Douglas Borchman

Douglas Borchman
University of Louisville | UL · Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

Ph.D.

About

160
Publications
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5,172
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Additional affiliations
December 1986 - present
University of Louisville
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (160)
Article
In a recent study, (Ewurum et al., 2021) wax (WE) and sterol esters (CE) from human meibum secretions (MGS) were separated and reconstituted with controlled WE/CE ratios (0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 75% and 100% CE weight fractions). It was found that the alterations in the CE content of WE/CE mixtures modified the hydrocarbon chain conformation and pa...
Article
Patients with Sjӧgren's syndrome (SS) have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The meibum from donors with dry eye due to MGD but without SS (MMGD) presents with lower levels of cholesteryl ester, more straight chain and more ordered hydrocarbon chains compared with meibum from donors without MGD (Mn). The aim of the current...
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Background Phospholipid (PL)–hyaluronic acid (HA) interactions are relevant to aging-associated vitreous humor liquefaction, therapies for dry eye disease, skin-care products and synovial joint lubrication. Phosphatidyl choline–HA interactions have been well characterized. However, other major lipids found in tears, vitreous humor and synovial join...
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Elucidating wax ester (WE) and cholesteryl ester (CE) compositional, structural and functional relationships is key to our understanding of how these lipids are involved in natural and pathological processes. Little is known about how CE and WE interact with one another. The focus of the present study is to bridge this gap of knowledge. CE and WE w...
Article
Purpose: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit unstable tear films. Tear film lipid composition and structure are related to tear film stability and dry eye and tear lipids have not been characterized in people with PD. The aim of this study is to characterize Meibum tear lipids in donors with PD using 1H-NMR and infrared spectroscopy. M...
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Objectives Dry eye is common when external beam radiation is used for the treatment of choroidal melanoma (CM). As meibum structure and composition have been related to dry eye, we determined if plaque bachytherapy for CM alters meibum composition. Design ¹ H-NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the lipid composition of meibum. Setting The Univer...
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Purpose: Yap1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional coactivator and functions as a down-stream effector of the Hippo signaling pathway that controls tissue size and cell growth. Yap1 contributes to lens epithelial development. However, the effect of Yap1 haplodeficiency on the lens epithelium and its role in the development of catara...
Article
The causes of vitreous humor (VH) liquefaction remain unclear. Diabetes accelerates this process and other ocular diseases. The weakening of the blood-retina barrier observed with diabetes could enhance the rate of transfer of relatively small molecules such as glucose (Glu) and phospholipids (PLs) from the retina to the VH. Glucose and PLs have be...
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Purpose Meibum from donors who have had hematological stem cell transplantations (MHSCT) are susceptible to severe dry eye symptoms and exhibit very high lipid order (stiffness) compared with meibum from donors without dry eye (Mn). Since lipid order could have functional consequences, we compared the rheology and composition of Mn and MHSCT to mea...
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Lens and tear film lipids are as unique as the systems they reside in. The major lipid of the human lens is dihydrosphingomylein, found in quantity only in the lens. The lens contains a cholesterol to phospholipid molar ratio as high as 10:1, more than anywhere in the body. Lens lipids contribute to maintaining lens clarity, and alterations in lens...
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Background: With dry eye, the ratio of cholesteryl ester (CE) to wax ester (WE) decreases substantially in meibum, but the functional and structural consequences of this change are speculative. The aim of this study is to confirm this finding and to bridge this gap in knowledge by investigating the effect of varying CE/WE ratios on lipid structure...
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Elevated levels of acyl chain saturation of meibomian lipids are associated with enhanced tear film (TF) stability in infants to shortened TF breakup time with meibomian gland dysfunction. Thus, the effect of saturation on the surface properties of human TF lipids (TFLs) using a Langmuir surface balance and Brewster angle microscopy was studied. Li...
Article
Purpose: The compositional, structural, and functional relationships of meibum may provide insights into the loss of tear film stability. Although the conformation of meibum lipids has been studied rigorously, that of tear lipids has not. Methods: Tear lipids (TLHSCT) and meibum (MHSCT) from patients who had hematopoietic stem cell transplantati...
Article
Purpose: Meibum is considered to be a key component of tears that serve to protect the eye, and conformational changes in meibum have not been studied extensively within the population of patients who had hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to determine possible lipid conformational changes in the meibum of pa...
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Purpose: Relationships between tear film lipid (TFL) layer composition, structure, and function could provide insight into the etiology of dry eye. The molar ratio of cholesteryl ester (CE)/wax ester (WE) was measured in meibum from normal donors (Mn) and compared with meibum from donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (MMGD). Methods: CE/WE wa...
Article
Although dry eye occurs mostly in adults, dry eye may be induced in teens receiving allogeneic hematological stem cell transplantations (AHSCT). Changes in meibum composition and structure has been associated with dry eye. The structure of meibum from teens with dye eye or teens with dry eye and AHSCT has not been studied, so in this study, we comp...
