Douglas Detterman

Douglas Detterman
Case Western Reserve University | CWRU · Department of Psychological Sciences

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127
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Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Education has not changed from the beginning of recorded history. The problem is that focus has been on schools and teachers and not students. Here is a simple thought experiment with two conditions: 1) 50 teachers are assigned by their teaching quality to randomly composed classes of 20 students, 2) 50 classes of 20 each are composed by selecting...
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A review of Ritchie, S. J. (2015). Intelligence: All that matters. London: John Murray Learning.
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In this brief paper, I attempt to convince you that you should be teaching a course on human intelligence. First, I review some of the reasons that it is important to teach a course on intelligence and argue that every psychology and education department should be teaching such a course on a regular basis. Second, I discuss my own history of beginn...
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Six experiments yielding serial position data using a positional probe task were compared to predictions made on the basis of distinctiveness. The concept of distinctiveness is derived from psychophysical theory and indicates the degree to which a particular stimulus in a group “stands out” from the other stimuli in that group. It was found that th...
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Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same...
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Mental retardation is a deficit in intellectual or cognitive functioning. The IQ test, developed at the beginning of this century, made diagnosis possible.The little cognitive research conducted up to about 1960 was largely descriptive and exploratory. After 1960, the majority of research was conducted to find the major cognitive deficit that cause...
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Full-text available
THE GAME OF POKER has been of interest to researchers in economics1 and artificial intelligence. 2 Its attributes have been compared to striking a bargain in the market and to the clash of war.3 Throughout the study of poker, the question whether performance is due to skill or just to luck has been a topic of much debate.4 In 1986, a professional p...
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Previous research has supported the theory that acquisition of expertise in any domain is possible for healthy individuals with sufficient deliberate practice, but such an extreme environmental position brings the existence of innate talent into question. The present study investigates the effects of both environmental factors and talent on expert...
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Research on the SAT has shown a substantial correlation with measures of g such as the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). Another widely administered test for college admission is the American College Test (ACT). Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, measures of g were derived from the ASVAB and correlated with ACT...
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The present study evaluated the criterion validity of the aggregated tasks of basic cognitive processes (TBCP). In age groups from 6 to 19 of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Abilities and Achievement Tests normative sample, the aggregated TBCP, i.e., the processing speed and working memory clusters, correlate with measures of scholastic achievem...
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There is little evidence showing the relationship between the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and g (general intelligence). This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitud...
Article
Prodigies are children under 10 years of age who perform culturally relevant tasks at a level that is rare even among highly trained professionals. While there is no lack of fascination or speculation about the origins and underpinnings of musical prodigies, little work and less actual data exist to offer much in the way of an explanation of this r...
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The study subjected nine elementary cognitive task variables from the Cognitive Assessment Tasks (CAT) and three scholastic measures from the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) to phenotypic and behavioral genetic structural equation modeling based on data for 277 pairs of same sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from the Western Reserve...
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Structural equation models were fitted to covariances among 9 Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) variables, 11 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Revised (WISC-R) subtest scores, and 3 Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) scaled scores, administered to a sample of 532 primary school children who participated in the Western Reserve Twin Project. Th...
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The relationship between inspection time (IT) and paper-and-pencil tests of cognitive ability is well documented. However, the extent to which IT relates to cognitive ability through general intelligence or through group factors such as performance has not been fully addressed. Another unresolved issue is whether IT relates to psychometric intellig...
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Affirmative action in postsecondary school admissions has been fiercely debated. Data for selective colleges suggest that Black students have admission test scores about 1.3 SDs lower than those of Whites. Has affirmative action had a positive effect on Black–White differences? Data on college completion rates and income of college graduates sugge...
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Affirmative action in postsecondary school admissions has been fiercely debated. Data for selective colleges suggest that Black students have admission test scores about 1.3 SDs lower than those of Whites. Has affirmative action had a positive effect on Black-White differences? Data on college completion rates and income of college graduates sugges...
Article
From Spearman's famous 1904 paper to Carroll's recent book on factor analytic results from a multitude of studies, there has been one consistent conclusion: 'g', or general intelligence, is the factor that defines the phenotype for intellectual functioning. It is no overstatement to say that g is undoubtedly the most important psychological constru...
