Douglas W Barrett

Douglas W Barrett
University of Texas at Austin | UT · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

39
Publications
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1,270
Citations

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Full-text available
In cellular bioenergetics, cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) is the enzyme responsible for oxygen consumption in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which drives oxidative phosphorylation for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. CCO is also the major intracellular acceptor of photons in the light wavelengths used for photobiomodulation (PBM)....
Article
Full-text available
This is the first study to examine if transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) improves cognition in older euthymic bipolar patients, who exhibit greater cognitive decline than is expected for age-matched controls. TILS is a non-invasive novel form of photobiomodulation that augments prefrontal oxygenation and improves cognition in young adul...
Article
Full-text available
Background Transcranial laser stimulation is a novel method of noninvasive brain stimulation found safe and effective for improving prefrontal cortex neurocognitive functions in healthy young adults. This method is different from electric and magnetic stimulation because it causes the photonic oxidation of cytochrome-c-oxidase, the rate-limiting en...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in neurocognitive disorders diminishes cytochrome oxidase activity leading to neurodegenerative effects and impairment of learning and memory. Methylene blue at low doses stimulates cytochrome oxidase activity and may thus counteract the adverse effects of cerebral hypoperfusion. However, the effects of methylene blue...
Article
Full-text available
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a novel, safe, non-invasive method of brain photobiomodulation. Laser stimulation of the human prefrontal cortex causes cognitive enhancement. To investigate the hemodynamic effects in prefrontal cortex by which this cognitive enhancement occurs, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Previously, we showed that consumption of a diet supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3FAs) for two rounds of gestation and lactation increased the ability of rat dams to cope with stress when compared to dams that ingested a diet lacking n-3FAs. The objective of this study was to determine if the diets of these dams...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a new analysis to obtain novel metabolic data on the functional connectivity of prefrontal-limbic regions in Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction of tone-footshock conditioning. Mice were analyzed with the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) autoradiographic method to metabolically map regional brain activity. New FDG data were sampled from...
Conference Paper
We measured laser- and heat-induced cerebral responses of the human forehead during placebo-controlled photobiomodulation by 1064-nm laser. Significant enhancement in cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemodynamics was observed, revealing physiological mechanisms of transcranial photobiomodulation.
Article
Full-text available
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm² has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive fun...
Article
Full-text available
Methylene blue USP (MB) is a FDA-grandfathered drug used in clinics to treat methemoglobinemia, carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanide poisoning that has been shown to increase fMRI evoked blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in rodents. Low dose MB also has memory enhancing effect in rodents and humans. However, the neural correlates o...
Article
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a noninvasive form of brain photobiomulation. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is hypothesized to be the primary intracellular photoacceptor. We hypothesized that TILS up-regulates cerebral CCO and causes hemodynamic changes. We delivered...
Article
Purpose To investigate the sustained-attention and memory-enhancing neural correlates of the oral administration of methylene blue in the healthy human brain. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective, HIPAA-compliant, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, and all patients provided infor...
Article
Aim: To evaluate the behavioural effects of head electroacupuncture (EA) using the Holtzman rat model, a genetic strain showing susceptibility to stress-evoked helplessness. Methods: Putative anxiolytic and antidepressant behavioural effects of head EA were investigated using the light-dark and forced swim tests, respectively. The open field tes...
Article
We tested the hypothesis that rats consuming bovine lactoferrin (bLf) during postnatal development would show better performance of stressful tasks during adolescence. In the first study, we orally administered bLf (750 mg/kg) once daily between postnatal days 16-34. Rats then underwent a battery of behavioral tests: open field (forced exploration...
Article
Full-text available
Discovering that transcranial infrared laser stimulation produces beneficial effects on frontal cortex functions such as sustained attention, working memory, and affective state has been groundbreaking. Transcranial laser stimulation with low-power density (mW/cm2) and high-energy density (J/cm2) monochromatic light in the near-infrared wavelengths...
Article
This is the first controlled study demonstrating the beneficial effects of transcranial laser stimulation on cognitive and emotional functions in humans. Photobiomodulation with red to near-infrared light is a novel intervention shown to regulate neuronal function in cell cultures, animal models, and clinical conditions. Light that intersects with...
Article
This is the first metabolic mapping study of the effects of fluoxetine after learned helplessness training. Antidepressants are the most commonly prescribed medications, but the regions underlying treatment effects in affectively disordered brains are poorly understood. We hypothesized the antidepressant action of fluoxetine would produce adaptatio...
Article
Learned helplessness in animals has been used to model disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but there is a lack of knowledge concerning which individual behavioral characteristics at baseline can predict helpless behavior after exposure to inescapable stress. The first aim of this study was to determine behavioral...
Article
Antidepressants require adaptive brain changes before efficacy is achieved, and they may impact the affectively disordered brain differently than the normal brain. We previously demonstrated metabolic disturbances in limbic and cortical regions of the congenitally helpless rat, a model of susceptibility to affective disorder, and we wished to test...
Article
Learned helplessness represents a failure to escape after exposure to inescapable stress and may model human psychiatric disorders related to stress. Previous work has demonstrated individual differences in susceptibility to learned helplessness. In this study, we assessed different factors associated with this susceptibility, including strain, sex...
Article
This is the first study of the effects of mother-infant separation (MS) on adolescent behavior of Holtzman (HO) rats. Different rat strains, such as Harlan Sprague-Dawley and HO, share a common origin. However, MS may lead to hypoactive behavioral effects in HO rats because of their greater susceptibility to show depressive-like responses to stress...
Article
The present study reports the first comprehensive map of brain networks underlying latent inhibition learning and the first application of structural equation modeling to cytochrome oxidase data. In latent inhibition, repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a latent form of learning that inhibits subsequent associations with that stimulus. As ne...
Article
The objectives were to (1) extend previous findings on fear extinction deficits in male congenitally helpless rats (a model for susceptibility to learned helplessness) to female congenitally helpless rats, and (2) attempt a therapeutic intervention with methylene blue, a metabolic enhancer that improves memory retention, to alleviate the predicted...
Article
The congenitally helpless rat strain, which was selectively bred for increased susceptibility to learned helplessness, may model the predisposition to affective disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Other than the selected trait, the behavior of this strain is not well characterized. In this study, we assessed congenit...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic and behavioral studies in humans and mouse mutants have implicated the gene encoding neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. We examined the behavior of mice heterozygous for a mutation in neuregulin-1's immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain (Ig-nrg-1 mice). We found that these animals displayed behaviors relate...
Article
This is the first study of the action of metyrapone on Pavlovian extinction. Pavlovian acquisition memory can be impaired when 50 mg/kg metyrapone, a corticosterone synthesis inhibitor, is injected 90 min before training. It was hypothesized that the same treatment given before extinction may also impair Pavlovian extinction memory, and thereby fac...
Article
Metabolic mapping with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a radiolabeled glucose analog, was used to assess regional activity changes in the mouse brain that result from extinction of a conditioned emotional response (CER). In the extinction group, Pavlovian tone-foot shock conditioning, followed by repeated tone-alone presentations, resulted in the reducti...
Article
The ability to express a behavior during the postnatal period may be related to developmental changes in the recruitment of particular neural systems. Here, we show that developmental changes in the functional interactions involving three cortical regions (the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex) are associ...
Article
Fluorodeoxyglucose autoradiography, quantitative image analysis, and a multivariate tool (partial least squares) were used to assess distributed patterns of brain activation in postnatal day 17 and day 12 rat pups engaged in extinction of instrumental behavior. Pups were trained in a straight alley runway on an alternating reward schedule, or on a...

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