Douglas R Tocher

Douglas R Tocher
University of Stirling · Department of Aquaculture

BSc (Hons I); PhD

About

483
Publications
111,174
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
32,855
Citations

Publications

Publications (483)
Article
Full-text available
Excessive lipid deposition in farmed fish is a challenge in the aquaculture industry. To study the effect of dietary calcium pyruvate (CaP) on lipid accumulation in fish, we used a high fat diet (HFD) to establish a lipid accumulation model in juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) and supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.0% CaP (d...
Article
Full-text available
Organisms can regulate mitochondrial metabolic adaptation, further ameliorate the energy homeostasis to control the ATP production for the energy expenditure during the growth process under different physiological and nutritional conditions. Based on this understanding, the objective of the present study was to investigate how different dietary n-3...
Article
Carnivorous marine fish species such as gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) require dietary eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids for optimal growth and wellbeing. The rapid growth of global aquaculture, along with increased proportions of dietary oil to increase growth rate of farmed fish, has meant that the supply of marine oils us...
Article
Cholesterol, as an indispensable nutrient, regulates molting and growth in crustacean. As crustaceans are unable to biosynthesize cholesterol de novo, it is central to understand how dietary cholesterol affects molting in crustaceans. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cholesterol level (0.12%, 0.43%, 0.79%, 1....
Article
Full-text available
The freshwater macrophytes are abundant in tropical and subtropical climates. These macrophytes may be used as feed ingredients for fish and other animals. The nutritional value of twelve freshwater-cultured macrophytes was evaluated in the present study. Significantly higher crude protein (36.94-36.65%) and lipid (8.13-7.62%) were found in Lemna m...
Article
Full-text available
The potential nutritional value of duckweed Lemna minor (Lemnaceae) was evaluated for common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. Fish were fed diets containing five graded levels of duckweed: 0% (LM0, control), 5% (LM5), 10% (LM10), 15% (LM15) and 20% (LM20). The final weight and specific growth rate were significantly higher in LM15 and LM20 diets fed fish...
Article
The physiological metabolism of marine animals farmed in coastal areas is influenced greatly by extreme weather and frequent aqueous layer exchange, with short or long periods of heavy rain reducing seawater salinity. Black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) is a euryhaline fish, that are farmed in China under both normal/ambient salinity in seawa...
Article
Full-text available
The greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza (Lemnaceae) is a free-floating freshwater macrophyte. The effect of dietary inclusion of duckweed in the feed of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry was evaluated. The control feed (SP0) contained soybean meal as the primary protein source. In four experimental feeds, greater duckweed was incorporated at levels...
Article
Full-text available
The greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza (Lemnaceae) is a free-floating freshwater macrophyte. The effect of dietary inclusion of duckweed in the feed of common carp Cyprinus carpio fry was evaluated. The control feed (SP0) contained soybean meal as the primary protein source. In four experimental feeds, greater duckweed was incorporated at levels...
Article
Full-text available
Background DNA methylation has an important role in intergenerational inheritance. An increasing number of studies have reported evidence of germline inheritance of DNA methylation induced by nutritional signals in mammals. Vitamins and minerals as micronutrients contribute to growth performance in vertebrates, including Atlantic salmon (Salmo sala...
Article
Fish are the main source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) for human consumption. In the process of evolution via natural selection, adaptation to distinct environments has likely driven changes in the endogenous capacity for LC-PUFA biosynthesis between marine and freshwater fishes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ad...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are rich in “omega-3” long-chain (C20-24) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Their production has been historically accepted to derive mostly from marine microbes. This long-standing dogma has been challenged recently by the discovery that numerous invertebrates, mostly with an aquatic life-style, have the enzyme machinery nec...
Article
To investigate the metabolic response of mud crab Scylla paramamosain to dietary ratio of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), transcriptomic and lipidomic analyses were conducted on the hepatopancreas of crabs (initial weight 20.92 ± 0.56 g) fed for 8-week with diets having suboptimum (0.6) and optimal (2.3) DHA/EPA ratios. T...
