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Douglas A Granger

Douglas A Granger
UC Irvine; Johns Hopkins University · Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research

PhD

About

396
Publications
93,538
Reads
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17,786
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Granger is engaged in multi-institution international research (ABCD, ECHO, SERONET, AProN, WASH Benefits Bangladesh, Harlem Longitundinal Development Study) and is focused on discovery, measurement, and application of enzymes, hormones, antibodies, chemicals, cytokines in oral fluids. Emeritus Professor at UC Irvine, adjunct Professor at Johns Hopkins University, Founder of Salimetrics LLC, Co-Founder of Salivabio LLC, and is Chief Scientific and Strategy Advisor at these companies.
Additional affiliations
November 2020 - present
University of California at Irvine
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
May 2016 - October 2020
University of California, Irvine
Position
  • Chancellors Professor (Full)
May 2016 - present
Johns Hopkins University
Position
  • Adjunct Professor (Full)
Education
September 1992 - June 1994
University of California, Los Angeles
Field of study
  • Psychoneuroimmunology
June 1990 - August 1992
University of California, Los Angeles
Field of study
  • Developmental Psychopathology
September 1984 - June 1990
University of California, Irvine
Field of study
  • Psychology and Social Behavior

Publications

Publications (396)
Article
Despite the integration of salivary inflammatory cytokines into research across the biobehavioral, psychological, clinical, and health-related disciplines, there is little guidance regarding the biospecimen collection, handling, and storage practices that maximize the quality and validity of salivary cytokine data. Furthermore, associations between...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In recent decades, the integration of salivary bioscience and psychological science has had a profound impact on our understanding of the interactions between the psychological, social, and physiological factors of health (e.g., Hoyt & Zimmerman, 2020). In addition to its relevance to a wide range of research topics within psychological science—fro...
Chapter
Full-text available
Saliva contains pathogen-specific antibodies that can provide quantitative information on the type and temporality of infection. As such, saliva as a biospecimen can be used to noninvasively assess seroconversion to infectious pathogens in the clinical setting as well as for epidemiological surveillance, improving understanding of the epidemiology...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of salivary biomeasures in biobehavioral, psychophysiological, and clinical research has greatly expanded our ability to study the biopsychosocial processes underlying health. Much of this research, however, has failed to adequately assess and adjust for the impact of oral immune activity on salivary biomeasure concentrations and as...
Preprint
Inflammatory responses play key roles in the development and progression of many pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative conditions. Accurate quantification of inflammatory factors in saliva would be highly advantageous, given its convenience and non-invasive nature, enabling use as biomarkers for disease processes especially in older...
Article
In October 2020, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was established to study the immune response to COVID-19, and "to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological testing and associated technologies" (https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/covid-19/coronavirus-research-initiatives/serologica...
Article
Extremely preterm (EPT) birth has been related to dysregulation of stress responses and behavioral/learning problems at school age. Early adverse experiences can blunt HPA axis reactivity. We hypothesized that an attenuated cortisol awakening response would be associated with developmental and behavioral problems at school age in EPT children. This...
Article
Background: Global efforts are needed to elucidate the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including seroprevalence, risk factors, and long-term sequelae, as well as immune responses after vaccination across populations and the social dimensions...
Article
Full-text available
Background While support from family caregivers is essential in the care of patients with heart failure (HF), caregiving places a considerable burden on family caregivers. We examined the preliminary effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for caregivers of individuals with HF. Methods In this pilot randomized controlled trial, patients with...
Article
Full-text available
Blood-based biomarkers of brain injury may be useful for monitoring brain health in athletes at risk for concussions. Two putative biomarkers of sport-related concussion, neurofilament light (NfL), an axonal structural protein, and S100 calcium-binding protein beta (S100B), an astrocyte-derived protein, were measured in saliva, a biofluid which can...
