Douglas Kell

Douglas Kell
University of Liverpool | UoL · Biochemistry and Cell Biology

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845
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Publications

Publications (845)
Article
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Background Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), also now known as long COVID, has become a major global health and economic burden. Previously, we provided evidence that there is a significant insoluble fibrin amyloid microclot load in the circulation of individuals with long COVID, and that these microclots entrap a substantial number of inflam...
Article
Full-text available
Ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury, initiated via bursts of reactive oxygen species produced during the reoxygenation phase following hypoxia, is well known in a variety of acute circumstances. We argue here that I-R injury also underpins elements of the pathology of a variety of chronic, inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, ME/CF...
Article
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Tuberculosis (TB) claims nearly 1.5 million lives annually. Current TB treatment requires a combination of several drugs administered for at least 6 months. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB, can persist in infected humans and animals for decades. Moreover, during infection, Mtb produces differentially culturable bacteria...
Article
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Antibiotic resistance is a major global healthcare issue. Antibiotic compounds cross the bacterial cell membrane via membrane transporters, and a major mechanism of antibiotic resistance is through modification of the membrane transporters to increase the efflux or reduce the influx of antibiotics. Targeting these transporters is a potential avenue...
Preprint
Full-text available
Earlier variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been associated with plasma hypercoagulability (as judged by thromboelastography) and an extensive formation of fibrin amyloid microclots, which are considered to contribute to the pathology of the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19). The newer Omicron variants appear to be far more transmissible, but less virule...
Article
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Background Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of Long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/PAS...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously demonstrated that platelet-poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state and contains hyperactivated platelets and considerable numbers of already-formed amyloid fibrin(ogen) or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to the substantial overlap in s...
Preprint
We have previously demonstrated that platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with LongCovid/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state reflected in hyperactivated platelets and the presence of considerable numbers of fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to substantial overl...
Preprint
We have previously demonstrated that platelet poor plasma (PPP) obtained from patients with LongCovid/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is characterized by a hypercoagulable state reflected in hyperactivated platelets and the presence of considerable numbers of fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots or fibrinaloid microclots. Due to substantial overl...
Article
Full-text available
Transporter discovery and engineering play an important role in cell factory development. Decreasing the intracellular concentration of the product reduces product inhibition and/or toxicity. Lowering intracellular concentrations is especially beneficial for achieving a robust strain at high titers. However, the identification of transporters for x...
Article
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Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, global governing bodies prioritized transmissibility-based precautions and hospital capacity as the foundation for delay of elective procedures. As elective surgical volumes increased, convalescent COVID-19 patients faced increased postoperative morbidity and mortality and clinicians had li...
Article
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Membrane transport proteins are potential targets for medical and biotechnological applications. However, more than 30% of reported membrane transporter families are either poorly characterized or lack adequate functional annotation. Here, adaptive laboratory evolution was leveraged to identify membrane transporters for a set of four amino acids as...
Article
Full-text available
Post-acute sequelae of COVID (PASC), usually referred to as 'Long COVID' (a phenotype of COVID-19), is a relatively frequent consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in which symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, 'brain fog', tissue damage, inflammation, and coagulopathies (dysfunctions of the blood coagulation system) persist long after the initia...
Article
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main structural component of the outer membrane of most Gram-negative bacteria and has diverse immunostimulatory and procoagulant effects. Even though LPS is well described for its role in the pathology of sepsis, considerable evidence demonstrates that LPS-induced signalling and immune dysregulation are also relevan...
Article
Ergothioneine (ERG) is an unusual sulfur-containing amino acid. It is a potent antioxidant, which shows great potential for ameliorating neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. L-ergothioneine is rare in nature, with mushrooms being the primary dietary source. The chemical synthesis process is complex and expensive. Alternatively, ERG can be...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The diagnosis of COVID-19 is normally based on the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acid sequences. Properties of the host response are not measured but are key in determining outcome. Although metabolic profiles are well suited to capture host state, most metabolomics studies are either underpowered, measure only a restricted su...
Chapter
Directed evolution of proteins is a highly effective strategy for tailoring biocatalysts to a particular application, and is capable of engineering improvements such as kcat, thermostability and organic solvent tolerance. It is recognized that large and systematic libraries are required to navigate a protein's vast and rugged sequence landscape eff...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is study of microclots in long-COVID patients, including treatment thereof, and a data-driven correlation of comorbidities with long-COVID symptoms. This is a corrected version. The preprint original is also at: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1205453/v1
Preprint
Full-text available
We recognise that fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation, that we have previously observed in COVID-19 and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) patients, might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of long COVID/PASC. We first report on the comorbidities and symptoms found in a coh...
Preprint
Background : Fibrin(ogen) amyloid microclots and platelet hyperactivation previously reported as a novel finding in South African patients with the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) and Long COVID/Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), might form a suitable set of foci for the clinical treatment of the symptoms of long COVID/PASC. A Long COVID/P...
Article
Full-text available
The ‘inverse problem’ of mass spectrometric molecular identification (‘given a mass spectrum, calculate/predict the 2D structure of the molecule whence it came’) is largely unsolved, and is especially acute in metabolomics where many small molecules remain unidentified. This is largely because the number of experimentally available electrospray mas...
Article
Full-text available
Ergothioneine is a naturally occurring antioxidant that has shown potential in ameliorating neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential of the Crabtree‐negative, oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica as an alternative host for ergothioneine production. We expressed the biosynthetic enzymes EGT1 from Ne...
Article
Full-text available
An important component of severe COVID-19 disease is virus-induced endothelilitis. This leads to disruption of normal endothelial function, initiating a state of failing normal clotting physiology. Massively increased levels of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) lead to overwhelming platelet activation, as well as activation of the enzymatic (intrinsic) c...
Article
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Optimising the function of a protein of length N amino acids by directed evolution involves navigating a ‘search space’ of possible sequences of some 20N. Optimising the expression levels of P proteins that materially affect host performance, each of which might also take 20 (logarithmically spaced) values, implies a similar search space of 20P. In...
Article
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Pyrithione (2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide) is a metal binding modified pyridine, the antibacterial activity of which was described over 60 years ago. The formulation of zinc-pyrithione is commonly used in the topical treatment of certain dermatological conditions. However, the characterisation of the cellular uptake of pyrithione has not been elucidat...
Article
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Over the years, my colleagues and I have come to realise that the likelihood of pharmaceutical drugs being able to diffuse through whatever unhindered phospholipid bilayer may exist in intact biological membranes in vivo is vanishingly low. This is because (i) most real biomembranes are mostly protein, not lipid, (ii) unlike purely lipid bilayers t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in p...
Article
In this study, we used stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) microscopy to collect Raman signatures from live Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in the spectral range 2804-3060 cm⁻¹ and 830-2000 cm⁻¹ with a spectral resolution of 8 cm⁻¹. To effect this, we tuned the pump beam to several distinct wavelengths and thus acquired a series of chemical maps in...
Article
Full-text available
The solute carrier (SLC) superfamily represents the biggest family of transporters with important roles in health and disease. Despite being attractive and druggable targets, the majority of SLCs remains understudied. One major hurdle in research on SLCs is the lack of tools, such as cell-based assays to investigate their biological role and for dr...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) -induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S...
Preprint
Full-text available
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (SARS-Cov-2) has caused a worldwide, sudden and substantial increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia with multiorgan problems. An important issue is also that there is still no unified standard for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Substantial vascular events are significant accompaniments to lung co...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ′inverse problem′ of mass spectrometric molecular identification (′given a mass spectrum, calculate the molecule whence it came′) is largely unsolved, and is especially acute in metabolomics where many small molecules remain unidentified. This is largely because the number of experimentally available electrospray mass spectra of small molecules...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in p...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal secondary metabolites (FSMs) represent a remarkable array of bioactive compounds, with potential applications as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, these molecules are typically produced only in limited amounts by their native hosts. The native organisms may also be difficult to cultivate and genetically engineer, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by acute clinical pathologies, including various coagulopathies that may be accompanied by hypercoagulation and platelet hyperactivation. Recently, a new COVID-19 phenotype has been noted in patients aft...
Article
Full-text available
The question of molecular similarity is core in cheminformatics and is usually assessed via a pairwise comparison based on vectors of properties or molecular fingerprints. We recently exploited variational autoencoders to embed 6M molecules in a chemical space, such that their (Euclidean) distance within the latent space so formed could be assessed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) -induced infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is characterized by unprecedented clinical pathologies. One of the most important pathologies, is hypercoagulation and microclots in the lungs of patients. Here we study the effect of isolated SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S...
