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Donald E. Watenpaugh

Donald E. Watenpaugh
Studio Videnda LLC

PhD
- Scientific collaborations - Data-driven graphic art (https://www.studiovidenda.com/) - Poetry / song lyric commissions

About

201
Publications
42,458
Reads
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5,003
Citations
Citations since 2016
21 Research Items
1475 Citations
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Introduction
Don is a scientist, sleep clinician, and artist. His work in academia, NASA, and the US Navy has led to publications in a wide variety of subjects (see https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=watenpaugh+d). He's been very fortunate to work with several competent, productive, and fun research teams. Don also directed a sleep clinic and cared for patients for 13 years. His primary current activity is data-driven graphic art (see https://www.studiovidenda.com/). He remains active in science.
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
University of Texas at Arlington
Position
  • Adjunct Professor
August 2004 - present
University of North Texas Health Science Center
Position
  • Adjunct Professor
Education
August 1990 - June 1995
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Physiology, minor Ecology

Publications

Publications (201)
Article
Full-text available
Natural selection defined our genotype as athletes who sleep 8-9 h each night. Physical activity and sleep exhibit positive synergy, whereby each optimizes quality of and capability for the other. Our sedentary, sleep-restricted lifestyle conflicts with our genotype to generate pathophysiologic phenotypes, especially obesity. Insufficient sleep is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We need to redefine how workers, employers, and policymakers address workplace inactivity. People are increasingly inactive at their jobs as technological evolution reduces physical work. This chronic inactivity reduces fitness and creates risk of myriad diseases such as obesity, sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Risk...
Article
Full-text available
This article briefly reviews the fidelity of ground-based methods used to simulate human existence in weightlessness (spaceflight). These methods include horizontal bed rest (BR), head-down tilt bed rest (HDT), head-out water immersion (WI), and head-out dry immersion (DI; immersion with an impermeable elastic cloth barrier between subject and wate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics...
Article
Full-text available
Orthostatic intolerance follows actual weightlessness and weightlessness simulated by bed rest. Orthostasis immediately after acute exercise imposes greater cardiovascular stress than orthostasis without prior exercise. We hypothesized that 5 min/day of simulated orthostasis [supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP)] immediately following LBNP ex...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 continues to ravage humanity. The responsible coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has proven to be particularly resilient and virulent. Its success stems in part from sporadic, intermittent, uncoordinated, and incomplete implementation of mitigation measures by the primary host: humans. Environmental durability and asymptomatic infection are major ch...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an approach to quantifying nocturnal blood pressure (BP) variations that are elicited by sleep disordered breathing (SDB). A sample-by-sample aggregation of the dynamic BP variations during normal breathing and BP oscillations prompted by apnea episodes is performed. This approach facilitates visualization and analysis of BP oscillations...
Preprint
Full-text available
If/when an effective and safe vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is developed, what group(s) should be vaccinated first? For that matter, who should currently be prioritized for protection from COVID-19? Data and logic suggest the answer to both questions is the same, at least in the United States: Black, Hispanic, and Native American workers deemed essent...
Article
The effect of untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) on cerebral haemodynamics and CA impairment is an active field of research interest. A breath-hold challenge is usually used in clinical and research settings to simulate cardiovascular and cerebrovascular changes that mimic OSA events. This work utilises temporal arterial oxygen saturation (Sp...
Conference Paper
Monitoring apnea-induced cerebral blood flow (CBF) oscillations is of importance for assessing apnea patient brain health. Blood pressure (BP) oscillations during apnea can induce oscillations in CBF. Preliminary results of testing an Auto Regressive Moving Average model relating nocturnal CBP oscillations to nocturnal BP variations in 8 obstructiv...
Conference Paper
Monitoring apnea-induced cerebral blood flow oscillations is of importance for assessing apnea patient brain health. Using an autoregressive moving average model, peak and trough values of cerebral blood flow were estimated from a concurrently recorded forehead photoplethysmography signal. Preliminary testing of the method in 7 subjects (4 F, 32±4...
Article
Continuous and noninvasive monitoring of blood pressure has numerous clinical and fitness applications. Current methods of continuous measurement of blood pressure are either invasive and/or require expensive equipment. Therefore, we investigated a new method for the continuous estimation of two main features of blood pressure waveform: systolic an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
recent research has shown that each apnea episode results in a significant rise of the beat-to-beat blood pressure followed by a drop to the pre-episode levels when patient resumes normal breathing. While the physiological implications of these repetitive and significant oscillations are still unknown, it is of interest to quantify them. Since curr...
Article
Population: Hence, many individuals need to be tested for having OSAHS. Currently, detection of airway occlusion due to OSAHS is achieved by indirect measurements, often requiring multiple sensor types, such as a flow transducer combined with chest and abdomen plethysmography. The need for the use of multiple sensors in the current OSAHS detection...
Article
Full-text available
