeen | ABDN · School of Divinity, History and Philosophy

PhD

About

92
Publications
1,553
Reads
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109
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
September 1964 - present
University of Aberdeen
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
In this essay, a well known senior scholar of early modern Russian history reflects on his encounters with Professor Ruslan Skrynnikov and on his own research interests, especially the career and diary of General Patrick Gordon, the famous Scotsman who mentored Peter the Great. Also included are the author’s reflections on the “General Crisis of th...
Article
This article concentrates on the contributions of E.V. Tarle to the short-lived journal ANNALY in the turbulent post-revolutionary years. Setting out an alternative historical approach to that advocated by M.N. Pokrovskii, Tarle expressed sympathy with the ideas of a community of nations put forward by Lord Bryce and based on individual charity as...
Book
The book examines the evolution of the predicament symbolised by the setting of the Doomsday Clock at a few minutes to midnight in the context of the Anthropocene Era from 1763, making special reference to the study of history.
Chapter
Before 1914, imperial Russia was an integral member of the global system of international relations. Its policies have often been held responsible for the outbreak of World War I.1 Later, in the period leading up to 1939, the Soviet Union was on the periphery of this global system. Yet, it has been blamed for the outbreak of hostilities leading to...
Chapter
Louis XIV was 16 years old when he was crowned in Rheims Cathedral in July 1654. Still learning the craft of kingship, however, he was to defer to his advisers — Mazarin especially — until the cardinal died in 1661. As far as foreign policy was concerned, the major problem of these still early years was to bring to a conclusion the war against Spai...
Chapter
Returning, he proclaims by many a grace, By shrugs and strange contortions of his face, How much a dunce that has been set to roam, Excels a dunce that has been kept at home.
Chapter
During the period leading up to the Second World War, nearly everybody in Britain and France was hoping that it would not come, or at least would take place elsewhere. Encouragement for such hopes was provided by the mass media, old and new. Until towards the end of the 1930s, many of the newspapers asserted that peace was secure. Similarly, radio...
Chapter
The French Revolution and Napoleon introduced a new era not only for France but also for Europe and beyond. A considerable part of the message of 1789 and succeeding years had already been announced in the British and American Revolutions, but now it was to come over in complete form and at full blast. The rights of man were now given wider publici...
Chapter
As well as the vast losses, there were the huge costs. For example, the British foreign debt was six times as great as before — the largest in the world, while trade had shrunk to a third of its former level. France was faced with the formidable problem of how to regain its stature after the years of occupation. Germany and Italy had to begin again...
Article
This article seeks partly to redress the neglect of international relations, especially concerning the Far East, in recent Western writing on Soviet Russia. It concentrates on the sequel to the Paris Peace Conference, the Washington Conference of 1921–2, suggesting that Soviet Russia played the role of ‘Banquo’s ghost’ at both meetings. Making use...
Article
This article seeks partly to redress the neglect of international relations, especially concerning the Far East, in recent Western writing on Soviet Russia. It concentrates on the sequel to the Paris Peace Conference, the Washington Conference of 1921-2, suggesting that Soviet Russia played the role of 'Banquo's ghost' at both meetings. Making use...
Article
Taking as a point of departure Steve Smith's stimulating article of 1994, this article argues that the ‘linguistic turn’ and other features of postmodernist interpretation need to be subsumed in the metanarrative of the twentieth century, the overshadowing of the European nation‐state by the USA and the USSR. As an example of this process, the arti...
Chapter
Arguments concerning the beginning of modern European history, like arguments concerning the origin of the universe, fall into two broad categories, the initial ‘big bang’ and subsequent evolution. The ‘big bang’ consists of the ‘general crisis’ thesis, which maintains that in the years around 1650 the continent of Europe was subject to a series of...
Chapter
Following the presidential election of 1996, there were many echoes of the past, both recent and more remote. The loudest and most persistent of them is that the course of Russian history never has run smooth, for major upsets in the shape of internal disturbances and/or invasions from outside have occurred in every one of its centuries. On many pr...
Chapter
After the October Revolution, Lenin pointed out that the new order would have to be constructed from the bricks of the old. If the tsarist government had condoned primitive savagery, the Communist successor which he now headed could not immediately enjoy completely civilised brotherhood. Many concessions would have to be made to the inertia of the...
Chapter
In January 1975, the U.S. Senate made specific Soviet concessions on emigration a condition of acceptance for the U.S. — Soviet Trade Bill. As a consequence, the Soviet government abandoned the Trade Agreement of 1972, and détente started to slip away. There was no clean break, however, or immediate dramatic shift in policy.
Chapter
