Donna F Vine

Donna F Vine
University of Alberta | UAlberta · Alberta Diabetes Institute (ADI)

About

101
Publications
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2,212
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
965 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Background Immune function is altered during obesity. Moreover, males and females across different species demonstrate distinct susceptibility to several diseases. However, less is known regarding the interplay between high-fat diet (HFD) and sex in the context of immune function. Objective The objective was to determine sex differences on immune f...
Article
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates in childhood and risk is exacerbated in obesity. Mechanisms of the etiologic link between early adiposity and CVD-risk remain unclear. Postprandial or non-fasting dyslipidemia is characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides (TG) and intestinal-apolipoprotein(apo)B48-remnants following a high-...
Article
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Context Adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors including dyslipidemia. Atherogenic apolipoprotein (apo) B-lipoprotein remnants are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of fasting plasma apo...
Article
Background and aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins in youth, and is exacerbated by obesity and metabolic syndrome. Apolipoprotein (Apo)B-remnant cholesterol is considered a primary contributor to CVD risk. Fasting plasma apoB48 can be used as a biomarker of intestinal remnant cholesterol as well as postprandial dyslipidemia. In adults, elevate...
Article
The intestine is involved in whole-body lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and secretes lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein(Apo)B48 anddiscreteApoA-I into themesenteric lymph.Thelymphatic systemhasbeen proposed to have a significant role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway associated with HDL-ApoA-I. In conditions of insulin resistance (...
Article
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CONTEXT PCSK9 mediates the degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) thereby increasing plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations in the PCSK9 gene that are associated with loss-of-function (LOF) of PCSK9 result in a greater expression of hepatic LDLR, lower concentrations of LDL-C, and protection from cardiova...
Article
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Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease involved in the regulation of LDL receptor (LDLR) expression and apolipoprotein B lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. Hepatic PCSK9 protein expression, activity, and secretion have been shown to affect cholesterol homeostasis. An upregulation of hepatic PSCK9 protein leads t...
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Background: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment enhance intestinal adaptation. To determine whether these growth factors exert synergistic effects on intestinal growth and function, GLP-2 and EGF-containing media (EGF-cm) were administered, alone and in combination, in neonatal piglet with short bowel syndro...
Article
Context: Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) have atherogenic dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and this is exacerbated in obesity. Objective: To determine and compare fasting and non-fasting lipid and ApoB-lipoprotein metabolism in three groups of adolescent girls: i) healthy-weight controls, ii) obese...
Article
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Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting f...
Article
Background: We aim to study the efficacy of exogenously administered glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on intestinal adaptation in 2 preclinical models of neonatal short bowel syndrome (SBS) according to remnant intestinal anatomy, with and without ileum. Furthermore, we aim to determine if this adaptive effect was potentiated with enteral nutrition...
Article
Hawthorn is a widely used herbal alternative medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. However, the attributed health benefits, purported to be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, may depend on both the specific species and plant part. Studies to date investigating effects of hawthorn on heart disease(s) have used well-d...
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The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. Th...
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Vaccenic acid (VA), the predominant ruminant-derived trans fat in the food chain, ameliorates hyperlipidemia yet mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether VA could influence tissue endocannabinoids (EC) by altering the availability of their biosynthetic precursor, arachidonic acid (AA) in membrane phospholipids (PL). JCR:LA-cp rats were as...
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an important early predictor of adult obesity and associated comorbidities. Common forms of obesity are underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. However, the rising prevalence of obesity in genetically stable populations strongly suggests that contemporary lifestyle is a premier factor to the...
Article
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is an important early predictor of adult obesity and associated comorbidities. Common forms of obesity are underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. However, the rising prevalence of obesity in genetically stable populations strongly suggests that contemporary lifestyle is a premier factor to the disease....
Article
Full-text available
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women w...
Article
Choline is a precursor to phosphatidylcholine (PC), a structural molecule in cellular membranes that is crucial for cell growth and function. PC is also required for the secretion of lipoprotein particles from liver and intestine. Choline requirements are increased during lactation when maternal choline is supplied to the offspring through breast m...