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Full-text available
In our response to Professor Françoys Gagné, we suggest a more comprehensive theory of elite performance. This theory is composed of three components: general intelligence, domain-specific skills, and practice. Evidence is presented in support of this position. In addition, we take a harder line on a number of issues: (a) There is no doubt that 50%...
Article
Mental retardation is a deficit in intellectual or cognitive functioning. The IQ test, developed at the beginning of this century, made diagnosis possible. The little cognitive research conducted up to about 1960 was largely descriptive and exploratory. After 1960, the majority of research was conducted to find the major cognitive deficit that caus...
Article
This special issue is dedicated to Arthur Jensen. It has become apparent that he is unlikely to receive the recognition his work merits. The issue begins with a statement by Jensen which discusses some of his work people are less familiar with. His bibliography is also reprinted. A number of persons selected for their diversity in outlook then comm...
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General cognitive ability, often indexed by IQ tests, is one of the most highly heritable quantitative behavioral traits relevant to cognitive neuroscience. The IQ QTL Project uses an allelic association strategy to focus on high ability rather than disability and a more systematic approach to association using a dense genome-wide map of markers an...
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Replies to comments by C. T. Ramey and S. L. Ramey (see record 1998-12442-012), F. J. Symons and S. F. Warren (see record 1998-12442-013), and B. K. Keogh et al (see record 1998-12442-014) on the original article by D. K. Detterman and L. A. Thompson (see record 1997-30052-007) concerning special education. Detterman and Thompson re-assert and...
Article
Replies to comments by C. T. Ramey and S. L. Ramey (see record 1998-12442-012 ), F. J. Symons and S. F. Warren (see record 1998-12442-013 ), and B. K. Keogh et al (see record 1998-12442-014 ) on the original article by D. K. Detterman and L. A. Thompson (see record 1997-30052-007 ) concerning special education. Detterman and Thompson re-assert and...
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The position advocated in the target article should be called “absurd environmentalism.” Literature showing that general intelligence is related to musical ability is not cited. Also ignored is the heritability of musical talent. Retrospective studies supporting practice over talent are incapable of showing differences in talent, because subje...
Article
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with general cognitive ability (g) were investigated for several groups of children selected for very high or for average cognitive functioning. A DNA marker in the gene for insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (IGF2R) on Chromosome 6 yielded a significantly greater frequency of a particular form of the ge...
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BECAUSE general cognitive ability (g) is among the most heritable behavioural traits, it is a reasonable target for a search for quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We used a selected-extremes design to test candidate genes for allelic association with g. Polymorphisms in four genes in the dopamine system (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, DAT1) were genotyped for 51...
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Full-text available
There is nothing special about special education. Educational methods have not changed significantly in at least 2,500 years. IQ tests were developed to identify those in need of special education, with the intention of developing appropriate educational methods. Effective special educational methods have yet to be developed. IQ tests are diagnosti...
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Berman and Noble (1995) reported significantly reduced visuospatial performance in children with the TAQI A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene. Given that visuospatial performance loads highly on an unrotated principal component indexing general cognitive ability, we tested the association between DRJD2 and WISC-R IQ comparing 51 high-...
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Multivariate quantitative genetic research suggests a hierarchical model of cognitive abilities where genetic effects are largely general, cutting across most cognitive abilities. Some genetic effects, however, are specific to certain cognitive abilities. These results lead to a hypothesis for molecular genetic research: Although most genes associa...
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Current theories of intelligence have, in some cases, begun to include elementary cognitive tasks. Behavioral genetic studies of intelligence have not taken these theories into account. The current study includes 135 MZ and 128 DZ twin pairs from the Western Reserve Twin Project. The 11 WISC-R subtests as well as 6 elementary cognitive tasks were e...
Article
For DNA markers in or near genes of neurological relevance, allelic frequencies were compared for groups of White children high and low in IQ in an attempt to identify specific genes responsible for the substantial heritability of IQ scores. We previously reported results for 60 DNA markers and we now describe results for 40 additional markers. One...
Article
In an allelic association study of 100 DNA markers in or near genes of neurological relevance, one restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) yielded significant differences between high- and low-IQ groups in two independent samples. The goal of this article is to describe how we tracked down the specific gene marked by the RFLP and to introdu...
Article
Although previous studies have examined the genetic and environmental influences upon general intelligence and specific cognitive abilities in school-age children, few studies have examined elementary cognitive tasks in this population. The current study included 149 MZ and 138 same-sex DZ twin pairs who participated in the Western Reserve Twin Pro...
