Douglas Schemske

Douglas Schemske
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Plant Biology

PhD

About

189
Publications
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Publications

Publications (189)
Article
The biotic interactions hypothesis posits that biotic interactions are more important drivers of adaptation closer to the equator, evidenced by “stronger” contemporary interactions (e.g. greater interaction rates) and/or patterns of trait evolution consistent with a history of stronger interactions. Support for the hypothesis is mixed, but few stud...
Article
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Premise: Despite myriad examples of local adaptation, the phenotypes and genetic variants underlying such adaptive differentiation are seldom known. Recent work on freezing tolerance and local adaptation in ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana from Italy and Sweden provides an essential foundation for uncovering the genotype-phenotype-fitness map for...
Preprint
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Premise of the study Despite myriad examples of local adaptation, the phenotypes and genetic variants underlying such adaptive differentiation are seldom known. Recent work on freezing tolerance and local adaptation in ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy provides the essential foundation for uncovering the genotype-phenotype-fitn...
Article
en Seasonal drought has been shown to greatly influence the distributions and species composition of plants in tropical rain forests. By conducting a series of field, greenhouse, and growth chamber experiments, we examined how Costus villosissimus, a forest edge species, has adapted to drought and differentiated from C. allenii, its closely related...
Article
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More than five decades ago, Ehrlich and Raven (1964) proposed a revolutionary idea–that the evolution of novel plant defense could spur adaptive radiation in plants. Despite motivating much work on plant‐herbivore coevolution and defense theory, Ehrlich and Raven never proposed a mechanism for their “escape and radiate” model. Recent intriguing pro...
Article
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The importance of genetic drift in shaping patterns of adaptive genetic variation in nature is poorly known. Genetic drift should drive partially recessive deleterious mutations to high frequency, and inter‐population crosses may therefore exhibit heterosis (increased fitness relative to intra‐population crosses). Low genetic diversity and greater...
Article
The longstanding biotic interactions hypothesis predicts that herbivore pressure declines with latitude, but the evidence is mixed. To address gaps in previous studies, we measured herbivory and defence in the same system, quantified defence with bioassays, and considered effects of leaf age. We quantified herbivory and defence of young and mature...
Article
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Local adaptation is common, but the traits and genes involved are often unknown. Physiological responses to cold probably contribute to local adaptation in wide-ranging species, but the genetic basis underlying natural variation in these traits has rarely been studied. Using a recombinant inbred (495 lines) mapping population from locally adapted p...
Article
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Flowering time is an important life history trait in plants that often affects fitness. The optimal time to flower may be influenced by trade-offs between flowering time and growth-related traits, and is thus likely to differ among habitats. Because flowering-time differences between populations can also reduce gene flow, understanding the factors...
Article
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The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for d...
Article
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Online enhancements: appendix. Dryad data: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.70sr1. abstract: The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to e...
Article
Full-text available
To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic tradeoffs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines derived...
Article
Retention of nonfunctional traits over evolutionary time is puzzling, because the cost of trait production should drive loss. Indeed, several studies have found nonfunctional traits are rapidly eliminated by selection. However, theory suggests that complex genetic interactions and a lack of genetic variance can constrain evolution, including trait...
Article
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The distribution of effect sizes of adaptive substitutions has been central to evolutionary biology since the modem synthesis. Early theory proposed that because large-effect mutations have negative pleiotropic consequences, only small-effect mutations contribute to adaptation. More recent theory suggested instead that large-effect mutations could...
Data
The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient, LDG), has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in 1) productivity, 2) time and area available for div...
Article
Full-text available
Quantifying the importance of random genetic drift in natural populations is central to understanding the potential limits to natural selection. One approach is to estimate the magnitude of heterosis, the increased fitness of progeny derived from crosses between populations relative to crosses within populations caused by the heterozygous masking o...
Article
Ecologists often view community assembly as a process involving the dispersal of species from a static regional species pool followed by environmental filtering to establish the local community. This conceptual framework ignores the dynamic nature of species pools and fails to recognize that communities are assembled by processes operating over a v...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the causes and architecture of genetic differentiation between natural populations is of central importance in evolutionary biology. Crosses between natural populations can result in heterosis if recessive or nearly recessive deleterious mutations have become fixed within populations because of genetic drift. Divergence between popula...
Article
Reciprocal transplant experiments have often provided evidence of local adaptation in temperate plants, but few such studies have been conducted in the tropics. To enhance our knowledge of local adaptation in tropical plants, we studied natural populations of two recently diverged Neotropical plant species, Costus allenii and C. villosissimus, in c...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic basis of phenotypic traits is of great interest to evolutionary biologists, but their contribution to adaptation in nature is often unknown. To determine the genetic architecture of flowering time in ecologically relevant conditions, we used a recombinant inbred line population created from two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis...