Article
Introduction: Emerging evidence shows that the proximal small intestine secretes cholesterol into the intestinal lumen via the trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) pathway. It is thought TICE can contribute up to 30-40% of fecal neutral sterol excretion. Plasma apoB containing lipoproteins are known to donate cholesterol to the TICE pathwa...
Article
Background: Intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 (VB12) is a major challenge in combating pernicious anemia due to intrinsic factor (IF) deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using soy protein isolates (SPI) nanoparticles to improve the intestinal transport and absorption of VB12. Methods: Three different...
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is mainly defined by hyperandrogenism, but is also characterized by insulin resistance (IR). Studies showed that overexposure of non-adipose tissues to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) may explain both IR and hyperandrogenism. Recent studies indicate that treatment with an angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) sele...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt) is the only de novo pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in mammals; as such, Pemt-/- mice are chronically choline-deficient. Phospholipids (PL) play a fundamental role in VLDL formation, secretion and clearance. Pemt deficiency dramatically reduces atherosclerosis developmen...
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We hypothesized the CB1 receptor (CB1R) and leptin receptor (ObR) operate synergistically to modulate metabolic, neuro-endocrine and behavioral responses of animals exposed to a survival challenge (food restriction and wheel running). Obese-prone (OP) JCR:LA-cp rats, lacking functional leptin receptors (ObR), and Lean-prone (LP) JCR:LA-cp rats (int...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Niacin is the oldest hypolipidemic drug that effectively lowers plasma triglycerides whilst increasing HDL-C concentration. However the mechanism of action of niacin still remains elusive. Emerging evidence shows that in addition to the liver, the intestine also contributes to whole body HDL metabolism. The effect of insulin resistanc...
Article
INTRODUCTION: There is emerging epidemiological data that supports a causative role for remnant cholesterol in atherosclerotic and CVD progression. We have shown that hepatic (apoB100) and intestinal (apoB48) lipoproteins may have disparate ‘egress’ and retention properties. Additionally we have reported that insulin resistance (IR) increases the a...
Article
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Background: Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt) is the only de novo pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis in mammals; as such, Pemt -/- mice are chronically choline-deficient. PEMT deficiency dramatically reduces atherosclerosis development in LDL receptor (LDLR) knockout mice. This atheroprotective effect is believed to be...
Article
Objective: Statins are widely used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Intriguingly, recent reports suggest that whilst statins are effective in reducing hepatic cholesterol synthesis, they in turn may up-regulate intestinal cholesterol absorption. The direct effects and/or mechanisms of this phenomenon...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fat...
Article
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We hypothesised that hypothalamic feeding-related neuropeptides are differentially expressed in obese-prone and lean-prone rats and trigger overeating-induced obesity. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rat...
Article
Introduction The intestine secretes discrete fractions of triglyceride (TG) rich apoB-chylomicrons (CM) and HDL particles into mesenteric lymph. Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with overproduction of intestinal CM however, the effect of IR on intestinal HDL secretion remains unknown. Niacin has been shown to reduce plasma TG while increasing...
Article
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We hypothesized that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) background associated with obese-prone genotype, coupled with pre-conditioning by caloric restriction, would confer a survival benefit in genetically pre-pubertal obese/PCOS-prone rats faced with an unpredictable challenge of food shortage. Female juvenile JCR:LA-cp rats, obese/PCOS-prone and le...
Article
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What is already known about this subjectChildhood obesity plays a fundamental role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Clinical guidelines for the early management of CVD in children are poorly defined. Traditional cholesterol biomarkers such as low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol usually fall within...
Article
Objectives Current clinical guidelines to assess paediatric cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk heavily rely on cholesterol parameters that are generally normal for obese children. Remnant lipoproteins have emerged as a critical CVD risk factor particularly in adults with normolipidemia. We assessed remnant lipoprotein concentration (measured by apol...
Article
Background: Hyperinsulinemia and altered lipid and lipoprotein metabolism induced by fast-food diets may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that a high saturated fat (SFA) meal would evoke prolonged postprandial lipemia and hyperinsulinemia, increased inflammation, and altered lipoprotein expression in obese ch...