On 19 February 1861 the emancipation of the serfs was decreed, although, owing to a last minute pause at the brink by the government, it was not announced until 5 March. In common with their fellows throughout Russia, the peasants of the Spassk region not far from Kazan looked for somebody to interpret the manifesto for them. In the nearby village...
Chapter
The period 1929–41 makes great demands on E. H. Carr’s assertion that the historian should not make moral judgements.’ Most Western analysts of the period have been far away from such a standard of objectivity, many of them over-simplifying it with explanations centring around the characterisation of Stalin as an omnipotent dictator, enslaving mill...
Chapter
At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Mongols under Chingis (or Genghis) Khan began the great conquests that brought upon the Russian principalities the much-lamented Mongol or Tatar ‘yoke’. (Although strictly different, the two terms have often been used interchangeably and will be here.) According to Grekov, who on this occasion speaks...
Chapter
‘Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, and judge us according to the Law’, said the warring tribes of ancient Russia to each other in 862 according to the Primary Chronicle. And so: ‘They accordingly went overseas to the Varangian Russes: these particular Varangians were known as Russes, just as some are called Swedes, and others Normans, Engl...
Chapter
In the years following the death of Stalin, the Soviet Union reached a new peak of confidence as the world was astonished by the launching of the the first earth satellite in October 1957 and a further row of space successes culminating in the first manned orbital flight by Iurii or Yuri Gagarin in April 1961. Years of anti-Soviet propaganda about...
Chapter
The dominant theme of Soviet history from 1941 to 1953 is war. By far the most bloody battles of the Great Patriotic War, as the Second World War is still known in Russia, were fought on Russian soil and up to forty million soldiers and civilians lost their lives. And then, soon after the return of peace, the Cold War arose to make the task of reco...
Chapter
For Kliuchevskii, during the period from the end of the eighteenth century to 1855, there was no basic change in Russia, but there were some new ideas and aspirations. Internally, there were hopes for a movement towards collaboration, towards general rights and obligations. But while the nobility lost some of its power, the gainer was not the peasa...
Chapter
At the end of the nineteenth century, wars throughout the world clearly showed the desire of the advanced industrial nations to extend or consolidate their overseas empires. In 1898 the United States fought Spain to protect its predominance in the Caribbean and to establish more firmly its influence in the Pacific. A year later in South Africa, Bri...
Chapter
For Soviet critics, Western historians gave too much emphasis to the fall of tsarism rather than to the necessity for its overthrow in the February Revolution, and exaggerated the degree of social harmony in general while underestimating the role of the proletariat led by the Bolsheviks at the beginning of 1917. Moreover, the charge continued, ther...
Chapter
The period from the middle of the fifteenth century to the middle of the seventeenth century is known in the Western world as that of the formation of nation-states, of great geographical discoveries, of the Renaissance, Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Parallel developments occurring at the eastern extremities of the Western world clearly demo...
Chapter
From the vantage point of the middle 1990s, Russian history seemed to be uncomfortably placed at one of its many critical points. Parallels suggested themselves with the Time of Troubles at the beginning of the seventeenth century, or the collapse following the Russian Revolution of 1917. To optimists, this was the birth trauma of a new age, to pes...
Chapter
After the removal from power of Khrushchev in October 1964, two new leaders emerged in the ample shape of L. I. Brezhnev and the more slender figure of A. N. Kosygin. Their order of precedence turned out to be more than alphabetical (unlike the earlier B. and K.), and a new if at first minor ‘cult of personality’ was erected around the substantial...
Chapter
In 1698, Peter I hastily returned from his first visit to Western Europe determined to crush the streltsy along with their adherence to the old ways and to put into practice his new ideas for the transformation of Russia. As well as cutting off the heads of the streltsy, he cut off the beards of his courtiers, the outward symbols of their adherence...
Chapter
Everybody knows that the Russian land is vast, cold and mostly flat, with mighty rivers but little access to the sea. Like most common knowledge, this particular example is in an important sense correct, but it also requires some modification. Even now, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation remains a huge state, still stret...
Chapter
‘Peter gave Russians bodies, and Catherine — souls’, declared a contemporary poet, thereby expressing in a personalised manner some of the differences between the two phases of absolutism. Peter’s emphasis was indeed on the practical and Catherine’s on the intellectual. The two phases may also be separated according to the major Western influences...
Article
Russia and Scotland share a patron saint. Moreover, according to some accounts, St Andrew carried out much of his mission near the Black Sea while his relics were brought to Scotland. The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320, tells us that the Scottish people themselves originated in Scythia. Arguably, the customary translation into English of the word ro...
Article
BolkhovitinovN. N.et al. (eds.), The History of the USA, 1607–1877/Istoriia SSHA v chetyrekh tomakh: Tom pervyi, 1607–1877 (Moscow: Nauka, 1983, 4 rubles, 20 kopecks). Pp. 687. - Volume 19 Issue 2 - Paul Dukes

Projects

Project (1)