Article
Full-text available
Local adaptation, defined as higher fitness of local vs. non-local genotypes, is commonly identified in reciprocal transplant experiments. Reciprocally adapted populations display fitness trade-offs across environments, but little is known about the traits and genes underlying fitness trade-offs in reciprocally adapted populations. We investigated...
Article
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Organisms inhabiting different environments are often locally adapted, and yet despite a considerable body of theory, the genetic basis of local adaptation is poorly understood. Unanswered questions include the number and effect sizes of adaptive loci, whether locally favored loci reduce fitness elsewhere (i.e., fitness tradeoffs), and whether a la...
Article
To gain an understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation, we conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for flowering time variation between two winter annual populations of Arabidopsis thaliana that are locally adapted and display distinct flowering times. QTL mapping was performed with large (n = 384) F(2) populations with and without ve...
Article
In the United States, government-mandated growth in the production of crops dedicated to biofuel (agrofuels) is predicted to increase the demands on existing agricultural lands, potentially threatening the persistence of populations of grassland birds they support. We review recently published literature and datasets to (1) examine the ability of a...
Article
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As population modeling is increasingly called upon to guide policy and management, it is important that we understand not only the central tendencies of our study systems, but the consequences of their variation in space and time as well. The invasive plant Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is actively managed in the United States and is the focu...
Article
To quantify adaptive differentiation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for five years between two European populations, one near the northern edge of the native range (Sweden) and one near the southern edge (Italy). We planted seeds (years 1-3) and seedlings (years 4-5), and estimated fitness as...
Article
Federal mandates to increase biofuel production in North America will require large new tracts of land with potential to negatively impact biodiversity, yet empirical information to guide implementation is limited. Because the temperate grassland biome will be a production hotspot for many candidate feedstocks, production is likely to impact grassl...
Data
Fit of global models for avian community metrics in model selection analyses. The fit of generalized linear models is assessed as c-hat. A c-hat approximating 1 indicates good fit, while a value greater than 1, but less than 4 indicates moderate to severe overdispersion [76]. Fit of the global logistic regression model was assessed with a Hosmer an...
Data
Loading matrix for the first two landscape principal components at the 0.5 km scale. Landscape principal component 1 exhibited a strong positive relationship with the cover of cropland and open habitats, while landscape principal component 2 was most strongly characterized by a strong positive relationship with urbanization. (DOCX)
Data
Loading matrix for the first two landscape principal components at the 1.5 km scale. Landscape principal component 1 exhibited a strong positive relationship with forest cover and a strong negative relationship with crop cover, while landscape principal component 2 exhibited a strong negative relationship with urbanization and a positive relationsh...
Data
Correlation matrix of microhabitat vegetation structural and composition variables. Microhabitat variables describing the structure and composition of biofuel crop stands were moderately-correlated. (DOCX)
Data
Loading matrix for the first microhabitat principal component. The principal component was positively related to vertical density and percent grass cover, and negatively related to forb cover. (DOCX)
Data
Eigenvalues of the first three orthogonal microhabitat principal components extracted. (DOCX)
Data
Correlation matrix of land-use categories in landscapes surrounding focal patches at the 0.5 km scale. The percent cover of forest in landscapes surrounding biofuel crops was negatively correlated with crop cover, urbanization and open habitat types at the 0.5 km scale. (DOCX)
Data
Eigenvalues of the first four orthogonal landscape principal components extracted at the 0.5 km scale. (DOCX)
Data
Eigenvalues of the first four orthogonal landscape principal components extracted at the 1.5 km scale. (DOCX)
Data
Correlation matrix of land-use categories in landscapes surrounding focal patches at the 1.5 km scale. The percent cover of forest in landscapes surrounding biofuel crops was negatively correlated with crop cover while urban cover and open habitat types were also negatively correlated at the 1.5 km scale. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Increased production of biomass crops in North America will require new agricultural land, intensify the cultivation of land already under production and introduce new types of biomass crops. Assessing the potential biodiversity impacts of novel agricultural systems is fundamental to the maintenance of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, yet t...
Article
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Expanded production of contemporary bioenergy crops (e.g., corn) is considered a threat to the conservation of biodiversity, yet next-generation perennially based crops (switchgrass, mixed-grass–forb prairie) may represent an opportunity for enhancing biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. We employed a multi-scaled approach to investigate the re...
Article
The world's serpentine regions are known for their striking levels of endemism and the distinctive flora they possess relative to surrounding areas. Although much work has been done to catalog the plant diversity on serpentine, including taxonomic, morphological, and physiological diversity, relatively little has been done to understand the evoluti...
Article
Full-text available
When both selection and demography vary over time, how can the long-run expected strength of selection on quantitative traits be measured? There are two basic steps in the proposed new analysis: one relates trait values to fitness components, and the other relates fitness components to total fitness. We used one population projection matrix for eac...