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Fragile X mental retardation is associated with an unstable expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR-1 gene on the X chromosome (Xq27.3). We asked whether variation in the number of FMR-1 CGG repeats relates to IQ in the general population. FMR-1 CGG repeats were genotyped for three groups: low IQ (mean IQ = 71, N = 35), middle IQ (mean IQ = 103, N = 1...
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General cognitive ability (intelligence, often indexed by IQ scores) is one of the most highly heritable behavioral dimensions. In an attempt to identify some of the many genes (quantitative trait loci; QTL) responsible for the substantial heritability of this quantitative trait, the IQ QTL Project uses an allelic association strategy. Allelic freq...
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Three recent studies have used twin data to explore the possibility of differential contributions of heritability and environmentality to individual differences in cognitive ability as a function of ability level (Detterman, D. K.,et al., Behav. Genet. 20:369–384; 1990; Bailey, M. J. amd Revelle, W.,Behav. Genet. 21:397–404, 1991; Cherny, S. S.,et...
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This report is for two years of research conducted primarily at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, Project Lamp. The aims of the research were to (1) study the effects of response mode and response complexity on basic cognitive tasks, and (2) to use the information obtained to develop more elaborated models of cognitive functioning which take thes...
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Giftedness, like other rare phenomena, is often explained by principles beyond those used to explain the normal variation of mental ability. Before parsimony is abandoned and additional principles are invoked, the following five points should be considered. (1) Gifted samples often have restricted ranges, reducing correlations with intelligence and...
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a formal definition of transfer is presented, followed by a brief review of what is already known about transfer / [considers] examples of reviews, studies that find transfer, and studies that fail to find transfer there are two issues that need to be addressed with respect to the relationship between intelligence and transfer / the first . . . i...
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A modal model of information-processing was used to select a battery of nine tasks of basic cognitive ability (learning, relearning, reaction time, probe recall, Sternberg search, self-paced probe, stimulus discrimination, tachistoscopic full report, tachistoscopic partial report). Parameters from these tasks operationalized the model. After extens...
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Replies to comments by S. J. Ceci (see record 1993-14059-001), A. R. Jensen (see record 1993-14069-001), and R. J. Sternberg (see record 1993-14084-001) on the article by D. K. Detterman et al (see record 1993-14064-001) regarding assessment of the nature of mental retardation. Detterman reaffirms the conclusions that (1) measures of basic cogn...
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The present article summarizes the most recent data on the psychometric properties of the Fagan test of Infant Intelligence. Following a brief discussion of the empirical basis of the Fagan test, a note on the theoretical rationale underlying the test, and a summary of the development of the test, the current status of the Fagan test is presented....
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Little is known about the genetic and environmental etiology of the association between specific cognitive abilities and scholastic achievement during the early school years. A multivariate genetic analysis of cognitive and achievement measures was conducted for 146 pairs of identical twins and 132 pairs of fraternal twins from 6 to 12 years of age...
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Deary and Pagliari (1991) pointed out that Spearman had presented data showing the same pattern in correlations found by Detterman and Daniel (1989). Correlations among tests are about twice as high for low-IQ subjects as for high-IQ subjects. Spearman suggested that this effect be called the “law of diminishing returns”. He thought that smarter pe...
Article
Two studies showed an inverse relationship between ability level and correlations among IQ measures. Low IQ subjects showed much higher correlations than high IQ subjects. Intercorrelations of IQ subtests, correlations of cognitive ability measures with each other, and correlations of IQ with measures of cognitive abilities all displayed the same e...
Article
Differences in heritability and environmentality were assessed for 54 DZ and 86 MZ same-sex twin pairs between 6 and 12 years of age from the Western Reserve Twin Project. A principal-component score composed of the subtests of the WISC-R, PPVT, WRAT, and MAT represented each twin's cognitive ability. Using a modification of a regression technique...
Article
The effect of instructions on basic cognitive tasks was investigated. In the first study, 60 college students completed both a choice reaction time and a modified match-to-sample task. Students were given either written, non-verbal, or no instructions. Mean level of performance changed across type of instruction for each task. The correlations betw...
Article
Reviews the book, Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence, Vol. 4 edited by Robert J. Sternberg (1988). This edited book presents six chapters by authors concerned with different aspects of cognition and intelligence and each chapter contributed to my epiphany. What I realized while reading this book was that cognitive psychology has faile...