Article
Purpose: Numerous devices have been developed to warm the eyelid as a therapy for Meibomian gland dysfunction. The optimum temperature for such therapy was determined. Methods: Meibum lipid disorder versus temperature was calculated from previously published phase transition parameters measured using infrared spectroscopy. Phase transitions para...
Article
NMR spectroscopy was used to measure hydrocarbon chain branching variability in meibum with age, gender and Meibomian gland dysfuction (MGD). A cohort of 65 meibum donors without dry eye and 31 donors with MGD was studied. Heteronuclear 2D NMR was used to confirm CH3 resonance assignments allowing us to positively identify 23 of the 27 proton reson...
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Babies have the most stable tears and people with dry eye have the least stable tears. Meibum may contribute to tear film stability, so in this study, the hydrocarbon chain conformation and rheology of meibum from babies was studied for the first time. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure lipid phase transitions. Rheology was measured using La...
Article
Why do seals develop cataracts after living 40 years, rats after 2 years, and humans after 70 years, while whales do not develop cataracts even after 100 years of age? To address that question, lenses from pinnipeds-walrus, spotted seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, and a ribbon seal-were studied. The cholesterol and phospholipid content of the le...
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Elevated levels of acyl chain saturation of meibomian lipids are associated with vastly different effects: from enhanced tear film (TF) stability in infants to shortened TF breakup time in meibomian gland disease patients. Thus it is important to study the effect of saturation on the surface properties of human meibum (MGS). Therefore, MGS films (1...
Article
Purpose/Aim: Diabetes is one of the major factors related to cataract. Our aim was to determine if the attenuation of light through glucose treated lenses was due to light scattering from structural changes or absorbance from metabolic changes. Materials and Methods: Human and rat lenses were cultured in a medium with and without 55 mM glucose for...
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This study addresses the question: why do rats get cataracts at two years, dogs at eight years and whales do not develop cataracts for 200 years? Whale lens lipid phase transitions were compared to the phase transitions of other species that were recalculated. The major phospholipids of the whale lens were sphingolipids, mostly dihydrosphingomyelin...
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Tear stability decreases with increasing age and the same signs of instability are exacerbated with dry eye. Meibum lipid compositional changes with age provide insights into the biomolecules responsible for tear film instability. Meibum was collected from 69 normal donors ranging in age from 0.6 to 68 years of age. Infrared spectroscopy was used t...
Article
This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue,...
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Purpose: The inhibition of the rate of evaporation (Revap) by surface lipids is relevant to reservoirs and dry eye. Our aim was to test the idea that lipid surface films inhibit Revap. Methods: Revap were determined gravimetrically. Hydrocarbon chain conformation and structure were measured using a Raman microscope. Six 1-hydroxyl hydrocarbons (...
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Purpose Sebum may contribute to the composition of the tear film lipid layer naturally or as a contaminant artifact from collection. The aims of this study were to determine: if sebum changes the rheology of meibum surface films; if the resonance near 5.2 ppm in the ¹H-NMR spectra of sebum is due to squalene (SQ); and if sebum or SQ, a major compon...
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Squalene (SQ) possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities (antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, hydrating, emollient) that can be of benefit to the ocular surface. It can come in contact with human meibum (hMGS; the most abundant component of the tear film lipid layer) as an endogenous tear lipid or from exogenous sources as eyelid sebum...
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Background/aims: It has been suggested that eye makeup could interact with human meibum causing a decrease in the stability of the tear film. The aim of this pilot study was to measure makeup-human meibum interactions in vitro. Methods: Human meibum-makeup interactions were quantified by measuring order-to-disorder lipid phase transitions using...
Technical Report
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(1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify squalene in meibum and sebum. Squalene has many beneficial properties and its loss on the surface of skin upon ultraviolet light exposure or in the tear film with dry eye could be detrimental. In this study, we confirm the NMR proton resonance assignments of squalene, squalene in human meibum, and in...
Article
Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33° C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that...
Article
Recent NMR studies suggest that unsaturation may contribute to tear film instability in adults and loss of cholesteryl esters and squalene could reduce tear film stability in adults with meibomian gland dysfunction. The proton resonances were tentatively assigned in those studies. In this current investigation, meibum from seven infants and childre...
Article
Accelerated evaporation of tears may contribute to dry eye symptoms. It is not clear whether contact lenses decrease or increase the rate of evaporation of tears. In this study, the rates of evaporation through contact lenses (ERTCL) were measured in vitro to gain insight to this question. Contact lenses were equilibrated with various solutions to...
Article
Purpose: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open-label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms...
Article
Protein-meibum and terpenoids-meibum lipid interactions could be important in the etiology of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. In the current model studies, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to determine if the terpenoid β-carotene and the major proteins in tears and meibum affect the hydr...
