Dong Ruan

Dong Ruan
Swinburne University of Technology · Department of Mechanical Engineering

Ph.D

About

222
Publications
71,922
Reads
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5,032
Citations
Citations since 2017
89 Research Items
4165 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
Introduction
Prof. Dong Ruan’s research interests include: (1) characterisation of the mechanical properties of various materials at high strain rates; (2) evaluation of the mechanical response of structures (such as multi-layered panels and tubes) under dynamic loadings; (3) additive manufacturing.

Publications

Publications (222)
Article
This document reviews the recent research work on the mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminium alloys at strain rates in the range of ∼ 10⁻⁵ – 10⁵ s⁻¹, and crashworthiness of tubes made of 6xxx series aluminium alloys under dynamic loadings (mass impact). This review endeavours to accentuate the material response (fracture toughness and dynam...
Article
This study evaluates literature on mechanical response of 6xxx series aluminium alloys under dynamic loads (projectile impacts). It is mainly concerned with the ballistic behaviour of 6xxx series Al alloys fabricated through different sample processing routes involving varied heat treatments at elevated, sub-zero and cryogenic temperatures. Failure...
Article
In this paper, the bending performances of sandwich panels with corrugated triangular, honeycomb, aluminum foam, pyramidal truss, double sine corrugated (DSC), and 3D re-entrant auxetic cores are assessed and compared, both experimentally and numerically. Three-point bending experiments were performed on corrugated, honeycomb, aluminum foam, and tr...
Article
The simultaneous improvement in strength and toughness through cryogenic temperature rolling observed in recent studies is of profound interest for designers in defence, automobile and aerospace domains. The present work discusses the effects of different projectile nose shapes – dome and conical – on the ballistic impact behaviour of the 1 mm thic...
Article
A corrugated sandwich panel consists of two face-sheets and a corrugated core, which is made of sheets that are folded into a corrugated shape. In this paper, the mechanical response of aluminium corrugated sandwich panels subjected to longitudinal loading along its middle line is investigated experimentally, numerically, and theoretically. A param...
Article
The mechanical performance of novel design body centered cubic (BCC) type bi-directional functionally graded (FG) lattices has been investigated experimentally and numerically. Uniform and uni-directional FG lattice structures were also studied for comparison. The three types of lattice structures were fabricated by multi-jet fusion (MJF) using pol...
Article
Full-text available
Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques such as selective laser melting (SLM) enable the fabrication of complex metallic lattice structures. By tuning geometric and topological parameters, these structures can be manufactured to exhibit a range of useful properties, including excellent strength-to-weight ratios and energy absorption capabilities. Wh...
Article
A new auxetic structure was designed with rigid diamonds incorporated to enhance the strength of a star-shaped auxetic structure along with the symmetry in the present work. The new structure was fabricated through Multi-Jet Fusion process and subjected to quasi-static compression tests for static analysis. Finite element model was developed using...
Chapter
To investigate the effects of GO and age on the compressive strength, fracture propagation of cement-based composites. GO (0–0.06%) cement mortar cylinder specimens with different dosage (60 mm in diameter and 30 mm in height) were prepared, and static compression experiments were carried out on 3d, 7d, and 28d. The results show that the compressiv...
Chapter
Effect of Graphene nanoplatelets(GNP) on the mechanical behavior of cement-based composite materials is studied by using split tensile test of Brazilian disc. The ordinary cement mortar and 0.01–0.07% GNP cement mortar are made into disc specimen with a diameter of 60 mm and a height of 30 mm. The indirect tensile strength of the specimen was obtai...
Article
Attributable to complex structural characteristics, the 3-D hierarchical structures possess different failure modes as compared to the traditional laminate structures, resulting in improved impact resistance properties. In this work, a comprehensive study of ballistic performance of 3-D woven and 3-D knitted structures has been undertaken and suita...
Article
Full-text available
Residual stresses are the stresses that remain on a part after the original cause of any stress has been removed. In Selective Laser Melting (SLM), an additive manufacturing process, residual stress occurs in the created part due to rapid melting and rapid solidification; these stresses are responsible for distortion, which must therefore be minimi...
Article
Full-text available
Auxetic materials, due to its negative Poisson’s ratio, shrink laterally when compressed axially and expand laterally when pulled axially. A re-entrant diamond structure was developed by replacing the vertical walls in a conventional re-entrant structure with diamond cells, which featured cross-linking members to make them rigid. The incorporation...
Article
This study provides an insight into the comparison of the tensile properties between 17-4 PH SS samples processed by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and the wrought 17-4 PH samples. The tests were conducted according to the international standard ASTM E8 and the microstructural studies were also performed. The SLM built part revealed superior tensile...