Chapter
After a general overview of lipid biochemistry, this chapter is structured into three main sections. The first one follows the journey of lipids from feed intake, to digestion and absorption, the metabolic fates of lipids, including catabolic and anabolic processes, and interactions with the microbiome. The second section expands on some specific l...
Article
Untargeted lipidomic analysis was conducted to explore how different dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) / eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio and, specifically, how an optimal ratio (2.3) compared to a suboptimum ratio (0.6) impacted lipid molecular species and the positional distribution of fatty acids in hepatopancreas of mud crab. The results indi...
Article
An eight-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of an alternating linseed oil (LO) and fish oil (FO) feeding strategy in black seabream A. schlegelii (initial weight, 8.49 ± 0.01 g). Two isonitrogenous and isolipidic feeds were formulated to contain FO or LO, and used to enable three feeding strategy treatments termed FO (feedin...
Article
While chromium (Cr) has been recognized as an essential nutrient for all animals, and dietary supplementation can be beneficial, it can also be toxic. The present study aimed to investigate the contrasting effects of dietary chromium in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain Cr at levels of 0.8...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of konjac glucomannan (KGM) supplementation in diets with different lipid levels on growth, antioxidant capacity, hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in juvenile pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). Triplicate groups of fish (12.07 ± 0.21 g) were fed eight experimental diets containing two lipid levels of 9% (...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of dietary betaine, as a lipid-lowering substance, on the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammation in juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) fed a high fat diet. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted in black seabream with an initial weight of 8.39 ± 0.01g fed four isonitrogenous...
Article
The present study aim to compare the growth and biosynthetic ability of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus♀ × O. niloticus♂) at different salinities. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on the juvenile red tilapia (initial weight about 10.5 g) reared at 0, 15 and 30 parts per thousand (ppt) sa...
Article
The quality of crustaceans’ flesh has direct impact on consumers’ purchase choices, with water environment and dietary nutrition being effective ways to regulate flesh quality. The aim of present study was to investigate the impacts of water salinity (low, 4 and medium, 23) and dietary lipid source (fish oil and soybean oil) on nutritional values,...
Article
Full-text available
Salinity is one of the important factors affecting the physiological state of crustaceans in marine environments. Lipid plays major roles in energy supply and is main sources of essential fatty acids for membrane integrity, which is critical in adaptations to changes in salinity. Here we evaluated the effects of salinity (medium, 23 ppt and low, 4...
Article
Full-text available
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary organic zinc (zinc amino acid chelate) on growth performance, mineral bioaccumulation in whole body, hepatopancreas and carapace, innate immune response and antioxidant capacity of juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were fo...
Article
While tissue fatty acid compositions reflect that of the dietary lipid source, little information is available on how dietary oils modify lipid profiles in hepatopancreas of crustacean. Herein, an 8-week nutritional trial and untargeted lipidomic analysis were used to investigate the impacts of dietary n-3 PUFA lipid sources including fish oil (FO)...
Article
Full-text available
Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, C20-24), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), are involved in numerous biological processes and have a range of health benefits. Fish have long been considered as the main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in human diets. However, the capacity for...
Article
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal dietary docosahexaenoic acid/eisosapentaenoic acid (DHA/EPA) ratio of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) supplied with optimal n-3 LC-PUFA at two dietary lipid levels. Eight isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 7% and 12% crude lipid, each with DHA/EPA ratios of 0.6, 1.2, 2.3 and...
Article
All living organisms require copper for growth and development, but the gene expression profiles and molecular mechanisms underpinning dietary copper are poorly investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the potential metabolic changes in response to dietary copper based on analysis of hepatopancreas transcriptome in Litopenaeus...
Article
Copper is an essential micronutrient for living organisms, but its biological function has not been sufficiently studied, especially in crustaceans. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of copper in the maintenance of energy homeostasis by mediating lipid and energy metabolism in Litopenaeus vannamei. L. vannamei (initial weight...
Article
Vegetable oils (VO) that are used to substitute fish oil in aquafeeds may affect, not only the fatty acid composition, but also lipid metabolism and distribution. The present study was designed to investigate this issue in juvenile golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus fed eight diets formulated with typical VO with widely varying fatty acid compositio...