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Human tear film stability decreases with increasing age. In this study, the changes in meibum composition were measured in search of markers of tear film instability. (1)H NMR nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 43 normal donors aged 1 to 88 years were acquired. Compared with meibum from adolescents and adults, meibum from infants and child...
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Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to quantify lipid wax, cholesterol ester terpenoid and glyceride composition, saturation, oxidation, and CH₂ and CH₃ moiety distribution. This tool was used to measure changes in human meibum composition with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). (1)H-NMR spectra of meibum from 39 donors with...
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This study represents a first step toward the evaluation of possible compositional differences in meibum from normal donors (Mn) and donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The results highlight the applicability of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of waxes, cholesteryl esters, and glycerides in mei...
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The purpose of this study was to determine if the variability in the amount of lid margin meibum is from donor-to-donor or from day-to-day variations and to determine if meibum from donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) had altered levels of casual eyelid meibum or skin sebum. Lipid absorbent Sebutape(®) was used to collect sebum or meibum....
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Understanding the molecular composition (e.g., proteins and lipids) of the tear film (TF) and the contribution of the meibomian gland to the TF is critical in gaining knowledge about TF instabilities, dry eye syndromes, contact lens (CL) incompatibilities, and other eye diseases. Among its functions, the lipid layer of the TF slows evaporation of t...
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Instability of the tear film with rapid tear break-up time is a common feature of aqueous-deficient and evaporative dry eye diseases, suggesting that there may be a shared structural abnormality of the tear film that is responsible for the instability. It may be that a change in the normal meibum lipid composition and conformation causes this abnor...
Article
Purpose Knowledge of the relationships among composition, conformation and function of tear film lipids could facilitate the development of therapies to alleviate symptoms related to meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to diagnose the disease. Toward this goal, we used spectroscopic approaches to assess tear lipid composition and conformation rel...
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The unusually high levels of saturation and thus order contribute to the uniqueness of human lens membranes. In addition, and unlike in most biomembranes, most of the lens lipids are associated with proteins, thus reducing their mobility. The major phospholipid of the human lens is dihydrosphingomyelin. Found in significant quantities only in prima...
Article
To recount the historic evaluation of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and describe new techniques to monitor disease and therapy. A review of the literature regarding the description of MGD and the role of abnormalities of meibomian gland secretion in health and disease. Meibomian gland dysfunction is a common clinical condition and is a major ca...
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Changes in the phase transition temperatures and conformation of human meibum lipid with age and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) have been quantified. Less than 1% of the infrared spectral range was used in the previous studies to demonstrate differences. In this study, the remaining 99% of the spectral frequencies were analyzed to gain insight i...
Article
Changes in the phase transition temperatures and conformation of human meibum lipid with age and meibomian gland dysfunction have been quantified but with analysis of less than 1% of the infrared spectral range. The remaining 99% of the spectral range was analyzed with principal component analysis (PCA) and confirms our previous studies and reveal...
Article
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open-label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms of diseas...
Article
Full-text available
Both lipids and mucins contribute to the stability of the tear film and lipids may inhibit tears from evaporating. Younger people have lower lipid viscosity, higher lipid volume, and a lower rate of tear evaporation. Since age-related changes in human meibum composition and conformation have never been investigated, as a basis for the study of lipi...
Article
The phospholipid composition of adult human lens membranes differs dramatically from that of any other mammalian membrane. Due to minimal cell turnover, cells in the nucleus of the human lens may be considered as the longest lived cells in our body. This work reassesses previous assignments of phospholipid (31)P NMR resonances in adult human lenses...
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Full-text available
Raman spectroscopy could potentially be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of meibomian gland dysfunction by measuring the composition, conformation, and amount of meibum lipid on the lid margin. Toward this goal and to test our studies of meibum lipid using infrared spectroscopy, we measured the Raman spectra of samples from human donors...
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With increasing age and in patients affected with dry-eye symptoms, the human tear film becomes more unstable and exhibits shorter tear break-up times. We examined whether the inclusion of proteins and lipids to water affected the evaporation rates measured in vitro and could account for the lower rates reported previously from in vivo measurements...
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Thyroxine-treated human lens epithelial cells, HLE B-3, were grown in either a normoxic or hyperoxic atmosphere as a first step in identifying factors related to their increased viability. Reactive oxygen species, ROS, and the apparent mitochondrial membrane potential, Delta Psi(m), were measured using fluorescent probes. ROS were significantly hig...
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The loss of calcium homeostasis in the lens of the eye appears to be a factor contributing to lens opacity. In the human lens, calcium homeostasis depends on the Ca(2+)-ATPase pumps found only in the epithelium. A plasma membrane calcium pump, PMCA2 is upregulated in human cataractous lenses. To determine if oxidation caused the plasma membrane Ca(...
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The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump is the major mechanism by which calcium is removed from the lens. The aim of this study was to determine if mRNA and proteins levels of PMCA isoforms changed with age or lens opacity. mRNA was quantified using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR). PMCA...