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is characterized by intermittent apneas and hypopneas during sleep that result from absent central respiratory drive. CSA occurs almost exclusively during non‐rapid‐eye‐movement (NREM) sleep due to enhanced neuronal ventilatory drive during REM sleep that makes central apneas highly unlikely to form. A 45‐year‐old obese Af...
Article
Full-text available
Leg muscle mass and strength are decreased during reduced activity and non-weight-bearing conditions such as bed rest (BR) and spaceflight. Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPEX) provides full-body weight loading during BR and may prevent muscle deconditioning. We hypothesized that a 40-min interval exercise protocol...
Conference Paper
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial (hypopnea) or complete cessation (apnea) of airflow to the lungs during sleep. It has been previously reported that apnea episodes lead to significant rise in instantaneous blood pressure concomitant with a rise in cerebral blood flow velocity, indicating loss of cerebral autoregulation duri...
Conference Paper
Sleep apnea is identified by repetitive reduction or complete cessation of breathing during sleep. Sleep apnea affects cerebral hemodynamics and it is important to study this effect. Measuring cerebral blood flow during sleep is challenging due to the need to maintain a contact between the flow probe and the skull. It is hypothesized that there exi...
Article
Full-text available
Spaceflight causes sensorimotor adaptations that result in balance deficiencies on return to a gravitational environment. Treadmill exercise within lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) helps protect physiological function during microgravity as simulated by bed rest. Therefore, we hypothesized that treadmill exercise within LBNP would prevent balanc...
Article
Full-text available
Methods: Sixteen women underwent 60-day, 6° head-down-tilt bed rest and were randomized into control and exercise groups. During bed rest, the control group performed no exercise. The exercise group performed supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 3-4 d/wk and flywheel resistive exercise for 2-3 d/wk. Paraspinal m...
Article
The present investigation tested the hypotheses that systolic arterial pressure (SAP) responses to voluntary apnea (a) serve as a surrogate of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), (b) can distinguish Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients from control subjects and (c) can document autonomic effects of treatment. 9 OSA and 10 control subjects were recr...
Article
We hypothesized that simultaneous stimulation of O2 - and CO2 -sensitive chemoreflexes produces synergistic activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and that this effect would be most apparent at low lung volume (expiratory) phases of respiration. Each subject (n = 11) breathed 16 gas mixtures in random order: a 4 × 4 matrix of normoxic to hyp...
Article
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are commonly associated with elevated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Previously, we have shown that the blood pressure response to a voluntary apnea is closely correlated with the SNA response in patients with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and thus may serve as an index of SNA responsiveness. In the current...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), defined by shallow breaths or complete cessation of breathing for more than 10s, is a significant contributing factor for the developments of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and neuropsychological impairments. In this study, we have investigated the relation between apnea duration and apnea induced variati...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two separate countermeasures, exercise and protein supplementation, to prevent muscle strength and lean tissue mass losses during 60 d of bedrest (BR) in women and whether countermeasure efficacy was influenced by pre-BR muscular fitness (strength, endurance, tissue mass). Twenty-four wo...
Article
Full-text available
This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a "thought leader" and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in...
Article
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a major sleep disorder with a prevalence of about 15 % among US adult population and can lead to cardiovascular diseases and stroke. In this study, we have investigated the OSA-induced concurrent rise in cerebral blood flow velocity and blood pressure in 5 positively diagnosed sleep apnea subjects. The subject popul...
Article
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common form of Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and it is estimated to affect approximately 15% of US adult population. In this paper, we report on the results of in vivo experiments of an ultrasonic device for the non-invasive detection of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea (OSAH). A desc...
Article
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is one of the most common breathing disorder, affecting approximately 27% of U.S. adults. Limited data have suggested that OSA causes cerebral autoregulation impairment, thus being an important risk factor to stroke. The objective of this paper is to investigate and measure the relation between arterial blood pressure...
Article
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep disordered breathing which affects about 15 % of US adult population. OSA is considered to be an important risk factor for the development of cardiac dysfunction and stroke. In this paper, we present the initial results of our investigation of the relationship between arterial blood pres...
Article
Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common form of Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and it is estimated to affect approximately 15% of US adult population. Various methods have been proposed for the development of inexpensive screening methods to detect SDB to reduce the need for costly nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In...
Article
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common form of Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) and it is estimated to affect approximately 6% of US adult population. Various methods have been proposed for the development of inexpensive screening methods to detect SDB to reduce the need for costly nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). By...
Article