Article
Future direction in research in huma intelligence, like any other area of research, are difficult to predict. However, tendencies in current research suggest several future trends. Research in human intelligence will use larger numbers of subjects. An appreciation of reliability will continue to grow. Research will continue to become more theoretic...
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The storage of information on compact disks (termed CD-ROM) has made possible the transcription of refer­ ence indexes directly to a computer. In psychology, one of the most widely used of these indexes is "Psychologi­ cal Abstracts," published by the American Psychologi­ cal Association. The abstracts referenced since 1973 are currently available...
Article
We examined the career goals and scholarly productivity of 176 clinical psychology graduate students from sixteen PhD programs approved by the American Psychological Association. Students were surveyed by telephone ( n = 140) or (as a check for experimenter bias) mail ( n = 36). Program characteristics were also examined. The majority (71%) of the...
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Ceci and Liker (1986b) presented data that they contended shows two things: (a) Handicapping harness races is a cognitively complex undertaking that can be captured by a multiple regression model, and (b) neither overall skill at handicapping nor the complexity of the mental model used is related to standard measures of intelligence. The first cont...
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Most clinical training programs attempt to produce psychologists who are both skilled research scientists and practitioners. This scientist-practitioner or Boulder Model, named for the 1950 conference on clinical psychology held in Boulder, Colorado, has been the subject of much scholarly debate. A study was undertaken to examine the career goals a...
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Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 1987, Vol 32(9), 805–806. Reviews the book, Rationality and Intelligence by Jonathan Baron (see record 1985-98431-000). In this book, Baron argues that a major part of human intelligence is the ability to make rational decisions and that this capability should be fostered. The bo...
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A theory of the cause of mental retardation that views human intelligence as a set of independent abilities organized in a complex system was presented. Mental retardation is conceived as a deficit in a few of the independent abilities having high centrality (i.e., processes most important in system functioning). Abilities affected and severity of...
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Information-processing correlates of computer-assisted word learning by moderately and severely mentally retarded students were identified. Nineteen subjects completed 10, 15-minute computer-assisted instruction sessions and seven basic cognitive tasks measuring simple learning, choice reaction time, relearning, probed recall, stimulus discriminati...
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classes of theories of human intelligence and indicate how choice reaction measures are related to each class of theory / presents a brief, biased review of the literature / factors which must be explored . . . relationship between reaction time and human intelligence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
This chapter investigates the applications and research on computer- assisted instruction (CAI) for the mentally retarded and evaluates the extent to which individualization has been addressed. CAI can be short, cartoonlike educational games or semester-long, text-based question-and-answer instruction. The type of CAI that is based on discovery lea...
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Reviews the book, Changing Conceptions of Intelligence and Intellectual Functioning: Current Theory and Research edited by Prem S. Fry (1984). This book is a reprint of a series of articles that appeared in two issues of the International Journal of Psychology, which is a publication of the International Union of Psychological Science. Many of the...
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The relationship between item identification and short-term memory (STM) was investigated. It was hypothesized that both identification and memory storage make demands upon the individual's total available processing space, and that as the information load increases, recall is more dependent upon efficient identification. In Experiment 1, item-iden...
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This document contains papers presented at a symposium which was an outgrowth of the research project examining the cognitive deficits in mentally retarded persons. The studies which are discussed were designed to demonstrate that basic cognitive tasks are capable of predicting performance on standard measures of intelligence. The subjects of the r...
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Stimulus encoding was studied with a group of mentally retarded and nonretarded adults. Two sets of 24 nonverbal stimuli were selected; one had a wide range of stimulus structure variables and the other, a representative sample of stimuli. Performance on a match-to-sample task for both stimulus sets was assessed and correlated with the stimulus str...
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Is the nature of intelligence best understood as a single thing (“g”), or as a set of orthogonal variables? It is argued that a set of orthogonal variables is most likely to explain intelligence. Higher-order constructs like metacomponents, Executive Functioning and “g” are suggested to inevitably result from complex systems having interrelated par...
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To test the hypothesis that a strategy deficit entirely accounts for retarded persons' inferior short-term memory performance, we attempted to eliminate strategies by selecting a task in which strategies would be difficult to use (memory for the position of a lifted weight) and by having subjects report the use of any strategy. In Experiment 1, dis...

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