Article
Full-text available
Our previous work demonstrated that two commonly used fluorescent dyes that were accumulated by wild-type Escherichia coli MG1655 were differentially transported in single-gene knockout strains, and also that they might be used as surrogates in flow cytometric transporter assays. We summarize the desirable properties of such stains, and here survey...
Article
Full-text available
Neuronal lesions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced cell damage that are present both in the central and peripheral nervous systems of patients, with the enteric nervous system also being especially vulnerable. Here, we bring together evidence that the development and presence of PD depends on speci...
Preprint
Full-text available
The diagnosis of COVID-19 is normally based on the qualitative detection of viral nucleic acid sequences. Properties of the host response are not measured but are key in determining outcome. Although metabolic profiles are well suited to capture host state, existing metabolomics studies are either underpowered, measure only a restricted subset of m...
Article
Full-text available
The number of ‘small’ molecules that may be of interest to chemical biologists — chemical space — is enormous, but the fraction that have ever been made is tiny. Most strategies are discriminative, i.e. have involved ‘forward’ problems (have molecule, establish properties). However, we normally wish to solve the much harder generative or inverse pr...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The risk of cardiovascular events in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is disproportionately heightened as a result of systemic inflammation. The relative effect of autoimmune-associated citrullination on the structure and thrombotic potential of fibrin(ogen) remains unknown. We therefore compared indices of vascular function, inflammati...
Article
Full-text available
It is known that at least some fluorophores can act as ‘surrogate’ substrates for solute carriers (SLCs) involved in pharmaceutical drug uptake, and this promiscuity is taken to reflect at least a certain structural similarity. As part of a comprehensive study seeking the ‘natural’ substrates of ‘orphan’ transporters that also serve to take up phar...
Article
Full-text available
Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharynge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuronal lesions in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly associated with α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced cell damage that are present both in the central and peripheral nervous systems of patients, with the enteric nervous system also being especially vulnerable. Here we bring together evidence that the development and presence of PD depends on specif...
Article
Full-text available
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major subgingival plaque bacterium in periodontitis, has recently attracted much attention as a possible microbial driver in Alzheimer's disease. In the present paper, another common neuroinflammatory disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), is discussed. A recent study found major virulence factors of P. gingivalis such as gi...
Article
Full-text available
Progressive respiratory failure is seen as a major cause of death in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-induced infection. Relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the circulation of these patients. In particular, platelet and erythrocyte pathology might result in severe vascular...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: It is widely but erroneously believed that drugs get into cells by passing through the phospholipid bilayer portion of the plasma and other membranes. Much evidence shows, however, that this is not the case, and that drugs cross biomembranes by hitchhiking on transporters for other natural molecules to which these drugs are structura...
Article
Full-text available
We address the problem of generating novel molecules with desired interaction properties as a multi-objective optimization problem. Interaction binding models are learned from binding data using graph convolution networks (GCNs). Since the experimentally obtained property scores are recognised as having potentially gross errors, we adopted a robust...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharynge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known comorbidity to COVID-19 and coagulopathies are a common accompaniment to both T2DM and COVID-19. In addition, patients with COVID-19 are known to develop micro-clots within the lungs. The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyng...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Systems biology has experienced dramatic growth in the number, size, and complexity of computational models. To reproduce simulation results and reuse models, researchers must exchange unambiguous model descriptions. We review the latest edition of the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML), a format designed for this purpose. A community...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rapid detection of COVID-19 uses genotypic testing for the presence of SARS-Cov-2 virus in nasopharyngeal swabs, but it can have a poor sensitivity. A rapid, host-based physiological test that indicated whether the individual was infected or not would be highly desirable. Coagulaopathies are a common accompaniment to COVID-19, especially micro-...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular similarity is an elusive but core “unsupervised” cheminformatics concept, yet different “fingerprint” encodings of molecular structures return very different similarity values, even when using the same similarity metric. Each encoding may be of value when applied to other problems with objective or target functions, implying that a priori...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection, is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompanim...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection is strongly associated with various coagulopathies that may result in either bleeding and thrombocytopenia or hypercoagulation and thrombosis. Thrombotic and bleeding or thrombotic pathologies are significant accompaniments to acute r...