Douglas P. Fry

Douglas P. Fry
University of North Carolina at Greensboro | UNCG · Department of Peace and Conflict Studies

PhD

About

129
Publications
67,592
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Introduction
Douglas P. Fry is Professor and Chair of the Department of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Fry earned his doctorate in anthropology from Indiana University in 1986. He has written extensively on aggression, conflict resolution, and war and peace. With Geneviève Souillac he is currently researching how clusters of neighboring societies, peace systems, manage to live without war.
Additional affiliations
August 1995 - April 2014
Åbo Akademi University
Position
  • Director of Peace, Mediation, and Conflit Research/ Docent
August 1990 - January 1996
Eckerd College
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
December 1986 - June 1990
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Resarch Associate & Fieldwork Coordinator
Education
August 1976 - March 1986
Indiana University Bloomington
Field of study
  • Anthropology

Publications

Publications (129)
Presentation
8.25 min Film. Synopsis: Many people think, “There always has been war and there always will be war.” But scientific evidence shows that some societies have successfully shunned war by creating peace systems. Peace systems are clusters of neighboring societies that do not make war with each other. Global challenges such as climate change, loss of...
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To date, there has been no systematic examination of cross-cultural differences in group-based shame, guilt and regret following wrongdoing. Using a community sample (N = 1,358), we examined people's reported experiences of shame, guilt, and regret following transgressions by themselves and by different identity groups (i.e., family, community, cou...
Chapter
We will start with the question: Why is indigenous peacemaking important? This chapter explores five answers to this question. First, a culturally comparative vantage point that includes indigenous peacemaking can contribute to an understanding of general peacemaking principles.
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Could humans transform our current international system into a global peace system where wars become unthinkable, nuclear weapons become relics of a foolish past, conflicts are dealt with through the force of law rather than the law of force, and humans worldwide cooperate to assure their continued existence? Why would humanity not strive to create...
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A comparative anthropological perspective reveals not only that some human societies do not engage in war, but also that peaceful social systems exist. Peace systems are defined as clusters of neighbouring societies that do not make war with each other. The mere existence of peace systems is important because it demonstrates that creating peaceful...
Article
Despite good faith attempts by countless citizens, civil society, governments, and the international community, living in a sustainably peaceful community continues to be an elusive dream in much of our world. Among the challenges to sustaining peace is the fact that few scholars have studied enduringly peaceful societies, or have examined only nar...
Article
We wish to thank the authors for their thought-provoking article. Whether considering the researchers' assessments of specific controversies or the more general items on the survey, we think that the main take away message is the need for serious self-reflection within our discipline.
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Polly Wiessner breaks new ground in several ways. Her integrative analysis goes beyond the typical one-sided scholarly focus on war with scant attention paid to peace. Bucking this trend, Wiessner takes peacemaking processes seriously and, beyond that, provides an integrative analysis of war and peace among the Enga.
Article
Nam C. Kim & Marc Kissel. 2018. Emergent warfare in our evolutionary past. New York: Routledge; 978-1-62958-267-2 paperback £32.99. - Douglas P. Fry
Chapter
Our modern era inherits a longstanding legacy of beliefs about human nature in relation to war and peace. A classic view of human nature, at least as old as Greek civilization, portrays war as intrinsic to humanity. Although of dubious validity, this classic view today still holds considerable sway in science and society, art and religion, and poli...
Book
Nurturing Our Humanity sheds new light on our personal and social options in today’s world, showing how we can build societies that support our great human capacities for consciousness, caring, and creativity. It brings together findings—largely overlooked—from the natural and social sciences debunking the popular idea that we are hardwired for sel...
Chapter
There are indications that a new paradigm is emerging that acknowledges the importance of cooperation, restrained aggression, and the evolutionary logic of peaceful behavior. The new perspective challenges a traditional violence‐laden view of humanity—of which the “chimpanzee model” is but one example. The new paradigm recognizes the central role o...
Article
It is not as difficult to prevent and reduce violence as commonly assumed. The examination of peaceful societies and nonviolent social movements provides insight on how core values and norms like humility, respect for others, love and caring, forgiveness, and patience are fundamental in promoting peace. Additionally, nonviolent attitudes actualized...
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This article focuses on what nomadic forager research suggests about human nature and examines how this ancestral form of human social organization is fundamentally partnership-oriented. Taking mobile forager social organization into consideration is important to partnership studies because all humanity lived as mobile foragers until very recently....
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This essay, which introduces the fifth installment of the Common Knowledge symposium “Peace by Other Means,” explores four ethnographically observed areas in which indigenous knowledge and practice hold insights for the prevention and reduction of enmity in the modern world. The four, very broadly, are values and norms (such as recoil from competit...
Chapter
Anthropologists have been slow to focus explicitly on peace. At the same time, anthropology provides a great deal of data that is highly relevant to understanding peace. Ironically, writers from other disciplines have raided anthropology for information and insights but have not always been true to the accepted canons of science and scholarship in...
Article
Although exceptions exist, war is usually differentiated from feuding within anthropology. A useful definition of war is specific enough to differentiate warfare from nonlethal brawls, single homicides, and kin-based feuding. Cross-cultural surveys show that a majority of societies practice warfare or feuding. At the same time, nonwarring societies...
Preprint
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Rationale: A lack of consensus on the conceptualization and definition of peace and the conditions associated with its sustainability has adverse implications for research, policy and practice. This study aims to initiate an interdisciplinary dialogue that can serve to synthetize the core definitions and key elements associated with sustainable pea...
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This chapter examines the concept of peace from a biopsychosocial perspective. It reviews available knowledge concerning gene-environment regulatory interactions and their consequences for neurodevelopment, particularly during sensitive periods early in life. The hypothesis is explored that efforts on the part of parents to protect, nurture, and st...
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Dangerous Tribes - ChagnonNapoleon A., Noble Savages. My Life Among Two Dangerous Tribes—The Yanomamö and the Anthropologists (New York, Simon & Schuster, 2013) - Volume 54 Issue 3 - Douglas P. Fry
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Social identity is not only an obstacle to peace; it can also be engaged to advance peace (e.g., when children are raised to develop multiple and cross-cutting forms of identification). This chapter considers evidence that nomadic forager band social organization is not particularly conducive to the formation of hostile "us versus them" social iden...
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critique several studies that claim to show that nomadic foragers engage in high levels of inter-group aggression. This is done through exploring four myths: nomadic foragers are warlike; there was a high rate of war mortality in the Pleistocene; the nomadic forager data support the “chimpanzee model” of le...
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Moral foundations theory (MFT) proposes the existence of innate psychological systems, which would have been subjected to selective forces over the course of evolution. One approach for evaluating MFT, therefore, is to consider the proposed psychological foundations in relation to the reconstructed Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. This stud...
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It has been argued that warfare evolved as a component of early human behavior within foraging band societies. We investigated lethal aggression in a sample of 21 mobile forager band societies (MFBS) derived systematically from the standard cross-cultural sample. We hypothesized, on the basis of mobile forager ethnography, that most lethal events w...
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The three books under review reflect a recent up-swelling of interest in the cooperative and prosocial capacities of humankind. Nowak (2011) considers cooperation to be the hallmark of the human species and accounts for this remarkable capacity through multiple evolutionary mechanisms. Sahlins (2008) maintains that it is high time to throw off a ho...
Article
An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different co...
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In this chapter we explore how the Culture of Peace can be and in some cases is being actualized. First, noting that the United Nations resolutions on a Culture of Peace call for shifts in values, attitudes, and behaviors, we give attention to values that are supportive of peaceful attitudes and behavior. Second, we consider the nature and flexibil...
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There is an oft-voiced proposition within evolutionary psychology that over the course of evolutionary time, natural selection favored human males who have killed over those men who have not. The implication is that killing has been favorably selected as a fitness enhancing strategy. Interestingly, the impetus for this proposition in large part ste...
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Peace is much more than simply the absence of war. This so-called negative peace concept has been supplanted with more holistic and inclusive conceptions of positive peace that include such features as human rights, sustainable development, and access to justice. At a UNESCO congress in 1989, the idea of promoting a Culture of Peace that could prov...
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Smith (2007:81) asserts that “We’ve inherited our warlike nature from prehistoric bands that were able to kill their neighbors and acquire their resources. These groups flourished while the pacifists withered on the evolutionary vine.” In a similar vein, Alexander (1979:222, 223) speculates that “At some early point in our history the actual functi...
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Schwartz’s model of basic human values conceptualizes self-enhancing and selftranscendence as opposing value dimensions. Self-enhancing values include striving for power and achievement; hence, they are individual-centric, whereas self-transcendence values include benevolence and universalism, which pertain to a concern for other people and society...
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Cross-cultural studies show that most, but not all, human societies engage in warfare. Some non-warring societies cluster as peace systems. The existence of peace systems, and non-warring societies more generally, shows that warfare is not an inevitable feature of human social life. This article considers three peace systems in some detail: Brazil'...
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Boulding (1978, p. 93) once quipped, “Anything that exists is possible.” The anthropological literature documents the existence of peaceful societies from around the globe. This chapter focuses on what extant peaceful societies can teach us about creating and maintaining “cultures of peace.” First, we will consider “peace systems.” Peace systems ar...
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Aggression and altruism can be seen as resting on the opposite poles of a social-interaction continuum; aggressive acts cause harm to others, whereas altruistic acts benefit others. Cross-cultural examples illustrate the range of aggressive and altruistic behaviors engaged in by humans. The impact of socialization and psycho-cultural processes on a...
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The members of a peaceful society rarely, if ever, engage in physical aggression, and correspondingly, they share a system of beliefs that eschews aggression and instead promotes harmonious, nonviolent interpersonal relations. This article provides a brief overview of peaceful societies and reviews the growing literature about them. It considers se...
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The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, the BFI was translated from English into 28 languages and administered to 17,837 individuals from 56 nati...
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The Gruter Institute, the Consortium on Negotiation and Conflict Resolution at Georgia State University, and the Living Links Center of Emory University, co-sponsored a three-day conference on October 19-21, 2006 in Atlanta, Georgia. The meeting, entitled Workshop on the Biology of Trust in the Resolution of Conflict, brought together scholars of d...
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There are those who feel science is above politics, but nothing is above politics. Science is influenced by politics as much as is art, the media, religion, or any other aspect of human activity. It is not being aware of those influences that can undermine the value of the scientific enterprise. There has been much resistance to the concept of peac...
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As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, a total of 17,804 participants from 62 cultural regions completedthe RelationshipQuestionnaire(RQ), a self-reportmeasure of adult romanticattachment. Correlational analyses within each culture suggested that the Model of Self and the Model of Other scales of the RQ were psychometrically va...
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As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 16,954 participants from 53 nations were administered an anonymous survey about experiences with romantic attraction. Mate poaching--romantically attracting someone who is already in a relationship--was most common in Southern Europe, South America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe and w...
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Gender differences in the dismissing form of adult romantic attachment were investigated as part of the International Sexuality Description Project-a survey study of 17,804 people from 62 cultural regions. Contrary to research findings previously reported in Western cultures, we found that men were not significantly more dismissing than women acros...
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Evolutionary psychologists have hypothesized that men and women possess both long-term and short-term mating strategies, with men's short-term strategy differentially rooted in the desire for sexual variety. In this article, findings from a cross-cultural survey of 16,288 people across 10 major world regions (including North America, South America,...

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