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Literature supports the "response-to-retention" hypothesis-that during insulin resistance, impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins can contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease progression. We used the JCR:LA-cp rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine the extent of arterial accumulation of intestinal-derived remnants ex vivo...
Article
Evidence suggests a neutral to beneficial role of certain trans fatty acids (TFA) from natural ruminant sources. Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA), the most predominant ruminant TFA and a precursor to conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to improve atherogenic dyslipidemia and symptoms of hepatic steatosis in animal models. The objective of this...
Article
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Phosphatidylethanolamine is an important inner-leaflet phospholipid, and CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase-Pcyt2 acts as the main regulator of the de novo phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis from ethanolamine and diacylglycerol. Complete deletion of the mouse Pcyt2 gene is embryonic lethal, and the single-allele deficiency leads to develo...
Article
To review rodent animal models of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with a focus on those associated with the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Review. Rodent models of PCOS. Description and comparison of animal models. Comparison of animal models to clinical phenotypes of PCOS. Animals used to study PCOS include rodents,...
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There is increasing interest in the potential chronic beneficial effects of dietary n-3 PUFA on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated cardiovascular complications. We have recently established that increased dietary n-3 PUFA has a profound acute benefit on fasting lipids and the postprandial pro-inflammatory response in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a...
Article
To determine fasting and postprandial metabolism of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) remnant lipoproteins in subjects with Type 1 diabetes and the relationship to progressive cardiovascular disease, and to investigate the impact of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol accumulation associated with arterial wall biglycan using a rodent model of Type 1 diabetes...
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Rimonabant (SR141716) is a specific antagonist of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. Activation of the receptor initiates multiple effects on central nervous system function, metabolism, and body weight. The hypothesis that rimonabant has protective effects against vascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome was tested using JCR:LA-cp rats. JC...
Data
Changes in body weight throughout the study and schematic representation of the experimental design. Rats (n = 8) were fed a standard chow diet prior to the study (from 3-8 wk of age). Then, control and experimental diets were provided for 16 wk. An oral fat challenge test (OFC) and a meal tolerance test (MTT) were conducted on different rats (n =...
Article
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Conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) are found naturally in ruminant-derived foods. CLA has been shown to have numerous potential health related effects and has been extensively investigated. More recently, we have shown that VA has lipid-lowering properties associated with reduced hepatic lipidogenesis and...
Article
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and conditions of insulin resistance are often characterized by an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk without a concomitant increase in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), suggesting that other atherogenic pathways maybe involved. Intestinally derived chylomicron remnants (CM-r) are also thought to...
Article
Abnormal non-fasting (postprandial) lipid metabolism has been recognized as a significant contributor to dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Clinically, impaired metabolism of lipoproteins following a meal (e.g. chylomicrons) has been demonstrated in a number of chronic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, as well as typ...
Article
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This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control (Ctl), obese Ctl rats had higher serum haptoglob...
Article
Background: Postprandial dyslipidaemia occurs in obesity and insulin resistance (IR), and is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. We have recently established that the JCR:LA-cp rodent model develops postprandial dyslipidaemia concomitant with complications of the metabolic syndrome. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated f...
Article
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), originally developed for antihypertensive properties, have pleiotropic effects including direct vascular actions. We tested the hypothesis that the ARB irbesartan would be effective against micro- and macrovascular complications of the prediabetic metabolic syndrome using the obese, insulin-resistant JCR...
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The health risks associated with consumption of diets high in trans fats from industrially produced hydrogenated fats are well documented. However, trans fatty acids are not a homogeneous group of molecules, and less is known about the health effects of consuming diets containing vaccenic acid (VA), a positional and geometric isomer of oleic acid,...
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Trans-11 vaccenic acid (VA) is the predominant trans isomer in ruminant fat and a major precursor to the endogenous synthesis of cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid in humans and animals. We have previously shown that 3-wk VA supplementation has a triglyceride (TG)-lowering effect in a rat model of dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome (J...