Article
Full-text available
Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) have been less well studied compared to macronutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates) although they play important roles in growth, metabolism, and maintenance of tissues. Hence, there is growing interest to understand the influence of micronutrients across various aspects in nutritional research. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Fish, particularly marine species, are considered as the major source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in the human diet. The extent to which fish can synthesize LC-PUFA varies with species and is regulated by dietary fatty acids and ambient salinity. Therefore, to enable fish to produce more LC-PUFA, comprehending the mechanisms...
Article
Aquaculture, the farming of fish and seafood, is recognized as a highly efficient system for producing protein for human consumption. In contrast, many terrestrial animal protein production systems are inefficient, impacting land use and exacerbating climate change. Humankind needs to adopt a more plant-centric diet, the only exception being fish c...
Article
An 8 weeks feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels on growth performance, tissue fatty acid profiles and relative expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of mud crab ( Scylla paramamosain ). Ten isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain five n-3 LC-PUFA levels at 7 % and 12 % dietary lipid le...
Article
Full-text available
Lipidomics methodologies traditionally utilize either reverse phase- or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-type separations; however, supercritical fluid chromatography can offer a rapid normal phase type separation while reducing the dependence on organic solvents. However, normal phase type lipid separations typically lack pronounced i...
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recently shown to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. However, the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in vertebrates remain largely unknown. Herein, we for the first time addressed the role of miR-26a in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in the marine rab...
Article
Full-text available
Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms play important roles in the regulation of long-chain (≥ C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. Here, we address a potentially important role of the miR-15/16 cluster in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus. In rabbitfish, miR-15 and miR-16 were both hi...
Article
The increase in the global popularity and production of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) has led to compositional changes in their feeds that can potentially diminish their nutritive value. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare the lipid, protein, fatty acid (omega-3) and mineral contents of salmon fillet portions available in the UK and...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaculture, the fastest growing food production sector cannot continue to rely on finite stocks of marine fish as the primary source of the omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), for feeds. A four-month feeding trial was conducted to investigate t...
Article
A full life cycle (parr to harvest) study of growth and performance was conducted in Atlantic salmon fed diets high in plant ingredients supplemented with graded levels of a nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals to re-evaluate current nutrient recommendations. Triplicate groups were fed o...
Article
The present study evaluated the effects of dietary zinc level on growth performance, serum and hepatopancreas metabolites, and expression of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism, and the signal pathway of dietary Zn-induced lipolysis. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain different zinc levels: 46.4 (basal die...
Article
The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, Zn bioaccumulation, antioxidant capacity and innate immunity in juvenile mud crab ( Scylla paramamosain ). Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain dietary Zn levels of 44.5, 56.9, 68.5, 97.3, 155.6 or 254.7 mg·kg ⁻¹ , respectively. Dietary...
Article
An 8-week feeding trail was conducted in Acanthopagrus schlegelii with an initial body weight of 8.34 ± 0.01g. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated, (1) Control: medium-fat diet (12%); (2) HFD: high-fat diet (18%); (3) HFD + FF: high-fat diet with fenofibrate (0.15%). Liver histological analysis revealed that, compared to HFD, vacuolar fat dr...
Article
Copper is a widespread pollutant in marine environments, and marine animals can ingest large amounts of copper through the food chain. Here, an 8-week feeding trial was designed to investigate the effects of different dietary copper levels on coloration, copper bioaccumulation, stress response and oxidation resistance of juvenile mud crab Scylla pa...
Article
Full-text available
Concern about the risk of exposure to emerging plant-derived mycotoxins such as beauvericin and enniatins has been addressed by the European Commission who requested the European Food Safety Authority for a scientific opinion on their risk to human and animal health. The studied mycotoxins were found in feeds with enniatin B and beauvericin at aver...