Article
Full-text available
Uric acid levels during pregnancy have been examined as a potential indicator of risk for gestational diabetes mellites, hypertension, and related adverse birth outcomes. However, evidence supporting the utility of serum uric acid levels in predicting poor maternal and fetal health has been mixed. The lack of consistent findings may be due to limit...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental enrichment can be used to improve the welfare of dolphins in zoos and aquariums. Bottlenose dolphins under professional care are typically provided with a range of enrichment that has a variety of features and levels of complexity at various frequencies. In the present study, a subset of data from a larger study entitled “Towards unde...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research is documenting how racial and ethnic populations embody social inequalities throughout the life course. Some scholars recommend the integration of biospecimens representing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neurological and endocrinological processes, and inflammation to capture the embodiment of inequality. Howeve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Importance: A regulated stress response is essential for healthy trajectories, but the integrated effects of early childhood environmental and nutritional interventions on stress physiology are unknown. Objective: To assess the effects of a combined nutritional, water, sanitation, and handwashing intervention on physiological stress response, oxida...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To determine if low resting basal AM cortisol and flat diurnal cortisol slope that has been reported in female abuse victims, which is dysregulated in the same way in female violent perpetrators, could be corrected and if healthier diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with less aggression in adult female victims. Design and methods...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The narrow therapeutic window of lithium medications necessitates frequent serum monitoring, which can be expensive and inconvenient for the patient. Compared to blood, saliva collection is easier, non-invasive, requires less processing, and can be done without the need for trained personnel. This study investigated the utility of longitu...
Article
Full-text available
The way an animal uses its habitat can serve as an indicator of habitat appropriateness for the species and individuals. Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus and Tursiops aduncus ) in accredited zoos and aquariums experience a range of habitat types and management programs that provide opportunities for dolphins to engage in species-appropriate...
Article
Full-text available
Accredited zoological facilities are committed to fully understanding the behavioral, mental, and physical needs of each species to continuously improve the welfare of the animals under their professional care and detect when welfare has diminished. In order to accomplish this goal, internally consistent and externally valid indicators of animal we...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports comprehensive clinical pathology data for hematology, serum, and plasma biochemistry reference intervals for 174 apparently healthy common bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) and reference values for 27 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus ), 13 beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ), and 6 Pacific white-si...
Article
Full-text available
Bottlenose dolphins are a behaviorally complex, social species that display a variety of social behaviors. Because of this, it is important for zoological facilities to strive to ensure animals display species-appropriate levels of social behavior. The current study is part of the multi-institutional study entitled “Towards understanding the welfar...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, animal welfare science has evolved to utilize a multidisciplinary approach to assess the welfare of animals in accredited zoos and aquariums. Science-based animal welfare assessments have become an essential component of management programs and widespread application is expected by animal care professionals. Management practices...
Article
Full-text available
High-resolution non-invasive cetacean tagging systems can be used to investigate the influence of habitat characteristics and management factors on behavior by quantifying activity levels and distance traveled by bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus and Tursiops aduncus ) in accredited zoos and aquariums. Movement Tags (MTags), a bio-logging de...
Article
Full-text available
Accredited zoos and aquariums continually strive to ensure high levels of animal welfare for the animals under their professional care. Best management practices include conducting research to better understand factors that lead to optimal welfare and then turning findings into practice. The current study is part of the larger Cetacean Welfare Stud...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the current study was to create reference intervals and values for several common and one potential novel physiological indicators of animal welfare for four species of cetaceans. The subjects included 189 bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ), 27 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus ), eight Pacific white-sided dolp...
Article
Full-text available
Cetaceans are long-lived, social species that are valued as ambassadors inspiring the public to engage in conservation action. Under professional care, they are critical partners with the scientific community to understanding the biology, behavior, physiology, health, and welfare requirements of this taxonomic group. The Cetacean Welfare Study was...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals who have experienced repeat sexual violence victimization face adverse mental and physical health outcomes, including immune and stress response functioning. We aim to further understand repeat sexual violence victimization to develop responsive and appropriate treatment for survivors of sexual violence. Methods We present t...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Determine the effects of animal assisted interactions (AAI) on activity and stress response in pediatric acute care settings. Design Randomized treatment control design. Setting Inpatient pediatric acute care units (PICU, CVICU and Hematology/Oncology). Patients Eighty pediatric inpatients (49% male) age 2–19 years. Intervention The A...
Article
Background: There is increased risk of cardiovascular, metabolic, and hypertensive disorders in later life in the preterm population. We studied school-age children who had been born extremely premature who had undergone endocrine, cardiovascular, and anthropometric evaluations. Methods: School age measurements of salivary cortisol, adrenal andr...
Article
Full-text available
Left censoring in salivary bioscience data occurs when salivary analyte determinations fall below the lower limit of an assay’s measurement range. Conventional statistical approaches for addressing censored values (i.e., recoding as missing, substituting or extrapolating values) may introduce systematic bias. While specialized censored data statist...
Preprint
Full-text available
The narrow therapeutic window of lithium medications necessitates frequent serum monitoring, which can be expensive and inconvenient for the patient. The use of saliva as a biofluid may have advantages over blood, as it is non-invasive, easier to collect, requires less processing, and can be collected without the need for trained personnel. This st...
Article
Best practice standards for measuring analyte levels in saliva recommend that all biospecimens be tested in replicate with mean concentrations used in statistical analyses. This approach prioritizes minimizing laboratory-based measurement error but, in the process, expends considerable resources. We explore the possibility that, due to advances in...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To examine individual variability between perceived physical features and hormones of pubertal maturation in 9–10-year-old children as a function of sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Cross-sectional metrics of puberty were utilized from the baseline assessment of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study—a multi-site samp...
Article
The prefrontal cortex and limbic system are important components of the neural circuit that underlies stress and anxiety. These brain regions are connected by white matter tracts that support neural communication including the cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, and the fornix/stria-terminalis. Determining the relationship between stress reactivity and...
Article
Full-text available
As ecosystems that support human health, societies, and civilization change in the era of the Anthropocene, individuals with disproportionate balance of salivary hormones may be at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Vulnerable communities, in particular, are overburdened by inequities in features of built environments linked to health dispar...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of an ongoing pandemic that has infected over 36 million and killed over 1 million people. Informed implementation of government public health policies depends on accurate data on SARS-CoV-2 immunity at population scale. We hypothesized that detection of SARS-CoV-2 salivary antibodies could serve as a non-invasive alternativ...
Preprint
Peer rejection and acceptance experiences are commonplace with potential to promote emotional and adrenocortical stress reactivity. Risk for heightened stress reactivity during these social challenges may be influenced by individual differences in social interaction anxiety (SIA) and the common gene variant, OXTR rs53576, but this relationship rema...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence suggests that inflammatory responses, in both the brain and peripheral tissues, contribute to disease pathology in Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting adults in their 30-40 s. Hence, studies of inflammation-related markers in peripheral fluids might be useful to better...
Article
Full-text available
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects more than 80% of the global population. While mostly asymptomatic, HCMV infection can be serious among the immunocompromised, and it is implicated in chronic disease pathophysiology in adulthood. Large-scale minimally invasive HCMV screening could advance research and public health efforts to monitor infection p...
Article
Perceived racial discrimination is linked to unhealthy behaviors and stress‐related morbidities. A compelling body of research indicates that perceived racial discrimination may contribute to health disparities among African Americans (AAs). The purposes of this study were to describe the study protocol including data collection procedures and stud...
Article
Currently there are mixed results regarding the ability for media or more specifically video to increase a person's interest in conservation. However, there is a growing amount of evidence that in‐person experiences at a zoo or aquarium can increase a person's interest in conservation. The goal of the current study was to examine the difference bet...
Article
Full-text available
Background: MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS) is a rare X-linked genomic disorder primarily affecting males which is caused by interstitial chromosomal duplications at Xq28 encompassing the MECP2 gene. Core clinical features of MDS include choreiform movements, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections, developmental delays in the fi...
Article
This study tests the within-person coordination of HPA and ANS activity in response to stress and examines for the first time the association between such coordination and behavior problems in minority urban children. Participants, ages 11-12 (N = 419; 50% male; 80% African American) completed the Youth Self Report for externalizing and internalizi...
Preprint
The current investigation considered salivary testosterone as a potential biomarker of physical child abuse risk. Parents enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multimethod study beginning prenatally provided saliva when their toddlers were 18 months old. Mothers and fathers self-reported on their empathy, frustration tolerance, and child abuse r...
Article
The current investigation considered salivary testosterone as a potential biomarker of physical child abuse risk. Parents enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, multimethod study beginning prenatally provided saliva when their toddlers were 18 months old. Mothers and fathers self-reported on their empathy, frustration tolerance, and child abuse r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Non-invasive SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is urgently needed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at the general population level. Precise knowledge of population immunity could allow government bodies to make informed decisions about how and when to relax stay-at-home directives and to reopen the economy. We hypothesized...
Article
Behavioral medicine research from across the globe has been catalyzed by the quest to understand the interactions between psychological, social, and physiological factors underlying disparities in human health. A more complete biopsychosocial model increasingly integrates advanced clinical and laboratory assessments of relevant environmental chemic...
Article
Background The study examined the association between prenatal tobacco or co-exposure to tobacco and cannabis and children’s cortisol reactivity at kindergarten age and the role of child sex, maternal negative mood (depression/perceived stress), and parenting behavior during play interactions as moderators of this association.Methods The sample was...
Chapter
This chapter reviews common practices, identifies special considerations, and recommends best practices for saliva specimen collection methods employed in interdisciplinary salivary bioscience research. We discuss the practical aspects of collecting saliva samples across a variety of research applications, considerations for target populations, env...
Chapter
There has been a remarkable evolution of salivary bioscience research from a narrow focus on basic oral biology and clinical dental research to applications across the spectrum of health. As summarized in this edited volume, the number of analytes available to be assayed in oral fluid specimens has expanded to the degree that we list them by catego...
Chapter
History reveals that advances in our scientific understanding often accelerate after technological innovations improve upon our ability to observe and measure phenomenon more precisely (e.g., Kuhn, 1962). Also, more often than not, big leaps in knowledge are the result of the collective effort of teams of collaborating investigators rather than by...
Article
Objective This study aimed to identify obesity trajectories from childhood to adolescence (2‐15 years of age) and investigate differences in behavioral, eating, and adrenocortical regulation by trajectory membership. Methods A total of 1,077 households from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). Uric acid (UA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is present in the brain and periphery. Growing evidence has implicated UA as a molecular biomarker for several neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Parkinson’s disease (PD). In t...
Article
Full-text available
Specific sources of psychophysiological dysfunction have been identified as a primary mechanism of the association between stress and health, wherein chronic and prolonged exposure to stressors results in downstream negative consequences of stress-linked dysregulation that increase the likelihood of chronic health problems. Factors pertinent to cri...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The relationship between sexual violence and HIV risk has been extensively documented through social and behavioral research; by contrast, the explanatory underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE The purpose of the THRIVE Study is to examine the impact of sexual trauma on HIV susceptibility through dysregulation...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The relationship between sexual violence and HIV risk has been extensively documented through social and behavioral research; by contrast, the explanatory underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. Objective: The purpose of the THRIVE Study is to examine the impact of sexual trauma due to sexual violence on HIV susceptib...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines how loneliness and the body’s stress response system interact to regulate social connections. We suggest that the drive to reconnect signaled by loneliness can be accompanied physiologically by the production of cortisol, which can offer supportive coping resources. Thus, we investigated how loneliness, cortisol levels, and thei...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive interpretations of stressful events impact their implications for physiological stress processes. However, whether such interpretations are related to trait cortisol—an indicator of individual differences in stress physiology—is unknown. In 112 early adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years), this study examined the association between self-...
Book
This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the emerging field of interdisciplinary salivary bioscience. It serves as a foundational reference guide to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of salivary data, as well as its myriad applications in medicine, surveillance and public health. The ease and non-invasive nature of saliva c...