Article
The demand for light-weight materials, exhibiting superior strength and higher toughness, has increased attention to cryogenic temperature rolling as it produces bi-modal microstructures with improved mechanical properties. The samples were cryorolled to a final thickness of 1 mm after thickness reductions of 50%, 66.66%, 75%, and 80%. The ballisti...
Article
Full-text available
Auxetics are structures and materials with a negative Poisson's ratio, meaning they contract in the direction perpendicular to the applied force under a compressive load. This phenomenon can lead to increased energy absorption, among other favourable parameters to protect against impulsive loadings. In this research, a structure with alternating ov...
Article
Full-text available
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a powder bed fusion type metal additive manufacturing process which is being applied to manufacture highly customised and value-added parts in biomedical, defence, aerospace, and automotive industries. Aluminium alloy is one of the widely used metals in manufacturing parts in SLM in these sectors due to its light we...
Article
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a near net shaped additive manufacturing process. Parts processed by SLM can experience dynamic loading and high temperature in service, in applications such as defence, aerospace, automotive and high-speed machining. This study investigates the dynamic behaviour of SLM-processed and heat treated eutectic AlSi12 all...
Article
AA 6082-T6 extruded flat bars were reduced to four different thicknesses, viz., 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, using room temperature rolling and subsequently solution treated to obtain homogenized grain structure. These solution treated plates were subjected to cryogenic temperature rolling by immersing in liquid nitrogen before each pass to achieve t...
Article
Auxetic materials exhibit interesting mechanical properties. In this work, a novel auxetic unit cell was proposed with an aim to improve the strength and energy absorption of the auxetic structure constituting these unit cells. In the developed unit cell, the vertical member of a conventional re-entrant unit cell was replaced by a diamond. The corr...
Article
This paper investigates the microhardness and deformation behaviour of AlSi12 aluminium alloy samples processed by Selective Laser Melting additive manufacturing for different build orientations (horizontal, inclined and vertical). The samples were dynamically compressed at high strain rates using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) at an elevate...
Article
Thin-walled composite structures are increasingly used in vehicles attributed to their lightweight and high energy-absorbing capacity. However, understanding crushing behavior of tubal structures made of different materials for lateral impact loading from different directions is fairly limited, which restricts their further applications. This study...
Article
Auxetic structures exhibit negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) and offer valuable enhancement of mechanical properties. This study presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the out-of-plane and in-plane performances of a recently proposed auxetic structure, re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA), under quasi-static uniaxial compression. T...
Article
In this study, the mechanical performance of a three-dimensional (3D) re-entrant structure subjected to dynamic compression was experimentally investigated using a high-speed Instron machine. Quasi-static tests were conducted for comparison. All samples were fabricated by multi-jet fusion technology. A finite element (FE) model was developed using...
Article
Full-text available
Corrugated sandwich panels are widely used in engineering applications for their excellent energy absorption and lightweight. In this research, the mechanical response of aluminum corrugated sandwich panels subjected to three-point bending is investigated experimentally, numerically, and theoretically. In the experiments, the sandwich panels were l...
Article
In this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of auxetic structures subjected to dynamic compression have been investigated experimentally and numerically. The studied auxetic structures, which have negative Poisson’s ratios, include a recently developed auxetic structure named re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA) structure, re-entrant honeycomb, te...
Article
Intermediate-velocity projectile impact can cause considerably mass damage on a slab of geomaterials since most of the kinetic energy of the projectile was left in the target during perforation. The effect of scabbing preliminarily reduces the effective thickness of slab making the intermediate-velocity impact much more energy-effective in perforat...
Article
In this numerical study by means of finite element modeling, the concept of hierarchy is incorporated into thin-walled circular tubes for a configuration with optimum energy absorption. Hierarchical circular tubes (HCTs) are constructed by replacing the wall of an initially single-cell circular tube (SCT) with a series of small tubes placed next to...
Article
Full-text available
To better elucidate the processing route used in the manufacture of High Hardness Armour steel, the crystallographic texture and the residual stress in the through thickness of an ARMOX 500T plate was evaluated. Crystallographic texture can play a part in the armour's ballistic response, and authors note that the hot rolling process used in the man...
Article
Full-text available
Primers are used to reliably initiate a secondary explosive in a wide range of industrial and defence applications. However, established primer technologies pose both direct and indirect risks to health and safety. This review analyses a new generation of primer materials and ignition control mechanisms that have been developed to address these ris...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research investigated the behaviour of a Ti-45Al-8Mn alloy subjected to compressive loading at various strain rates and temperatures. For quasi-static tests at the strain rate of 0.001/s, the specimens tested at room temperature fractured at a strain of approximately 30%. The specimens shattered into pieces with no apparent plastic deformation...
Article
Full-text available
The design freedom to create complex shapes and parts is one of the major benefits offered by the 3D printing manufacturing process. The aim of this study is to utilize this advantage to tailor and optimize cellular materials for impact energy-absorbing applications. The energy-absorbing performance of two types of lattice structure, namely, octago...
Article
Full-text available
The tensile properties of the lightweight titanium-based carbon-fibre/epoxy laminates (TI-CF FMLs) were investigated under quasi-static loading. A comprehensive experimental study was conducted for eleven different types of the TI-CF FMLs (considering various metal sheet thicknesses, metal volume fractions and fibre orientations) as well as their a...
Article
Metamaterials that exhibit negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) are known as auxetics. They laterally expand or contract when they are axially tensioned or compressed. A re–entrant chiral auxetic structure (RCA) is a recently developed structure, which combines the topological features of re–entrant and chiral honeycombs. Comparative study between the RC...
Article
Multicell columns have becoming increasingly attractive in crashworthiness applications due to their high efficiency of material utilization. Meanwhile, an urgent need exists to develop new structures to achieve the aim of light weight without sacrificing crashworthiness. A novel multicell column with axially-varying thickness (AVT) is proposed in...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanical behavior of aluminum honeycombs subjected to quasi-static combined compression-shear loading was experimentally investigated. Two different deformation patterns were observed, deforming cell walls non-inclined (Mode I) and inclined (Mode II) respectively. For the first time, normal and shear forces of honeycombs deforming in Mode II...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the in-plane mechanical properties of auxetic structures subjected to dynamic compression have been investigated experimentally and numerically. The studied auxetic structures, which have negative Poisson’s ratios, include a recently developed auxetic structure named re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA) structure, re-entrant honeycomb, te...
Article
Full-text available
A series of twenty experimental tests were first carried out to assess the large transverse deformation of double-layered rectangular plates subjected to gas mixture detonation load. Specimens were made from a combination of an aluminum alloy front layer (the impulse-receiving face) and a mild steel back layer. Four different types of thickness con...
Article
Square and circular tubes were tested experimentally and numerically in quasi-static three-point bending. A finite element model with failure criterion was developed that correlated well with the experimental results and provided accurate simulation of top surface failure of the tubes. The model was used to conduct a parametric study of the effects...
Article
2024-T351 aluminium hat-shaped specimens have been used to experimentally investigate the effect of different initial test temperatures on the strain at which a thermo-plastic instability occurs. A universal testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) were used to determine resolved shear stress—nominal plastic shear strain for specimen...
Article
Carbon fibre composite tubes have high strength to weight ratios and outstanding performance under axial crushing. In this paper, square CFRP tubes and aluminium sheet-wrapped CFRP tubes were impacted by a drop mass to investigate the effect of loading velocity on the energy absorption of CFRP/aluminium tubes. A comparison of the quasi-static and d...
Article
Full-text available
Fibre-reinforced composite materials and structures have been extensively used as energy dissipating components in industries. The crashworthiness of square and circular CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tubes have been widely studied. This paper investigates the deformation and energy absorption of square CFRP frusta under axial quasi-static...
Article
Full-text available
A re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA) structure is a new structure, which comprises three topologies: re-entrant, trichiral and anti-trichiral. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the influences of geometrical parameters of a RCA unit cell on the in-plane tensile properties. Finite element (FE) models were developed using commercial sof...
Article
A Round-Robin test using split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHPBs) has been conducted by four universities: Swinburne University of Technology (SUT), Australia; University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil; University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa; and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. Each university had different sets of SHPBs and data a...
Article
The Hunt and Crossley model has been demonstrated to give accurate predictions of contact force generated by the impact of a solid object. The simulated contact force values have been demonstrated to match closely with experimental results as reported in the literature. However, derivation of the expression for finding the value of the damping coef...
Article
Full-text available
To study the protection property of aluminum alloy sandwich panels with honeycomb cores under the attack of bullets or debris, quasi-static perforation, and ballistic impact tests were conducted, in which the thicknesses of the face sheet and core were 0.5–2.0 and 12.7 mm, respectively, while projectiles with diameter 7.5 mm and impact velocity 50–...
Article
Full-text available
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a layer-by-layer metal additive manufacturing process. The parts produced using SLM may be subjected to severe dynamic loading conditions during service. Very little published research exists in understanding the response of 3D printed metal parts subjected to high strain rate loading. The present work is focused on...
Article
Full-text available
High strain rate dynamic behaviour of metals is normally studied at room temperature using a split Hokinson pressure bar (SHPB) equipment. This paper presents an investigation on a high strain behaviour at a high temperature for AlSi12 aluminium alloy parts produced by selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technology. Dynamic tests o...
Article
Full-text available
A new auxetic structure, re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA) structure, is proposed for the first time in this paper. The RCA structure combines the topological features of hexagonal re-entrant and anti-tetrachiral honeycombs. Additive manufacturing technique, stereolithography (SLA), and traditional waterjet machining (WJM) were employed to fabricate...