Article
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We investigated the relative contribution of minimum residence time, growth habit, and history of invasiveness to the spread of exotic plants in Michigan and California. Our data include minimum residence time as estimated by earliest herbarium collection records, growth habit, and history of invasiveness for over 2000 records from two herbaria (MI...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Population managers are frequently faced with the challenge of selecting the most effective management strategy from a set of available strategies. In the case of classical weed biological control, this requires predicting a priori which of a group of candidate biocontrol agent species has the greatest probability of s...
Article
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hypothesis that adaptive divergence leads to speciation and to the evolution of traits and behaviors that influence the prospects for species coexistence. A key issue here is the role of character displacement in the origin and mainte- nance of diversity. Pfennig and Pfennig find substantial evidence that character displacement plays an important r...
Article
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As reflected in the title of his masterwork On the Origin of Species, Darwin proposed that adaptation is the primary mechanism of speciation. On this, Darwin was criticized for his neglect of reproductive isolation, his lack of appreciation for the role of geographic barriers, his failure to distinguish varieties from species, and his typological s...
Article
Growing demand for alternative energy sources has contributed to increased biofuel production, but the effects on biodiversity of land-use change to biofuel crops remain unclear. Using a meta-analysis for crops being used or considered in the US, we find that vertebrate diversity and abundance are generally lower in biofuel crop habitats relative t...
Article
Since Darwin published the "Origin," great progress has been made in our understanding of speciation mechanisms. The early investigations by Mayr and Dobzhansky linked Darwin's view of speciation by adaptive divergence to the evolution of reproductive isolation, and thus provided a framework for studying the origin of species. However, major contro...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Increasing demand for energy coupled with reduced oil availability has spurred increased interest in the development of biofuels as alternative fuel sources. Cellulosic ethanol production from perennial crops such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) promise greatly increased energy efficiency and enhanced ecological susta...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Polemonium is composed of animal-pollinated herbs found largely in North America. Wide phenotypic variation suggests rapid evolution of floral and vegetative morphology. However, phylogenetic relationships within Polemonium have received little attention. We present a phylogeny of Polemonium based on 1676 Amplified Fragment Length Polymor...
Article
The wild progenitors of cultivated rice, Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon, provide an experimental system for characterizing the genetic basis of adaptation. The evolution of annual O. nivara from a perennial ancestor resembling its sister species, O. rufipogon, was associated with an ecological shift from persistently wet to seasonally dry habitat...
Article
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Biotic interactions are believed to play a role in the origin and maintenance of species diversity, and multiple hypotheses link the latitudinal diversity gradient to a presumed gradient in the importance of biotic interactions. Here we address whether biotic interactions are more important at low latitudes, finding support for this hypothesis from...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of reinforcement, that is, natural selection that strengthens reproductive isolation between incipient species, remains controversial. We used two approaches to test for reinforcement in a species radiation of Neotropical gingers in the genus Costus. First, we conducted an intensive study of Costus pulverulentus and Costus scaber, tw...
Article
Every species occupies a restricted geographic distribution, but it is unclear why natural selection at the range margin fails to increase tolerance to limiting environmental variables and thereby allow continual range expansion. Models indicate that the interplay of demographic asymmetries, dispersal, divergent natural selection, and adaptive trad...
Article
Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that contribute to the local genetic differentiation of populations is a major goal of evolutionary biology, and debate continues regarding the relative importance of natural selection and random genetic drift to population differentiation. The desert plant Linanthus parryae has played a prominent role in t...
Article
A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The time and area hypothesis holds that tropical climates are older and historically larger, allowing more opport...
Article
We propose research to fill key gaps in the areas of population and community ecology, based on a National Science Foundation workshop identifying funding priorities for the next 5-10 years. Our vision for the near future of ecology focuses on three core areas: predicting the strength and context-dependence of species interactions across multiple s...
Article
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Many species comprise multiple cytotypes that represent autopolyploids, or presumed autopolyploids, of the basic diploid cytotype. However, rarely has an autopolyploid been formally named and considered to represent a species distinct from its diploid progenitor (Zea diploperennis and Z. perennis represent a rare example). The major reasons why aut...
Article
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We estimate phylogenetic relationships and the biogeographic and pollination history of Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae) using sequence data from the internal and external transcribed spacer (ITS and ETS) regions of 18S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA. The African members of the subgenus form a series of lineages basal to a monophyletic neotropical spe...
Article
Every species occupies a limited geographic area, but it remains unclear why traits that limit distribution do not evolve to allow range expansion. Hypotheses for the evolutionary stability of geographic ranges assume that species are maladapted at the range boundary and unfit beyond the current range, but this assumption has rarely been tested. To...