Exercise prescriptions for spaceflight include aerobic and resistive countermeasures, yet few studies have evaluated their combined effects on exercise responses after real or simulated microgravity. We hypothesized that upright aerobic capacity (VO2pk) is protected during a 60-d bed rest (BR) in which intermittent (40%-80% pre-BR VO2pk) aerobic ex...
Article
Full-text available
We have shown previously that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPex) maintains upright exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption, Vo(2peak)) in men after 5, 15, and 30 days of bed rest (BR). We hypothesized that LBNPex protects treadmill Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in women during a 30-day BR. Seven sets of female monozygou...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular deconditioning after long duration spaceflight is especially challenging in women who have a lower orthostatic tolerance (OT) compared with men. We hypothesized that an exercise prescription, combining supine aerobic treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber followed by 10 min of resting LBNP, three to four...
Article
Full-text available
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of repetitive choking spells due to sleep-induced reduction of upper airway muscle tone. Millions of adults and children live unaware of this condition, which can have a profound affect on their health and quality of life. Obesity, gender, genetic, and hormonal factors mediate risk for OSA and interact in a mu...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise capacity is reduced after both short- and long-duration exposures to microgravity. Previously, we have documented that supine treadmill exercise within lower-body negative pressure (LBNP(ex)) maintains upright exercise responses in men after 5 and 15 d of bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. The purpose of this study was to determine...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to determine whether lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise maintains lumbar spinal compressive properties, curvature, and back muscle strength after 28 days of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). We hypothesize that LBNP treadmill exercise will maintain lumbar spine compressibility, lumbar lo...
Article
This study aimed at determining cerebral hemodynamic parameters in human subjects during breath holding using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath holding serves as a method of simulation OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea). Data was acquired non-invasively from 40 subjects, twenty OSA sufferers (10 females, 10 males, age 20-70 years), and twenty no...
Article
This study investigates the ability of EEG in identifying apnea/hypopnea events. A preliminary study was performed on 13 subjects (ages: 49.08+/-8.82) previously diagnosed with OSA. Power spectral analysis was performed and centered on apnea/hypopnea event terminations. The normalized power changes between the frequency bands delta, theta, alpha an...
Article
Supine weight-bearing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) alleviates some of the skeletal deconditioning induced by simulated weightlessness in men. We examined this potential beneficial effect in women. Because dietary acid load affected the degree of bone resorption in men during bed rest, we also investigated this variable in wom...
Article
Full-text available
Early analysis into the role of genetics on cardiovascular regulation has been accomplished by comparing blood pressure and heart rate in homozygous twins during unstressed, resting physiological conditions. However, many variables, including cognitive and environmental factors, contribute to the regulation of cardiovascular hemodynamics. Therefore...
Article
Full-text available
The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data col...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in maintaining normal calcium and bone homeostasis in underway submariners deprived of sunlight. Serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D), calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphate, osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase, and urinary leve...
Article
Full-text available
Astronauts experience spine deconditioning during exposure to microgravity due to the lack of axial loads on the spine. Treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber provides axial loads on the lumbar spine. We hypothesize that daily supine LBNP exercise helps counteract lumbar spine deconditioning during 28 days of microgravi...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial scientific evidence supports the potential benefits of exercise for submariners: regular exercise improves many human functions that directly apply to submarine operations. These benefits include improved alertness, cognitive function, immune function, weight control, strength and fitness (for damage control, etc.), mood state, response...
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesized that gravitational stimuli elicit cardiovascular responses in the following order with gravitational stress equalized at the level of the feet, from lowest to highest response: short-(SAC) and long-arm centrifugation (LAC), tilt, and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Up to 15 healthy subjects underwent graded application of the f...
Article
Recompression and oxygen breathing constitute the primary treatments for decompression sickness (DCS). Increasing the volume of distribution of dissolved gas with high-volume liquid therapy represents an alternative strategy to prevent or treat DCS. Furthermore, degassing of ingested and infused liquids would increase their potential to keep supers...
Article
Recompression and oxygen breathing constitute the primary treatments for decompression sickness (DCS). Increasing the volume of distribution of dissolved gas with high-volume liquid therapy represents an alternative strategy to prevent or treat DCS. Furthermore, degassing of ingested and infused liquids would increase their potential to keep supers...
Article
Full-text available
Recompression and oxygen breathing constitute the primary treatments for decompression sickness (DCS). Increasing the volume of distribution of dissolved gas with high-volume liquid therapy represents an alternative strategy to prevent or treat DCS. Furthermore, degassing of ingested and infused liquids would increase their potential to keep supers...