Article
The anisotropy in the tensile properties of AlSi12 alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process was investigated. The tensile samples were printed in three different orientations, horizontal (H - 0°), inclined (I - 45°), and vertical (V - 90°), and found to exhibit yield strength between 225 MPa and 263 MPa, t...
Article
Damping and natural frequency are the most important characteristics for evaluating the performance of dynamic structures. This paper proposes a topology optimization algorithm based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method to designing viscoelastic materials. This algorithm optimizes damping and natural frequency of...
Article
It is known that the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique has not been standardized yet. A standardized SHPB technique is necessary to provide guidelines for determining the intrinsic material properties. One possibility to examine the consistency of the SHPB technique is to conduct a mini round-robin test. This paper examines whether cons...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical modelling techniques enable forcing function at the point of contact in a hail impact to be predicted, but many models available in commercial software have not been verified by experiments. A recently developed deterministic model is only able to simulate the impact action of an idealised spherical hailstone. Results recorded from the im...
Article
The design of material microstructure may bring novel properties beyond traditional materials. When a tube or beam is composed of a uniform material, it is hardly twisted under axial compression or extension. In this paper, we will propose a systematic topology optimization approach on designing materials of tubes or beams exhibiting the twist defo...
Article
Impact of hailstone and flying debris in extreme weather conditions is a major contributor to damage to glazing panels and other types of building facades. Localized damage to the glazing panel in the form of Hertzian fracture is controlled mainly by the amount of force that is developed at the point of contact. Weibull statistics forms the foundat...
Article
A new auxetic structure, re-entrant chiral auxetic (RCA) structure, is proposed for the first time in this paper. The RCA structure combines the topological features of hexagonal re-entrant and anti-tetrachiral honeycombs. Additive manufacturing technique, stereolithography (SLA), and traditional waterjet machining (WJM) were employed to fabricate...
Article
This paper investigates adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) in 2024-T351 aluminium and their effect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of this aluminium alloy. Using hat-shaped specimens in a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and universal testing machine, resolved shear stress-nominal plastic shear strain curves were presented at shear str...
Article
Full-text available
The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test, while widely utilised for high strain rate tests, has yet to be standardised. As an exploratory step towards developing a standard test method or protocol, a Round Robin test series has been conducted between four institutions: (i) Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (ii) University of São Pau...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test, while widely utilised for high strain rate tests, has yet to be standardised. As an exploratory step towards developing a standard test method or protocol, a Round Robin test series has been conducted between four institutions: (i) Swinburne University of Technology, Australia (ii) University of São Pau...
Article
Full-text available
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is a powder-bed type Additive Manufacturing (AM) process, where metal powder melting is followed by rapid solidification to yield metallic components. The mechanical performance of the components is greatly influenced by various SLM process parameters such as laser power, scan speed, scan pattern, hatch distance, build...
Article
The dynamic compressive response of closed-cell (CYMAT™) stabilised aluminium alloy foams (SAF) has been investigated using a modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) in conjunction with a high-speed camera. Tests have been carried out on 45 mm diameter and 23 mm thick cylindrical specimens. The elastic-plastic pore collapse mechanism has been...
Article
Full-field strain and strain-rate fields of rock materials under dynamic compression were studied by the high-speed three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method. A series of dynamic tests was conducted on Hawkesbury sandstones using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) at three different strain rates. The real-time images of the loa...
Article
The authors evaluated the crystallographic texture, defined as the distribution of orientation of crystals (or grains), to gauge the deformation and microstructural evolution of ARMOX 500 T armour plates at elevated strain rates. Using neutron diffraction, the authors examined a number of specimens deformed at room temperature and high strain rates...
Article
Plymetal is a new type of composite metallic structure based on the concept of plywood created by laser direct metal deposition additive manufacturing technology. Two different metal powders, 316L stainless steel and H13 tool steel, are deposited in alternative parallel rows in each layer in the defined orientations to create a plymetal structure....
Article
Full-text available
Monolithic and sandwich structures have been widely used as energy absorption structures in military and civil engineering. This article reviews theoretical analyses of monolithic beams and plates subjected to static loading, impulsive loading and impact by a mass systematically. Experimental data collected from the literatures are compared with th...
Article
The strength of glass panels is normally expressed in probabilistic terms by the use of either the Weibull distribution or Log-Normal distribution functions. Values of the modelling parameters can be obtained by calibration against experimental data. This conventional approach to probabilistic modelling has significant shortcomings as the extent of...
Article
Full-text available
Auxetic structural materials show distinctive properties by exhibiting a negative Poisson's ratio (NPR). When these structures are subjected to uniaxial loading, they expand in tension and contract in compression in both loading and lateral directions. In this paper, two AlSi12 re-entrant honeycomb samples were manufactured using direct metal print...