Article
Full-text available
During the past 20 years, plant ingredients have taken over as the main constituents in feed for Atlantic salmon. This has changed the nutrient composition of the feeds, the bioavailability of nutrients and perhaps nutrient metabolism. Plant‐based diets also contain more anti‐nutrients. The EU‐funded project ARRAINA re‐evaluated recommendations for...
Article
Full-text available
Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus) is a highly regarded and consumed species, but farming is still in its infancy. Currently, nothing is known about the presence of circadian rhythmicity at central or peripheral tissues, or if there are daily rhythms in expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In order to elucidate clock gene reg...
Article
Elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovls) catalyze the rate-limiting step of the elongation pathway that results in net two‑carbon elongation of pre-existing fatty acyl chains. As a set of crucial enzymes involved in the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, Elovls of fish have been investigated extensively in recen...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of plant-based diets on the digestive physiology of rohu Labeo rohita fingerlings (10.66 ± 0.53 g) was evaluated. A diet with all protein supplied by fishmeal was included as a control (F). Four test diets containing 300 g/kg protein were formulated using the following plant ingredients and fishmeal in a 1:1 blend: almond oil-cake Termin...
Article
Golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus is an important farmed carnivorous marine teleost. Although some enzymes for long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC‐PUFA) biosynthesis have been identified, the ability of T. ovatus for endogenous biosynthesis is unknown. Here, we evaluated in vivo LC‐PUFA synthesis in a 56‐day culture experiment using six diets...
Article
Full-text available
Salmon aquaculture is in great need of good quality balanced protein and lipid sources, particularly marine omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), to sustain a further development of the industry. One possibility is to harvest mesopelagic marine layers. Therefore, the current project analysed mesopelagic hauls from three cr...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream ( Acanthopagrus schlegelii ). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formula...
Article
Full-text available
The Japanese eel Anguilla japonica is a catadromous fish species with considerable farming scale. Previous studies showed that dietary α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) satisfied essential fatty acid requirements in eel, which suggested that Japanese eel should have a complete pathway for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsa...
Article
Full-text available
The rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus was the first marine teleost demonstrated to have the ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, and all the catalytic enzymes including two fatty acyl desaturase 2 (Δ4 Fads2 and Δ6/Δ5 Fads2) and two elongases (Elovl4 and Elovl5) have been id...
Article
Full-text available
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities, and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diet...
Article
Lipid sources as alternatives to fish oil could alter the nutritional value and flavor quality of crab meat affecting consumer preferences. Herein, an 8-week nutritional trial was designed to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources including fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), palm oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil and linseed oil on profiles of a...
Article
Full-text available
Elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C24) fatty acids and in many teleost fish species they are key enzymes in the pathway for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Therefore, Elovl4 may be particularly important...
Article
Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) possess enzymes required for the endogenous biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from α-linolenic acid (ALA). Linoleic acid (LA) competes with ALA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes leading to the production of n-6 LC-PUFA, inc...
Article
Full-text available
Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms play important roles in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Our previous study revealed that miR-33 could increase the expression of fatty acyl desaturases (fads2) in the rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, but the specific mechanism is unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-33 could target the 3′UTR of in...
Article
Full-text available
The long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis capacity of fish varies among species, with trophic level hypothesised as a major factor. The biosynthesis capacity is largely dependent upon the presence of functionally diversified fatty acyl desaturase 2 (Fads2) enzymes, since many teleosts have lost the gene encoding a Δ5 desaturase...
Article
The culture technique of greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Schleiden) was standardized in outdoor tanks using three different manures: manure 1 - cattle manure, poultry droppings and mustard oil cake, manure 2 - urea, potash and triple superphosphate and manure 3 - cattle manure, urea, potash and triple superphosphate. Significantly (p < .05...
Article
Previously we showed that, for optimum growth, micronutrient levels should be supplemented above current National Research Council (2011) recommendations for Atlantic salmon when they are fed diets formulated with low levels of marine ingredients. In the present study, the impact of graded levels (100, 200, 400%) of a micronutrient package (NP) on...
Article
Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial regulators of lipid metabolism. However, the miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanism on long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis in vertebrates remains largely unknown. Here, we address a potentially important role of miRNA-24 (miR-24) in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynth...